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To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific BMI categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.
Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the OR, 95 % CI and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1 % increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.
From nine cities in mainland China.
A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.
The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15·0 (12·8–17·1), 14·2 (12·1–16·4) and 12·6 (10·4–14·9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and caesarean section, whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
The time dispersion effect affects the accuracy of solar time difference of arrival (TDOA) navigation. In this celestial autonomous navigation, Mars's moons are reflecting celestial bodies, and their shape affects the TDOA dispersion model. In the modelling process of traditional methods, the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos) are regarded as points, which causes the model to be inaccurate. In order to solve these problems, we simplified the Mars's moons into ellipsoids or solid diamonds, and then established a TDOA model with the nonspherical Mars's moons as reflecting celestial bodies through differential geometry and geometric optics. Finally, we analysed the time dispersion caused by the Mars's moons in theory. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the point model error is 5·66 km, and the 3D model error is within 70 m. Thus, the 3D TDOA model established in this paper is meaningful. In addition, the Sun–Mars-moons–spacecraft angle, solar flare, three-axis length, and attitude of the Mars's moons have a great effect on the dispersion profile, while the Mars's moons-to-spacecraft distance has a small effect.
Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
The structure and magnetic properties of Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 nanostructured magnets prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), compared with those by mechanical milling (MM), were studied. The intrinsic coercivity μ0Hc, the reduced remanence Jr/Js, and the maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max for Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 magnets were prepared by MM were notably higher than the values of the corresponding MA-prepared samples. The average grain sizes of both α–Fe and Nd2Fe14B in the MM-prepared samples were measurably smaller than corresponding values of the MA-prepared samples. A more homogeneous distribution of α–Fe grains in the MM-prepared samples than in the MA-prepared samples was obtained.
A new method of epitaxial growth of CoSi2 film on Si substrate by ternary solid state interaction is investigated. XRD, RBS and TEM show that single-crystalline CoSi2 can be formed on both Si (111) and (100) substrates by using Co/Ti/Si or TiN/Co/Ti/Si multilayer. The evolution of multilayer structure and its resistivity is studied and epitaxy mechanism is discussed. Experimental results indicate strong affinity between Co and Si. During the ternary interaction the epitaxial CoSi2 can be grown directly on Si and its growth may behave as a diffusion controlled process. The thickness of Ti layer and the annealing procedure have important effect on CoSi2 epitaxial growth.
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