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To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between vitamin D and depressive symptoms across early adolescence.
This longitudinal study included 1607 early adolescents [mean (s.d.) age, 12.49 years; 972 (60.5%) males] from the Chinese Early Adolescents Cohort, recruited from a middle school in Anhui Province and followed up annually (2019–2021). Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in both 2019 and 2021. Self-reports on depression were assessed at each of three time points from 2019 to 2021.
In the whole sample, higher baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were linked with a lower risk of cumulative incident depression within two-year follow-ups (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.94–0.99) and the increasing trajectory of depression symptoms across the three waves (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99). Baseline vitamin D deficiency (VDD) (adjusted RR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.10–2.05) were associated with an increased risk for the increasing trajectory of depression symptoms across the three waves. Remitted VDD was positively related to one dichotomous depression symptoms across three waves (adjusted OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.15–4.01). The above-mentioned significant association was also found in males. Additionally, baseline VDD (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.04–2.44) and persistent VDD (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02–2.60) were linked to an increased risk of having two dichotomous depression symptoms only in males.
Our results highlight a prospective association between baseline vitamin D and depression risk in early adolescents. Additionally, a male-specific association between vitamin D and depression risk was observed. Our findings support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing depression risk in early adolescents.
This study presents zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf and O isotope data for granitic rocks in the Zijinshan ore field, southwestern Fujian Province, China. The intrusive rocks comprise monzogranite, granite and granodiorite. The magmatic zircon U–Pb ages from these granitic rocks can be divided into four episodes: episodes 1 (157.9–159.9 Ma) and 2 (141 Ma) in the Late Jurassic and episodes 3 (108.1–103.2 Ma) and 4 (97.5–99.7 Ma) in the Middle and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Patterns of rare-earth elements (REE) show enrichment in light REE and obvious negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are also enriched in Rb, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The increasing La/Yb ratio and decreasing heavy REE content with decreasing age may imply an increasing contribution of mantle-derived materials from the Late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The zircon ϵHf(t) and δ18O values, ranging from −37.7 to −2.8 and 12.0 ‰ to 6.3 ‰, respectively, indicate that the lower crust is an important source of granitic rocks. There was a significant increase in ϵHf(t) values and a decrease in δ18O values in the younger magmatic episodes (3 and 4), which ranged from −11.4 to −0.6 and 10.7 to 6.3 ‰, respectively. This suggests an increasing contribution of mantle-derived magma to the crustal melts from the Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous in response to the changing regional tectonic setting from compression to extension and an increasing interaction between the crust and mantle.
This study tracked the longstanding effect of childhood adversities on health status over the course of a life. This study used the data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study which was a nationally representative survey and documented the generation who had arrived in the middle- and old-age phase and experienced the difficult time in the early founding of PR China in their childhood. Results shown the significant associations between multiple forms of children adversities (economic distress, child neglect, child abuse, lack of friends, parental mental health problems) and health status in adolescence (from 0.068 to 0.102, p<0.01), and health status in mid and late adulthood, including self-rated general health problems (from 0.039 to 0.061, p<0.01), chronic conditions (from 0.014 to 0.120, p<0.01 except for lack of friends), body aches (from 0.016 to 0.062, p<0.01 except for child neglect), and depression (from 0.047 to 0.112, p<0.01). Meanwhile, results also shown an underlying pathway (i.e., health status in adolescence) linking childhood adversities and health status in mid and late adulthood. Results suggested that the experience of multiple forms of adversities in childhood represented a substantial source of health risk throughout life.
Searching for residue in the glaze of porcelain or stoneware is a difficult task because these glazes are high-fired, well vitrified, and nonporous. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of residue observed in glaze cracks of porcelain via SEM-EDS to determine how the crackle effect was produced, in particular, if it was intentionally created during production or the result of post-depositional processes. This study offers insights to a specific type of ancient Chinese porcelain called “Ge-type ware”, which has two different types of cracks, and whose origin has been debated for nearly 60 years because it has never been found at any kiln site. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of the two crack types, first using elemental mapping to ascertain the different mechanisms that produced these two crack types of the Heirloom Ge ware, and second using residue analysis and chemical fingerprinting to determine the provenance of this puzzling type of porcelain. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how the residue in the glaze of porcelain can be observed and analyzed via microchemical approaches and hopes to inspire more research using this technique in future.
During late Carboniferous time, the residual ocean basin gradually closed in West Junggar and only a small amount of seawater remained in the Hala’alat Mountain area, where discussions of provenance and tectonics are limited. In this study, LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating and heavy mineral identification are conducted on the upper Carboniferous tuffaceous sandstones from the Hala’alat and Aladeyikesai formations in the Hala’alat Mountain area. The results reveal the low maturity of the clastic sediments, indicating proximal deposition. The Hala’alat Formation detrital zircons present a single peak (c. 330 Ma). Speculatively, the primary provenance is the Boshchekul–Chingiz Arc, and the secondary sources are the Darbut Tectono-Magmatic Belt and island arcs in the basin. The main peak and provenance of the Aladeyikesai Formation are similar to those of the Hala’alat Formation. Moreover, several age groups, namely, 370–344 Ma, 427–404 Ma and 478–476 Ma, potentially correspond to provenances of the Darbut Tectono-Magmatic Belt, the Boshchekul–Chingiz Arc and the Kujibai–Hongguleleng Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. In addition, the maximum depositional ages of the Hala’alat and Aladeyikesai formations calculated are 314.6 ± 1.54 Ma and 330.8 ± 0.61 Ma, respectively. Comprehensive analysis shows a relatively singular provenance of the Hala’alat Formation. While the provenance of the Aladeyikesai Formation shows inheritance, the provenance area extends northwards to the Kujibai–Hongguleleng Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. Furthermore, the closure of the Junggar Ocean during Carboniferous time caused the potential source region of the Hala’alat Mountain area to migrate northeastwards from Barleik Mountain to Xiemisitai Mountain. This study provides a basis for the analysis of regional geological evolution.
To investigate spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, examine the correlations among spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, and explore the mediating role of spiritual well-being between other two variables of Chinese nursing students.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. A cluster sample of 2,718 nursing students was selected from 7 universities and colleges in China. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS), the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form (SHS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Nursing Student (JSPE-NS) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and process plug-in mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were 173.83 ± 25.62, 98.74 ± 12.87, and 105.04 ± 21.34, respectively. Spiritual care perceptions were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) and empathy (r = 0.528, p < 0.01). And spiritual well-being played a partial mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 28.1%).
Significance of results
Spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were quite moderate, which need in improving. It is suggested that nursing educators pay attention to the spiritual care education of nursing students, perfect the spiritual care education system, and take targeted measures according to nursing students’ individual personality traits and differences, improve their spiritual well-being and empathy in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care perceptions and competence.
Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and cost, which vary widely by region and hospital. In this case-control study, we calculated losses attributable to HAI in central China. A total of 2976 patients in 10 hospitals were enrolled, and the incidence rate of HAI (range, 0.88–4.15%) was significantly, but negatively associated with the cost per 1000 beds of its prevention (range, $24 929.76–$53 146.41; r = −0.76). The per capita economic loss attributable to HAIs was $2047.07 (interquartile range, $327.63–$6429.17), mainly from the pharmaceutical cost (median, $1044.39). The HAIs, which occurred in patients with commercial medical insurance, affected the haematologic system and caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, contributed most to the losses (median, $3881.55, $4734.20 and $9882.75, respectively). Furthermore, the economic losses attributable to device-associated infections and hospital-acquired multi-drug resistant bacteria were two to four times those of the controls. The burden attributable to HAI is heavy, and opportunities for easing this burden exist in several areas, including that strengthening antibiotic stewardship and practicing effective bundle of HAI prevention for patients carrying high-risk factors, for example, elders or those with catheterisations in healthcare institutions, and accelerating the medical insurance payment system reform based on diagnosis-related groups by policy-making departments.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been widely prevalent among older men (aged ≥50 years old) in Sichuan Province. The study aimed to discover associated factors with the new HIV infection in older men, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in this group. A cross-sectional survey study of newly reported HIV/AIDS and general male residents aged 50 years and older was conducted between April and June 2019, with a resample of respondents to identify cases and controls, followed by a case–control study. Logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between the selected factors and new HIV infection among older men. At last, 242 cases and 968 controls were included. The results of multiple logistic regression suggested that many factors including living alone/concentrated (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.20–2.04, P = 0.001), have a history of migrant worker (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.61–2.73, P < 0.001), have commercial sexual behaviour (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.32–2.22, P < 0.001), married (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.64, P < 0.001), have a history of HIV antibody testing (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56–0.96, P = 0.026), HIV-related knowledge (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.72, P < 0.001) were associated with new HIV infection among older men. The present study revealed some potential risky/protective factors altogether. The results highlighted the direction of HIV/AIDS prevention and control among older men, and it is a social issue that requires the joint participation of the whole society.
Elucidating individual aberrance is a critical first step toward precision medicine for heterogeneous disorders such as depression. The neuropathology of depression is related to abnormal inter-regional structural covariance indicating a brain maturational disruption. However, most studies focus on group-level structural covariance aberrance and ignore the interindividual heterogeneity. For that reason, we aimed to identify individualized structural covariance aberrance with the help of individualized differential structural covariance network (IDSCN) analysis.
T1-weighted anatomical images of 195 first-episode untreated patients with depression and matched healthy controls (n = 78) were acquired. We obtained IDSCN for each patient and identified subtypes of depression based on shared differential edges.
As a result, patients with depression demonstrated tremendous heterogeneity in the distribution of differential structural covariance edges. Despite this heterogeneity, altered edges within subcortical-cerebellum network were often shared by most of the patients. Two robust neuroanatomical subtypes were identified. Specifically, patients in subtype 1 often shared decreased motor network-related edges. Patients in subtype 2 often shared decreased subcortical-cerebellum network-related edges. Functional annotation further revealed that differential edges in subtype 2 were mainly implicated in reward/motivation-related functional terms.
In conclusion, we investigated individualized differential structural covariance and identified that decreased edges within subcortical-cerebellum network are often shared by patients with depression. The identified two subtypes provide new insights into taxonomy and facilitate potential clues to precision diagnosis and treatment of depression.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has shown tremendous advances over the traditional technique. A crucial challenge for developing a MIS robot is the kinematic design of the remote center-of-motion (RCM) mechanism. In this paper, a class of spatial RCM mechanism is analyzed. They are obtained by generating virtual parallelograms. The main process is to construct a line that passes through a fixed point under the mechanical constraint. The axis of the surgical tool is then constrained to parallel with that line. Hence, due to the geometrical feature of the parallel lines, the axis of the surgical tool will always pass through a fixed point, i.e., the RCM point. Due to the specially designed structure, the fixed point does not need to be physically belonging to the mechanism. The geometrical analysis method is employed to obtain the closed-form solution of the forward kinematics of the proposed mechanisms. Due to the high load capacity of parallel mechanism, the robots based on the proposed RCM mechanisms have promising applications as an external positioner to be used in robotic single-port surgeries.
The COVID-19 caused a world pandemic, posing a huge threat to global health. Widespread vaccination is the most effective way to control the pandemic. Vaccination with the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is currently underway. We aimed to determine the attitude of adolescents toward the third dose of COVID-19 vaccine.
A structured questionnaire was administered between 16 August and 28 October 2021 among adolescents aged 12–17 years in three provinces of eastern region of China based on convenience sampling. The questionnaire was specifically developed to assess the adolescents’ attitude toward and willingness to accept a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.
In total, 94.3% (1742/1847) of the adolescents intended to accept the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Age between 15–17 years, no worry about vaccine safety, confidence for vaccine effectiveness, and supporting opinion from parents were independently associated with acceptance of the third dose (p < 0.05).
It is necessary for governments and school administrators to raise adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of the benefits and safety of the third dose of vaccination, which should be effective to increase the vaccination coverage among adolescents.
Accurate ice flow velocity data are essential for studying the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. However, there is a lack of ice velocity maps of 1960s–80s in basin-wide regions or the entire ice sheet. In this study, an enhanced hierarchical network densification approach is developed for basin-wide Antarctic velocity mapping using historical ARGON and Landsat images. The produced multiple historical velocity maps from 1963 to 1989 in the region of the Fimbul and Jelbart ice shelves, East Antarctica, achieved an accuracy better than 29 m a−1. They revealed that the ice flow velocity had no significant changes over the period. Combining the surface mass balance estimate with the ice discharge estimated from our historical velocity maps and recently published velocity maps, we estimated a positive mass balance of 8.6 ± 3.9 Gt a−1 in the study area from 1963 and 2015. Our results indicate that the region's positive mass balance, as estimated in recently published studies, has been maintained since the 1960s. It is also in concordance with the low level of mass balance from 1992 to 2017 in East Antarctica. This suggests that the study area has been stable since the 1960s.
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most common sexually transmitted pathogens, which can cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammation and infertility in female. In the present study, we collected the basic information, clinical results of leucorrhoea and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of patients, who were involved in both MG and CT RNA detection in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to April 2021, ranging from 18 to 50 years old. The results showed that the infection frequencies of MG and CT were 2.6% and 6.5%, respectively. The infection rate of CT in gynaecological patients was significantly higher than that of MG (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with CT infection often had symptoms of gynaecological diseases, while patients with MG infection remain often asymptomatic. By exploring the connection between MG or CT infection and vaginal secretions, we found that the infection of MG or CT promoted to the increase of vaginal leukocytes, and CT infection exacerbated the decrease of the number of Lactobacillus in the vagina. Further analysis suggested that independent infection and co-infection of MG or CT resulted in abnormal vaginal secretion, affecting the stability of vaginal environment, which may induce vaginal diseases. Unexpectedly, our study found no association between MG or CT infection and high-risk HPV infection. In conclusion, our study explored the infection of MG and CT among women in Southwest China for the first time, and revealed that the infection of MG or CT would affect the homeostasis of vaginal environment, which laid a foundation for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MG and CT infection.
The horse played a crucial role in China through the first millennium BC, used both for military advantage and, through incorporation into elite burials, to express social status. Details of how horses were integrated into mortuary contexts during the Qin Empire, however, are poorly understood. Here, the authors present new zooarchaeological data for 24 horses from an accessory pit in Qin Shihuang's mausoleum, indicating that the horses chosen were tall, adult males. These findings provide insights into the selection criteria for animals to be included in the emperor's tomb and invite consideration of questions concerning horse breeds, husbandry practices, and the military and symbolic importance of horses in early imperial China.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory index (DII), inflammation biomarkers and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (±3 years), week of gestation (±1 week) and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a seventy-nine item semiquantitative FFQ. Inflammatory biomarkers were analysed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were −0·65 ± 1·58 for cases and −1·19 ± 1·47 for controls (P value < 0·001). E-DII scores positively correlated with interferon-γ (rs = 0·194, P value = 0·001) and IL-4 (rs = 0·135, P value = 0·021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (Ptrend < 0·001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2·18 times the lowest tertiles (95 % CI = 1·52, 3·13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30 % (95 % CI = 18 %, 43 %, P value < 0·001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1·07, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·11), IL-4 (OR = 1·26, 95 % CI = 1·03, 1·54) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (OR = 1·17, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.