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Mental Health, Diabetes and Endocrinology examines the main areas of clinical overlap between endocrinology and mental health to address key clinical conundrums. Drawing on the most recent developments from literature and clinical practice, this book gives specific attention to the main areas where clinical conundrums and treatment challenges arise across endocrinology, psychiatry, psychology and primary care. Common challenges in this area include depression which can impact on the person's ability to self-care and to adhere to treatment with consequences for their morbidity and mortality; 'diabulaemia' associated with high mortality rates; obesity and associated mental disorders; cognitive impairment and mental capacity; anti-psychotic medications and their endocrine sequelae; and specific setting-related considerations. Mental Health, Diabetes and Endocrinology is a useful resource for the overlapping conditions across these specialities, and provides clinically-focussed evidence-based resources for all health care professionals who encounter these issues.
There are two proven dietary approaches to shift type 2 diabetes (T2D) into remission: low-energy diets (LEDs) and low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs). These approaches differ in their rationale and application yet both involve carbohydrate restriction, either as an explicit goal or as a consequence of reducing overall energy intake. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, characterise and compare existing clinical trials that utilised ‘low-carbohydrate’ interventions with differing energy intakes. Electronic databases CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE and Scopus were searched to identify controlled clinical trials in adults with T2D involving low-carbohydrate intake (defined as <130 g carbohydrate/d) and reporting weight and glycaemic outcomes. The initial database search yielded 809 results, of which fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine out of fifteen studies utilised LCDs with moderate or unrestricted energy intake. Six trials utilised LEDs (<1200 kcal/d), with all except one incorporating meal replacements as part of a commercial weight loss programme. Interventions using both restricted and unrestricted (ad libitum) energy intakes produced clinically significant weight loss and reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at study endpoints. Trials that restricted energy intake were not superior to those that allowed ad libitum low-carbohydrate feeding at 12 and 24 months. An association was observed across studies between average weight loss and reduction in HbA1c at 6, 12 and 24 months, indicating that sustained weight loss is key to T2D remission. Further research is needed to specifically ascertain the weight-independent effects of carbohydrate restriction on glycaemic control in T2D.
Postprandial glycemia is a key determinant of overall glycemic control. One mechanism by which dietary strategies can reduce postprandial glycemic excursions is by slowing gastric emptying. This study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of ingesting riceberry rice (RR) compared to that of ingesting white rice (WR) on gastric emptying rate (GER), plasma glucose, and glucose-regulating hormones, including insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, within-subject, crossover study was performed in 6 healthy men. GER was measured by scintigraphy over 240 minutes, and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured at multiple time points over 180 minutes. This study revealed that RR slows GER with a reduction in postprandial plasma glucose concentrations compared to WR. Plasma insulin and GLP-1 concentrations did not differ between RR and WR. However, plasma GIP concentrations were markedly increased after WR ingesting versus after RR ingestion. We conclude that RR attenuates postprandial glycemia by slowing GER without altering plasma insulin or GLP-1. Plasma GIP concentrations are likely related to differences in GER and carbohydrate absorption. We propose that dietary fiber-enriched foods, including RR, could contribute to improvement in postprandial glycemia via delayed gastric emptying.
While metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes are costly and deadly to the current population, they are also extremely detrimental to the next generation. Much of the current literature focuses on the negative impact of poor maternal choices on offspring disease, while there is little work examining maternal behaviors that may improve offspring health. Research has shown that voluntary maternal exercise in mouse models improves metabolic function in offspring. In this study, we hypothesized that controlled maternal exercise in a mouse model will effect positive change on offspring obesity and glucose homeostasis. Female mice were separated into three groups: home cage, sedentary, and exercise. The sedentary home cage group was not removed from the home cage, while the sedentary wheel group was removed from the cage and placed in an immobile wheel apparatus. The exercise group was removed from the home cage and run on the same wheel apparatus but with the motor activated at 5–10 m/min for 1 h/d prior to and during pregnancy. Offspring were subjected to oral glucose tolerance testing and body composition analysis. There was no significant difference in offspring glucose tolerance or body composition as a consequence of the maternal exercise intervention compared to the sedentary wheel group. There were no marked negative consequences of the maternal controlled exercise intervention. Further research should clarify the potential advantages of the controlled exercise model and improve experimental techniques to facilitate translation of this research to human applications.
Bidirectional longitudinal relationships between depression and diabetes have been observed, but the dominant direction of their temporal relationships remains controversial.
The random-intercept cross-lagged panel model decomposes observed variables into a latent intercept representing the traits, and occasion-specific latent ‘state’ variables. This permits correlations to be assessed between the traits, while longitudinal ‘cross-lagged’ associations and cross-sectional correlations can be assessed between occasion-specific latent variables. We examined dynamic relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance across five visits over 20 years of adulthood in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Possible differences based on population group (Black v. White participants), sex and years of education were tested. Depressive symptoms and insulin resistance were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), respectively.
Among 4044 participants (baseline mean age 34.9 ± 3.7 years, 53% women, 51% Black participants), HOMA-IR and CES-D traits were weakly correlated (r = 0.081, p = 0.002). Some occasion-specific correlations, but no cross-lagged associations were observed overall. Longitudinal dynamics of these relationships differed by population groups such that HOMA-IR at age 50 was associated with CES-D score at age 55 (β = 0.076, p = 0.038) in White participants only. Longitudinal dynamics were consistent between sexes and based on education.
The relationship between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was best characterized by weak correlations between occasion-specific states and enduring traits, with weak evidence that insulin resistance might be temporally associated with subsequent depressive symptoms among White participants later in adulthood.
Diabetes is a major public health problem in Tunisia. Its prevalence increases with age. In addition, depression, at the top of mental disorders list, mainly remain undiagnosed, in particular in the elderly and consequently untreated.
The aim of this study was to estimate depressive symptoms and related factors in elderly diabetic patients.
This is a cross-sectional study, conducted among type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 60 years old, attending Mahdia’s primary health center, from January 2019 to March 2019. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).
95 diabetic patients were recruited. The average age was 75 ± 7.4 years and the sex ratio was 0.9. In our sample, 68.4% of patients were categorized according to having depressive symptoms. The proportion of participants with mild and severe depression symptoms were 25.3% and 43.1%, respectively. Analytical results demonstrate many factors which were significantly associated with depressive symptoms: female gender, living alone, history of hypertension, presence of complication, and using insulin (p < 0.05).
Our study shows that depressive symptoms are common in elderly subjects with diabetes, and there have been many significant risk factors associated with it. So there is need for physicians to detect, confirm, and treat depression in elderly diabetic patients.
Non-compliance is a common problem in diabetes despite of the potentially drastic consequences. The study of the factors of compliance in adolescents with diabetes is not only important due to the possible practical implementations in health care, but also may be threated as a model for understanding the age-specific aspects of compliance behaviours.
The study was aimed to evaluate various, primary family-related, factors contributing to compliance behaviour.
Participants: 71 adolescents (f=44, m=27, age: 13-17) with diabetes mellitus type 1, without insulin pump usage, and their mothers. Instruments: compliance was accessed with MMAS and “Degree of compliance” (for 15-17-olders only) scales. Paternal attitudes were assessed by (1) ADOR questionnaire, yielding scores for: Positive interest, directiveness, hostility, autonomy, inconsistency; (2) Family anxiety analysis questionnaire, with scales: guilt, anxiety, tension. Illness attitudes were assessed with the Concerns of the illness progression model questionnaire. Interview data were used to assess such variables as duration of illness, frequency of therapist consultations y etc.
Stepwise regression analysis suggested the best model for compliance being predicted (R2=.203) by family anxiety (beta=-.406, p<.001), duration of illness (beta=-.218, p<.05) and frequency of consultations (beta=.0212, p<.05). For 15-17-olders only compliance was better predicted (R2=.499) by concerns about illness (beta=.876, p<.001), distraction copings (beta=.501, p=0.001), negative thinking (beta=-.421, p<0.02) and frequency of consultations (beta=.274, p<.05).
Low family anxiety, shorter duration, and more frequent contacts with therapist, as well as productive copings, absence of frequent negative thoughts and fantasies about illness contribute to compliance. Negative emotions hamper compliance instead of fostering it.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent chronic diseases in Tunisia. Individuals with diabetes mellitus may have concurrent mental health disorders and are shown to have poorer disease outcomes.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in diabetics attending the primary care setting.
This was a cross-sectional survey carried out over two months and including diabetic patients followed up at the consultation for chronic diseases at the primary care center of Hiboun, in Mahdia, Tunisia. The validated Hosiptal Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) questionnaire was used as a screening tool for the symptoms of depression and anxiety.
A total of 64 patients (24 men and 40 women) was enrolled. The average age was 54.5 ± 7.2 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 8.2 ± 2.3 years. The average HbA1c level was 9.1%.Over 48% of patients were overweight. The prevalence of Depression and anxiety among patients with diabetes from our study was 29.6% and 40.6%, respectively. Depression was found to be significantly associated with marital status of widowed, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, and a family history of psychiatric illness. anxiety was significantly associated with females, unmployement and HbA1c level of more than 8.5%.
Screening of high risk Type II diabetics for depression and anxiety symptoms in the primary care setting is recommended at regular intervals.
Diabetic patients are asked to focus on their eating habits and calories intake. Together with individual factors, this could increase the risk of developing Eating Disorders (ED) associated with diabetes. A score of 20 points at the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) scale is considered as a valid threshold to identify Disordered Eating Behaviours (DEB) in diabetic patients. DEB can be considered as altered eating behaviours not fully meeting criteria for ED. As DEB are not formally recognised as specific ED in DSM-5, there is a great risk of not detecting them, thus underestimate their consequences.
To meta-analyse literature on ED and DEB, when in comorbidity with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, focusing on pathological medical consequences.
PRISMA guidelines were followed for this meta-analysis. Articles were identified in literature by searching into PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase.
1141 records were identified through database search. Figure 1 shows six studies comparing HbA1c % values for 2857 diabetic patients versus 752 diabetic patients with DEB. HbA1c % levels appear to be higher in patients with DEPS-R ≥ 20, compared to those with DESP-R scores below 20.
Routine screening for DEB using DEPS-R scale could favour early identification of diabetic individuals, at risk for progression into a proper ED. Clinicians should be vigilant about potential DEB when patients show poor long-term glycaemic control; similarly, patients with a DEPS-R score over 20 points may require more frequent glycaemic checks. This could help prevent serious medical complications.
Se is a trace mineral that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the association between Se intake, diabetes, all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a representative sample of US adults. Data from 18 932 adults who attended the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analysed. Information on mortality was obtained from the US mortality registry updated to 2015. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used. Cross-sectionally, Se intake was positively associated with diabetes. When comparing the extreme quartiles of Se intake, the OR for diabetes was 1·44 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·89). During a mean of 6·6 years follow-up, there were 1627 deaths (312 CVD, 386 cancer). High intake of Se was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. When comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of Se intake, the hazard ratios for all-cause, CVD mortality, cancer mortality and other mortality were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·01), 0·62 (95 % CI 0·35, 1·13), 1·42 (95 % CI 0·78, 2·58) and 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·80), respectively. The inverse association between Se intake and all-cause mortality was only found among white participants. In conclusion, Se intake was positively associated with diabetes but inversely associated with all-cause mortality. There was no interaction between Se intake and diabetes in relation to all-cause mortality.
Several studies have been conducted to investigate the relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and diabetic neuropathy (DN). However, there is still no clear conclusion due to differences in study design and cut-off values used in the published work, in addition to the absence of a comprehensive meta-analysis (MA) on the topic. The present systematic review and MA therefore aims at clarifying the association between vitamin D level and peripheral DN in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Primary research studies that explored the association between 25(OH)D level and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes were located from Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINHAL and Google Scholar. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria with 6277 participants where 2218 were diabetic with DN, 2959 were diabetic without DN and 406 were healthy. Diabetic patients with DN showed significantly lower serum 25(OH)D compared with patients without DN (standardised mean difference (SMD) of −0·92 (95 % CI −1·18, −0·65, I2 = 93·3 %, P < 0·0001). The pooled OR value of vitamin D deficiency was higher in patients with DN, 1·84 (95 % CI 1·46, 2·33, P < 0·0001) and 2·87 (95 % CI 1·10, 7·52, P = 0·03) when using fixed-effects and random-effects models, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency has been found to be highly prevalent among diabetic patients with neuropathy. Since 25(OH)D has been implicated in glucose haemostasis and showed benefit in reducing neuropathy symptoms, its supplementation is warranted for this population of patients.
Chronic diseases and preexisting conditions shape daily life for many archaeologists both in and out of the field. Chronic issues, however, can be overlooked in safety planning, which more often focuses on emergency situations because they are considered mundane, or they are imperceptible to project directors and crews until a serious problem arises. This article focuses on asthma, diabetes, and depression as common medical conditions that impact otherwise healthy archaeologists during fieldwork, with the goal of raising awareness of these conditions in particular, and the need to be more attentive to chronic diseases in general. Archaeological fieldwork presents novel situations that put those with chronic diseases and preexisting conditions at risk: environmental hazards, remoteness from medical and social resources and networks, lack of group awareness, and varying cultural norms. As a result, if chronic diseases are not attended to properly in the field, they can lead to life-threatening situations. Managing the risk presented by these conditions requires a group culture where team members are aware of issues, as appropriate, and collaborate to mitigate them during fieldwork. Descriptions of how chronic diseases affect archaeologists in the field are followed by “best practice” recommendations for self-management and for group leaders.
A low-glycaemic diet is crucial for those with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Information on the glycaemic index (GI) of different ingredients can help in designing novel food products for such target groups. This is because of the intricate dependency of material source, composition, food structure and processing conditions, among other factors, on the glycaemic responses. Different approaches have been used to predict the GI of foods, and certain discrepancies exist because of factors such as inter-individual variation among human subjects. Besides other aspects, it is important to understand the mechanism of food digestion because an approach to predict GI must essentially mimic the complex processes in the human gastrointestinal tract. The focus of this work is to review the advances in various approaches for predicting the glycaemic responses to foods. This has been carried out by detailing conventional approaches, their merits and limitations, and the need to focus on emerging approaches. Given that no single approach can be generalised to all applications, the review emphasises the scope of deriving insights for improvements in methodologies. Reviewing the conventional and emerging approaches for the determination of GI in foods, this detailed work is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art resource for nutritionists who work on developing low-GI foods.
Diabetes requires challenging lifelong dietary management, affects quality of life and heightens the impact of affective functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Nutrition Quality of Life (NQOL) and affective functioning in a sample of Omani patients with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 149 adults with type 2 diabetes was conveniently recruited from seven Primary Health Centers (PHCs) during follow-up visits. Data were gathered via face-to-face interviews. Pearson correlation and χ2 test of independence were applied to examine associations at P < 0⋅05. Most patients had poor glycemic control (71⋅1 %), BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (85⋅2 %) and central obesity (75⋅8 %), and moderate (54⋅4 %) and poor (32⋅9 %) level of NQOL. Based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), 16⋅1 and 23⋅5 % of the sample endorsed the presence of anxiety and depression, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between NQOL and HADS (r −0⋅590, P = 0⋅000), anxiety (r −0⋅597, P = 0⋅000) and depression (r −0⋅435, P = 0⋅000). There was a significant association between NQOL and HADS, χ2 (2) = 38⋅21, P < 0⋅01 that was large, Cramer's V = 0⋅51. Also, there were significant associations (P < 0⋅01) between NQOL and HADS when controlling for HbA1c, BMI, waist circumference and HMNT that were moderately to largely strong, Cramer's V = 0⋅43–0⋅55. There is an evident association between NQOL and affective functioning in adults with type 2 diabetes. Further research is recommended to confirm these relationships and to guide intervention programmes at PHCs to help improve the general quality of life of such patients.
Pre-existing health conditions may exacerbate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to estimate the case-fatality rate (CFR) and rate ratios (RR) for patients with hypertension (HBP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the New York state. We obtained the age-specific number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths from public reports provided by the New York State Department of Health, and age-specific prevalence of HBP and DM from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2017. We calculated CFR and RR for COVID-19 patients with HBP and DM based on the reported number of deaths with the comorbidity divided by the expected number of COVID-19 cases with the comorbidity. We performed subgroup analysis by age and calculated the CFR and RR for ages of 18–44, 45–64 and 65+ years, respectively. We found that the older population had a higher CFR, but the elevated RRs associated with comorbidities are more pronounced among the younger population. Our findings suggest that besides the elderly, the young population with comorbidity should also be considered as a vulnerable group.
Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of blindness despite recent advance in therapies. Traditionally, this complication of diabetes was viewed predominantly as a microvascular disease but research has pointed to alterations in ganglion cells, glia, microglia, and photoreceptors as well, often occurring without obvious vascular damage. In neural tissue, the microvasculature and neural tissue form an intimate relationship with the neural tissue providing signaling cues for the vessels to form a distinct barrier that helps to maintain the proper neuronal environment for synaptic signaling. This relationship has been termed the neurovascular unit (NVU). Research is now focused on understanding the cellular and molecular basis of the neurovascular unit and how diabetes alters the normal cellular communications and disrupts the cellular environment contributing to loss of vision in diabetes.
Diabetes is a devastating global health problem and is considered a predisposing factor for lung injury progression. Furthermore, previous reports of the authors revealed the role of mediastinal fat-associated lymphoid clusters (MFALCs) in advancing respiratory diseases. However, no reports concerning the role of MFALCs on the development of lung injury in diabetes have been published. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the correlations between diabetes and the development of MFALCs and the progression of lung injury in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for immune cells (CD3+ T-lymphocytes, B220+ B-lymphocytes, Iba1+ macrophages, and Gr1+ granulocytes), vessels markers (CD31+ endothelial cells and LYVE-1+ lymphatic vessels “LVs”), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-5) was performed. In comparison to the control group, the diabetic group showed lung injury development with a significant increase in MFALC size, immune cells, LVs, and inflammatory marker, and a considerable decrease of CD31+ endothelial cells in both lung and MFALCs was observed. Furthermore, the blood glucose level showed significant positive correlations with MFALCs size, lung injury, immune cells, inflammatory markers, and LYVE-1+ LVs in lungs and MFALCs. Thus, we suggest that the development of MFALCs and LVs could contribute to lung injury progression in diabetic conditions.
Anti-diabetic actions of Camellia sinensis leaves, used traditionally for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treatment, have been determined. Insulin release, membrane potential and intra-cellular Ca were studied using the pancreatic β-cell line, BRIN-BD11 and primary mouse pancreatic islets. Cellular glucose-uptake/insulin action by 3T3-L1 adipocytes, starch digestion, glucose diffusion, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) activity and glycation were determined together with in vivo studies assessing glucose homoeostasis in high-fat-fed (HFF) rats. Active phytoconstituents with insulinotropic activity were isolated using reversed-phase HPLC, LCMS and NMR. A hot water extract of C. sinensis increased insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Insulinotropic effects were significantly reduced by diazoxide, verapamil and under Ca-free conditions, being associated with membrane depolarisation and increased intra-cellular Ca2+. Insulin-releasing effects were observed in the presence of KCl, tolbutamide and isobutylmethylxanthine, indicating actions beyond K+ and Ca2+ channels. The extract also increased glucose uptake/insulin action in 3T3L1 adipocyte cells and inhibited protein glycation, DPP-IV enzyme activity, starch digestion and glucose diffusion. Oral administration of the extract enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin release in HFF rats. Extended treatment (250 mg/5 ml per kg orally) for 9 d led to improvements of body weight, energy intake, plasma and pancreatic insulin, and corrections of both islet size and β-cell mass. These effects were accompanied by lower glycaemia and significant reduction of plasma DPP-IV activity. Compounds isolated by HPLC/LCMS, isoquercitrin and rutin (464·2 Da and 610·3 Da), stimulated insulin release and improved glucose tolerance. These data indicate that C. sinensis leaves warrant further evaluation as an effective adjunctive therapy for T2DM and source of bioactive compounds.
Obesity is an epidemic associated with many diseases. The nutraceutical Zingiber officinale (ZO) is a potential treatment for obesity; however, the molecular effects are unknown. Swiss male mice were fed a high-fat diet (59 % energy from fat) for 16 weeks to generate a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model and then divided into the following groups: standard diet + vehicle; standard diet + ZO; DIO + vehicle and DIO + ZO. Those in the ZO groups were supplemented with 400 mg/kg per d of ZO extract (oral administration) for 35 d. The animals were euthanised, and blood, quadriceps, epididymal fat pad and hepatic tissue were collected. DIO induced insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and DNA damage in different tissues. Treatment with ZO improved insulin sensitivity as well as decreased serum TAG, without changes in body weight or adiposity index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were lower in the liver and quadriceps in the DIO + ZO group compared with the DIO group. ZO treatment reduced the reactive species and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA in blood and liver in obese animals. The endogenous antioxidant activity was higher in the quadriceps of DIO + ZO. These results in the rat model of DIO may indicate ZO as an adjuvant on obesity treatment.
To explore the experiences of patients living with diabetic lower extremity amputation (DLEA) and its post-amputation wound in primary care.
DLEA, including both minor and major amputation, is a life-altering condition that brings numerous challenges to an individual’s life. Post-amputation physical wound healing is complicated and challenging because of wound dehiscence and prolonged healing times. Understanding patients’ experiences after DLEA with a post-amputation wound will enable healthcare professionals to develop interventions to assist patients in physical healing and psychosocial recovery.
This study employs a qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A purposive maximum variation sample of nine patients who had had lower extremity amputations and post-amputation wound attributed to diabetes in the previous 12 months was recruited from a primary care setting in Singapore. Semi-structured audio recorded one-to-one interviews with a duration of 45–60 min each were conducted between September 2018 and January 2019. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA.
The essential meaning of the phenomenon ‘the lived experiences for patients with DLEA and post-amputated wound’ can be interpreted as ‘struggling for “normality”’ which encompasses four domains of sense making: physical loss disrupted normality, emotional impact aggravated the disrupted normality, social challenges further provoked the disrupted normality, and attempt to regain normality. The study highlights the complex physical and psychosocial transition facing patients after DLEA before post-amputation wound closure. In primary care, an amputation, whether minor or major, is a life-altering experience that requires physical healing, emotional recovery, and social adaptation to regain normality. Patients living with DLEA and a post-amputation wound may benefit from an interdisciplinary team care model to assist them with physical and psychosocial adjustment and resume normality.