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This study aimed at comparing the factors associated with the natural progression between typical progressors (TPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) in HIV-infected individuals. A retrospective study was conducted on 2095 eligible HIV-infected individuals from 1995 to 2016 in a high-risk area of Henan Province, China. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariates, and the conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors of natural disease progression among HIV infectors. A total of 379 pairs of RPs and TPs were matched. The standardised difference values of all covariates were less than 10%. HIV-infected individuals transmitted through sexual transmission (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.85) were more likely to progress to AIDS compared with those infected through contaminated blood. Older age at diagnosis of HIV-infected individuals (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.89) exhibited a faster progression to AIDS. HIV-infected individuals identified through a unique survey (OR 7.01, 95% CI 2.99–16.44) were less likely to progress to AIDS compared with those identified through medical institutions. HIV-infected individuals who had higher baseline CD4+T cell counts (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.59–4.38) had a slower progression to AIDS. These findings provide evidence for natural disease progression from HIV to AIDS between TPs and RPs.
Force-feeding was considered as a traditional high-efficiency approach to improve growth performance and accelerate fat deposition of Pekin ducks. However, force-feeding is a serious violation of international advocacy on animal welfare, because it can induce serious injuries to animals, such as damages to the digestive tract, effects on immunity and even severe oxidative stress. Therefore, it is urgent to stop force-feeding. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of force feeding on immune function, digestive function and oxidative stress in the mucosa of duodenum and jejunum of Pekin ducks. A total of 500 ducks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was allowed to feed freely on a basal diet. The experimental group was force-fed by inserting a plastic feeding tube 8 to 10 inches long down the esophagus for 6 days. Compared with the control group, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum diamine oxidase, d-lactic acid, endotoxin and corticosterone levels in the force-feeding group. The crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups and the intestinal villus epithelium cell was severely damaged in force-feeding group. Similarly, the activities of digestive enzymes as well as the levels of immune function in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa in the force-feeding group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels with a marked increase in malondialdehyde level in duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P<0.05). In summary, at the end of the fattening period with force-feeding for 6 days, Pekin ducks experienced an adverse effect on the integrity of their duodenal and jejunal mucosa epithelium cell as well as their immune function and antioxidant capacity of Pekin ducks but also had improvement in digestive enzyme activities.
Nasal irrigation is commonly performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This study systematically assessed the clinical efficacy of nasal irrigation from the medical literature.
The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using a comprehensive strategy, limited to English-language articles, published from October 1971 to March 2017, and comprising human subjects.
A total of 824 trials were identified, 5 of which, involving 331 participants, were included in this systematic review. After selection, only three trials were eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Nasal irrigation using normal saline and various solutions was found to be effective in reducing symptom scores and endoscopic scores for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Comparison of outcome measures, such as eosinophil count reduction, revealed that various solutions are more effective than normal saline alone; however, no statistical significance was found in terms of reduced symptom or endoscopic scores.
Based on the current limited evidence, nasal irrigation is an effective therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. However, when comparing various solutions with normal saline, no significant difference was found in symptom scores or endoscopic scores.
Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5′ untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Of these samples, 4290 were tested positive for HEV and the amplicons were sequenced and genotyped. Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes. EV71 became the most predominant genotype every 2 years. From 2013, CA6 replaced CA16 as one of the two most common genotypes. The results demonstrate the vast diversity of HFMD pathogens, and that minor genotypes are able to replace major genotypes. We recommend carrying-out long-term monitoring of the full spectrum of HFMD pathogens, which could facilitate epidemic prediction and the development of diagnostic assays and vaccines.
This study aimed to test the expression of maspin in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and explore its value in diagnosing invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
Forty-two fungal rhinosinusitis cases (12 invasive and 30 non-invasive) were selected as the experimental group, and 30 chronic rhinosinusitis cases comprised the control group. Maspin expression was assessed in nasal mucous membrane specimens by immunohistochemical staining.
Compared with the control group, maspin expression was down-regulated in the fungal rhinosinusitis group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the staining score for maspin was lowest in the invasive fungal rhinosinusitis group, as compared with both the non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis group and the control group (p < 0.05). A maspin staining score of 5.70 was the critical value for diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, with sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 per cent and 88.3 per cent, respectively.
The results of this study suggest that the maspin staining score may be a biomarker for effective and rapid diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
Maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of the droplet is an important basic parameter for calculating drag force, droplets axial-velocity and dispersed-phase pressure gradient in an annular-mist pipe flow. An analytical correlation to predict the maximum ellipsoidal magnitude of a low-viscosity droplet in a parallel gas stream based on energy conservation and volume conservation. Stagnant pressure distribution on droplet surface is revised from Flachsbart's formula. The proposed correlation has clear physical meaning and easy to use. The correlation captures the deformation mechanism with an average absolute percent error of 9.53%. The effect of stagnant pressure distribution on the proposed correlation's accuracy is discussed.
In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0–9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0–9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.
Cotton plant architecture is an important agronomic trait affecting yield and quality. In the present study, two F2:3 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations were developed from Baimian2/TM-1 and Baimian2/CIR12 to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cotton plant architecture traits using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 73 QTL (37 significant and 36 suggestive) affecting plant architecture traits were detected in both populations. Four common QTL, qTFN-17 for total fruit nodes, qFBN-17 for fruit branch nodes, qFBL-17 for fruit branch length and qTFB-17a/qTFB-17b (qTFB-17) for total fruit branches, were found across the two populations. These common QTL should have high reliability and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to facilitate cotton plant architecture. The two common QTL, qTFN-17 and qFBL-17, were especially significant in both populations, and moreover, they explained >0·100 of the phenotypic variation in at least one population. These two QTL should be considered preferentially for MAS. The synergistic alleles and the negative alleles could be utilized in cotton plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives.
For the gate last approach of a high K metal gate scheme used in advanced CMOS technology, various materials were tested as wetting layers to allow Aluminum (Al) gap fill at gate widths of10 to 45 nanometers. In this study, Titanium (Ti) and Cobalt (Co) were investigated as a wetting layer for Al gap fill. It was discovered that Al-Ti and Al-Co alloys were formed during high temperature Al deposition. Alloys were characterized using XRD. Alloy’s impacts on line resistivity and subsequent Al Chemical Mechanical Polish (Al CMP) were also investigated. In addition, a model was established to predict the alloy type and alloy mole% with respect to feature size. The predicted Al mole% by this model correlated very well with 1) line resistivity trend and 2) morphologies. The model also predicted that due to Al lower electro-chemical potential than Ti, Co or its alloys, galvanic corrosion could take place depending on the chemical environment in the Al CMP slurry. Different slurry or cleaning chemical may reduce or increase the risk of galvanic corrosion. The knowledge gained with the help of the model provides clear directions on selection criteria for wetting layers, optimization for deposition processes and Al CMP consumable design to meet the challenges.
Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum. We cloned and characterized the CRT gene in an important marine food fish species Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The full-length DNA of the CRT gene was 2194 bp, including a complete open reading frame encoding 420 amino acid residues, a 113 bp 5′-untranslated region and an 818 bp 3′-untranslated region. The CRT gene contained nine exons and eight introns covering a total of 2772 bp genomic DNA from the start to stop codon. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in introns and an exon in six individuals collected from five different locations. The CRT gene was assigned to linkage group 4 of the linkage map of Asian seabass. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the CRT gene was highly expressed in liver at the age of 1, 3 and 7 months under normal conditions, whereas its expression in liver reduced sharply after 0.5 to 2 h cold challenge at 16°C, and then increased slowly. A preliminary association analysis showed a significant (P < 0.001) association between the SNP6 in the CRT gene and the mortality after cold challenge at 16°C. Our results suggest that the CRT gene is associated with cold tolerance of Asian seabass and further investigation will be necessary to illustrate the underlying mechanisms.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of
fcc-6LiF under high temperatures and pressures are investigated using the
ab initio method and quasi-harmonic Debye model. The lattice constant of 6LiF at
ground state is a little larger than that of LiF. When pressure is less than
10 GPa, crystal lattice is compressed easily at low temperature, and when
P> 10 GPa, lattice can be compressed easily at high temperature. C11
increases with pressure and reduces with temperature sensitively. C12
and C44 raise or decrease just a little with increasing pressure and
temperature. Heat capacity of different pressure increases with temperature
and closes to the Dulong-Petit limit at higher temperatures. Debye
temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure.
Furthermore, under lower pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raise
rapidly with temperature, and the increasing trend will get slow at higher
By investigating properties from the infrared (IR) to the optical of IR-selected QSOs (IR QSOs), optically selected QSOs (PG QSOs), and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in the local Universe, we find that the IR excess in IR QSOs is mostly in the far-IR, and their IR spectral indices suggest that the excess emission is caused by starbursts rather than AGNs. The ratio of the star formation rate and the accretion rate is about several hundred for IR QSOs, but decreases with the central black hole mass. We also study an optically selected QSO sample at high redshift with hyper-luminous far-IR luminosities. We find that similar to IR QSOs at low redshift, these high redshift QSOs have a far-IR excess also, which should be due to the contribution of starbursts heating the dust. But the ratio of star formation rate to accretion rate for QSOs at high redshift is typically smaller than that for IR QSOs at low redshift, which hints at the relatively faster growth of black holes at early epochs.
SmCa4O(BO3)3 (SCOB) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic space group Cm with cell parameters a = 0.8129(5), b = 1.6076(1), c = 0.3584(1) nm, β = 101.36(2)°, and Z = 2. Raman results showed that the characteristic spectra of SCOB are mainly contributed by the B–O triangles and partly by the Ca(1)–O octahedra. The structural rigidity of SCOB is mainly ascribed to the B–O bond stretching and bending modes and partly by the Ca(1)–O bonds. The rigid structure of the B–O triangles and the quasi-rigid structure of the Ca(1)–O octahedra are necessary to the SCOB crystal as a laser host. The large distortions of the Sm–O and Ca(2)–O octahedra intensify the polar forces and anisotropic lattice forces, which generally imply the best nonlinear properties possible for SCOB as a nonlinear optical material and piezocrystal. Thermal measurements show a larger value of the specific heat and three small expansion coefficients, which show that SCOB can allow a large temperature gradient, especially in the Y direction. Displacement parameters indicated that the thermal ellipsoids of the Sm and Ca(2) atoms had significantly large components along the b direction. Synthetical study indicated that the SCOB crystal should be outstanding as an efficient self-frequency doubled material.
We recently proposed a theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity to account for the size dependence of plastic deformation at micron- and submicronlength scales. The MSG plasticity theory connects micron-scale plasticity to dislocation theories via a multiscale, hierarchical framework linking Taylor's dislocation hardening model to strain gradient plasticity. Here we show that the theory of MSG plasticity, when used to study micro-indentation, indeed reproduces the linear dependence observed in experiments, thus providing an important self-consistent check of the theory. The effects of pileup, sink-in, and the radius of indenter tip have been taken into account in the indentation model. In accomplishing this objective, we have generalized the MSG plasticity theory to include the elastic deformation in the hierarchical framework.
There is an increasing interest in electronics functionality on surfaces which are not planar. This paper examines the critical technologies for fabricating electronic surfaces which have a three-dimensional shape. Two different approaches for achieving such a goal are examined. One can fabricate electronics using conventional technologies on a flat surface, and then after fabrication deform that surface into the desired shape (e.g. a spherical cap). In an alternative approach, one can directly fabricate onto substrates with an arbitrary shape. In this case one must address the issue of pattern formation and transfer on the curved surfaces. The scaling of letterpress printing to micron-scale features on flat and spherically curved surfaces is demonstrated.
The paraelectric–ferroelectric structural transition of potassium lithium tantalite niobate has been studied by both Raman scattering and thermal measurements. A condensed soft lattice vibrational mode at the phase transition has been analyzed. It originates from the symmetric O2/O3–Nb/Ta–O3/O2 in-plane bending of the Nb/TaO6 group. The soft optical phonon mode concerns the extraordinary transverse optical phonons propagating along the [1 1 0] direction. The thermal expansion experiments show a displacive phase transition and a big thermal contraction in the c direction of the crystal, with an average linear expansion coefficient αc = −4.52 × 10−5 K−1. The phase transition temperature and enthalpy are 358 K and 0.50 J/g, respectively. Curie temperature measured by four methods is within 353 and 360 K.
We have completed spectroscopic observations (Wu et al. 1997a) of a sample of 73 very luminous infrared galaxies (log(LIR/L⊙) ≥ 11.5;H0 = 50 km s−1 Mpc−1) from the 2-Jy catalogue (Strauss et al. 1992) using the 2.16m telescope at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Spectral and interacting classifications are performed for the sample (Wu et al. 1997b). These statistical results provide strong evidence for the idea that interactions trigger nuclear activity and enhance the infrared luminosity. With the decrease of nuclear separation, relative velocity and specific angular momentum decrease rapidly, while on the contrary, both infrared luminosity and Hα equivalent width increase. Dynamical friction plays an important role even when two galaxies have large separation. This provides a favorable condition for strong star formation. We construct a simple merger sequence, from interaction class 1 to 4, to class 5 and 6 and then to the class 0 regarded as being in the stage of advanced merger. Along this sequence, spectral types change from HII-like to AGN-like. Considering the strong correlation of very luminous infrared galaxies in spectral classification schemes, it is reliable that infrared luminous galaxies evolve from HII-like galaxies to AGN-like galaxies. The different properties of infrared luminous Seyfert 1s and optically selected Seyfert 1s suggest that infrared luminous galaxies could evolve into optical Seyfert 1s in the last stage.
Light emitting electroluminescent devices have been studied in which the conjugated light emitting polymer is separated on both sides from the device electrodes by a film of nonconducting polyaniline. The devices operate under an AC applied potential.Aluminum, copper or gold serve as the metal electrodes. Flexible, completely organic polymer dispersed liquid crystal light valves have been fabricated from transparent plastic substrates on which a conducting film of polypyrrole has been deposited. A new concept, “microcontact printing”, is being investigated for patterning the polypyrrole.
Recently observations that high-dose Ge implantations into Si substrates caused the n-type carrier concentration to increase were attributed to residual structural defects after activation annealing [7,12]. However, co-implantation of an n-type impurity is another possibility. The origin of this excess donor concentration has been studied in this work. The possibilities of residual defects versus implantation of impurities have been investigated using two different implanters and materials analysis. Comparison of data from different implanters showed that the concentration of excess donors was sensitive to the implanter configuration. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering channeling (RBS-C), and spreading resistance profiling (SRP) data showed that the excess donor effect was related to impurities rather than residual defects. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and SRP measurements confirmed that impurities such as 75As ions were present after implants. This impurity easily explains the excess donor concentration when 75Ge implants are performed into silicon wafers doped with phosphorous.