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N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
In the design of the filter antenna, the filter unit with the same structure as the radiation patch not only improves the selectivity of the band edge, but also helps to improve the in-band impedance. In this design, a compact circular monopole filtering antenna with improved sideband selectivity and in-band impedance using a circular-stub-load resonator is proposed. To obtain better sideband selection characteristics and in-band impedance characteristics, and reduce the mismatch problem caused by the introduction of the filter, a branch-loaded filter with the same resonance mode as the antenna radiation patch is designed. In addition, different shape branch loading structures of the bandpass filter are also studied. The experimental results show that when the loading unit of the filter and the radiation structure of the antenna have the same structure, both good in-band impedance characteristics and sideband selectivity characteristics can be obtained from the filter antenna. The antenna reflection coefficient bandwidth is from 3 to 11 GHz (114%), and the maximum reflection coefficient is only −15 dB, showing good in-band impedance characteristics and sideband selection characteristics. The filter antenna realizes the integration of antenna filtering without increasing the size, and the final size of the antenna is 30 × 25 mm2.
To set the sleeping mode for the Yutu-2 rover, a visual pose prediction algorithm including terrain reconstruction and pose estimation was first studied. The terrain reconstruction precision is affected by using only the stereo navigation camera (Navcam) images and the rotation angles of the mast. However, the hazard camera (Hazcam) pose is fixed, and an image network was constructed by linking all of the Navcam and Hazcam stereoimages. Then, the Navcam pose was refined based on a multiview block bundle adjustment. The experimental results show that the mean absolute errors of the check points in the proposed algorithm were 10.4 mm over the range of
from 2.0 to 6.1 m, and the proposed algorithm achieved good prediction results for the rover pose (the average differences of the values of the pitch angle and the roll angle were −0.19 degrees and 0.29 degrees, respectively). Under the support of the proposed algorithm, engineers have completed the remote setting of the sleeping mode for Yutu-2 successfully in the Chang’e-4 mission operations.
This work numerically investigates the role of viscosity and resistivity in Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities in magnetized high-energy-density (HED) plasmas for a high Atwood number and high plasma beta regimes surveying across plasma beta and magnetic Prandtl numbers. The numerical simulations are performed using the visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. Results presented here show that the inclusion of self-consistent viscosity and resistivity in the system drastically changes the growth of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) as well as modifies its internal structure at smaller scales. It is seen here that the viscosity has a stabilizing effect on the RTI. Moreover, the viscosity inhibits the development of small-scale structures and also modifies the morphology of the tip of the RTI spikes. On the other hand, the resistivity reduces the magnetic field stabilization, supporting the development of small-scale structures. The morphology of the RTI spikes is seen to be unaffected by the presence of resistivity in the system. An additional novelty of this work is in the disparate viscosity and resistivity profiles that may exist in HED plasmas and their impact on RTI growth, morphology and the resulting turbulence spectra. Furthermore, this work shows that the dynamics of the magnetic field is independent of viscosity and likewise the resistivity does not affect the dissipation of enstrophy and kinetic energy. In addition, power law scalings of enstrophy, kinetic energy and magnetic field energy are provided in both the injection range and inertial sub-range, which could be useful for understanding RTI induced turbulent mixing in HED laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and could aid in the interpretation of observations of RTI-induced turbulence spectra.
Do language skills affect investment decisions? This article addresses this question by identifying the effect of English proficiency on the stock market participation of immigrants in the United States and Australia. To establish causality, we construct an instrumental variable for English proficiency by exploiting the phenomenon that younger children acquire languages more easily than older children. We find that English proficiency has a significant positive effect on stock ownership among immigrants in both countries. Moreover, we provide evidence that a reduction in information costs and an increase in trust may serve as the mechanisms underlying the language ability effect.
With the increase of crewed space missions and the rise of space microbiology, the research of microbes grown under microgravity environment has been attracting more attention. The research scope in space microbiology has been extended beyond pathogens directly related to spaceflight. Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, is also of interest to researchers. After being cultivated for 40 consecutive passages in either simulated microgravity (SMG) or normal gravity (NG) conditions, the Y. pestis strain 201 cultures were analysed regarding their phenotypic features. By using crystal violet staining assays, increased biofilm amount was detected in Y. pestis grown under SMG condition. Besides that, the damage degrees of Hela cell caused by SMG-grown Y. pestis were found diminished in comparison to those under NG condition. Consistent with this observation, the death course was delayed in mice infected with SMG-grown Y. pestis, suggesting that microgravity condition can contribute the attenuated virulence. RNA-seq-based transcriptomics analysis showed that a total of 218 genes were differentially regulated, of which 91 upregulated and 127 downregulated. We found that dozens of virulence-associated genes were downregulated, which partially explained the reduced virulence of Y. pestis under SMG condition. Our study demonstrated that long-term exposure to SMG influences the pathogenesis and biofilm formation ability of Y. pestis, which provides a novel avenue to study the mechanism of physiology and virulence of this pathogen. Microgravity enhanced the ability of biofilm formation and reduced the virulence and cytotoxicity of Y. pestis. Many virulence-associated genes of Y. pestis were differentially regulated in response to the stimulated microgravity. However, there is no molecular evidence to explain the enhanced biofilm formation ability, which requires further research. Taken together, the phenotype changes of Y. pestis under SMG conditions can provide us a new research direction of its potential pathogenesis.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Bullfrog is one of the most important economic aquatic animals in China that is widely cultured in southern China and is a key breed recommended as an industry of poverty alleviation in China. During recent years, a fatal bacterial disease has often been found in cultured bullfrogs. The clinical manifestations of the diseased bullfrogs were severe intestinal inflammation and an anal prolapse. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from the diseased bullfrog intestines. The bacterium was identified as Vibrio cholerae using morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. In this study, V. cholerae was isolated and identified in diseased bullfrogs for the first time, providing a basis for the diagnosis and control of the disease. Therefore, attention should be paid to the modes of transmission of V. cholerae from bullfrog and formulate reasonable safety measures.
The Bangong–Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), which separates the Gondwana-derived Qiangtang and Lhasa terranes, preserves limited geological records of the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean (BNO). The timing of opening of this ocean has been hotly debated due to the rare and complicated rock records in the suture zones, which span over 100 Ma from Carboniferous–Permian to Early Jurassic time, based on geological, palaeontological and palaeomagnetic data. A combination of geochemical, geochronological and isotopic data are reported for the Riasairi trachytes, central BNSZ, northern Tibet, to constrain its petrogenesis and tectonic settings. Zircon U–Pb dating by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yields mean ages of 236 Ma. Geochemically, these rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with moderate SiO2 (59.1–67.5 wt%) and high K2O + Na2O (8.1–11.6 wt%) contents. They are enriched in light rare earth elements with negative Eu anomalies, and show enrichments in high-field-strength elements with positive ‘Nb, Ta’ anomalies, similar to the intra-continental rift setting-related felsic lavas from the African Rift System. The high positive zircon ϵHf(t) and bulk ϵNd(t) values, as well as high initial Pb isotopes, imply a heterogeneous source involving both asthenospheric and subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The field and geochemical data jointly suggest that the Riasairi trachytes within the Mugagangri Group were formed in a continental rift setting. We interpret that the continental-rift-related Riaisairi trachytic lavas as derived from the southern margin of the Qiangtang terrane, implying that the BNO would have opened by Middle Triassic time, well after the commonly interpreted break-up of the Qiangtang terrane from Gondwana.
Application of biochar to rice has shown to elicit positive environmental and agricultural impacts due to its physicochemical properties. However, the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rice yield, and soil nutrient status under biochar amendment remains unclear. In this study, rice yield and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were quantified in response to biochar application rate (0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha−1) to early and late subtropical rice cropping systems. We found that application of 10 t of biochar ha−1 to early rice reduced average CH4 emission fluxes, while all biochar application rates diminished average emissions in late rice paddy. Total global warming potential (GWP) and GHG intensity (GHGI) were inherently greater in late rice than early rice cropping. In early rice, GWP and GHGI were found to be similar between soil control, 10 and 20 t of biochar ha−1 treatments, although the largest occurred in the 40 t of biochar ha−1 treatment, whereas in late rice cropping, they were not affected by biochar application rates. Compared to the nil-biochar application, biochar application at varied rates did not affect rice yield. However, compared to 10 t biochar ha−1, increasing biochar application rate to 40 t ha−1 significantly decreased total rice yield (sum of early and late cropping). Generally, application of biochar increased soil salinity and total Fe and Fe2+ content while reducing soil bulk density. Temporal effects of biochar application were noted on CH4 emission flux, soil temperature, and soil Fe2+ and Fe3+ in early rice; and soil temperature, salinity, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, and soil Fe2+ and Fe3+ in late rice. This study confirms that the application of biochar at the lower rate of 10 t ha−1 is optimal for maintaining rice yield while reducing GHG emissions. Moreover, the study demonstrates the potential benefit of biochar in sustainable subtropical rice production.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a cell surface receptor, belonging to the tyrosine kinase receptor superfamily. IGF1R plays a role not only in normal cell development but also in malignant transformation, which has become a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. This study aimed to explore insertions and deletions (indels) in IGF1R gene and investigate their association with growth traits in four Chinese cattle breeds (Xianan cattle, Jinnan cattle, Qinchuan cattle and Nanyang cattle). The current paper identified a 28-bp indel by polymerase chain reaction within IGF1R gene. The analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the locus and the hucklebone width of Nanyang cattle in four periods, in which it was highly correlated at 6, 12 and 18 months. At the age of 6 months, it was also significantly correlated with body height, body weight and body length. Association analysis showed that the locus in Jinnan cattle was extremely significantly correlated with body slanting length and body weight, and significantly correlated with chest circumference. There was no significant correlation between this locus and growth traits of Xianan cattle and Qinchuan cattle. The detected indel in the IGF1R gene was significantly associated with growth traits in Jinnan and Nanyang cattle, and could be used as a molecular marker for growth trait selection.
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Although employee creativity has been identified to promote organizational competitiveness, its effect on leader empowering behaviors remains underexplored. This study investigated the underlying mechanism and boundary condition under which employee creativity influences leader empowering behaviors. Drawn on social exchange theory and similarity-attraction theory, this study developed a moderated-mediation model in which supervisor–subordinate guanxi serves as the intervening mechanism and supervisor–subordinate similarity serves as a boundary condition influencing this relationship. Using three-wave, time-lagged survey data collected from 309 supervisor–subordinate dyads, this study found that supervisor–subordinate guanxi mediates the relationship between employee creativity and leader empowering behaviors, and that this relationship is stronger when supervisor–subordinate similarity is high rather than low. Finally, theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
We conducted the first detailed mineral magnetic investigation of more than nine loess–paleosol couplets of the composite Titel-Stari Slankamen loess section in Serbia, which provides one of the longest and most complete terrestrial record of paleoclimatic changes in Europe since ~1.0 Ma. The results show that the ferrimagnetic mineral assemblage of the loess units is dominated by partially oxidized multidomain (MD) and pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite; however, with an increasing degree of pedogenesis, the eolian contribution is gradually masked by pedogenic superparamagnetic(SP) and single-domain (SD) ferrimagnets (mainly maghemite). The overall consistency of ferrimagnetic grain-size parameters indicates an absence of dissolution of the fine-grained ferrimagnetic fraction despite changes in climate regime over the past 1.0 Ma. The variations of normalized dJ/dT@120K and normalized χheating@530°C reflect a long-term stepwise increase in aridity during glacials with a major step at ~0.6–0.5 Ma, over the last 1.0 Ma. Overall, the results provide an improved basis for the future use of the magnetic properties of Serbian loess deposits for paleoclimatic reconstruction.
In recent years, the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score has increasingly became an effective indicator associated with tumor prognosis. This study was conducted to synthesise data on the prognostic value of CONUT score on patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing nephrectomy. We designed and performed a systematic analysis of studies that verified the correlation between preoperative CONUT score and prognosis for UTUC and RCC using PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. The conclusion was clarified by pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subgroup analysis were further conducted in accordance with different primary tumor. Six studies involving 3529 patients were included in this evidence synthesis, which revealed that the CONUT score had a potential role to predict the survival of UTUC and RCC patients accepting surgery. Pooled analysis showed that the overall survival (OS, HR 2·32, p < 0·0001), cancer-specific survival (CSS, HR 2·68, p < 0·0001) and disease-free survival (DFS, HR 1·62, p < 0·00001) were inferior in the high CONUT score group when compared with low score group. Subgroup analysis revealed that this result was in line with UTUC (OS: HR 1·86, p = 0·02; CSS: HR 2·24, p = 0·01; DFS: HR 1·54, p < 0·00001) and RCC (OS: HR 3·05, p < 0·00001; CSS: HR 3·47, p < 0·00001; DFS: HR 2·21, p = 0·0005) patients respectively. Consequently, the CONUT score is a valuable preoperative index to predict the survival of patients with UTUC or RCC undergoing nephrectomy.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
The prevention, treatment and control of Haemonchus contortus have been increasingly problematic due to its widespread occurrence and anthelmintic resistance. There are very few descriptions of recombinant antigens being protective for H. contortus, despite the success of various native antigen preparations, including Barbervax. We recently identified an H. contortus excretory–secretory antigen, H. contortus adhesion-regulating molecule 1 (HcADRM1), that served as an immunomodulator to impair host T-cell functions. Given the prophylactic potential of HcADRM1 protein as a vaccine candidate, we hereby assessed the efficacies of HcADRM1 preparations against H. contortus infection. Parasitological and immunological parameters were evaluated throughout all time points of the trials, including fecal egg counts (FEC), abomasal worm burdens, complete blood counts, cytokine production profiles and antibody responses. Active vaccination with recombinant HcADRM1 (rHcADRM1) protein induced protective immunity in inoculated goats, resulting in reductions of 48.9 and 58.6% in cumulative FEC and worm burdens. Simultaneously, passive administration of anti-HcADRM1 antibodies generated encouraging levels of protection with 46.7 and 56.2% reductions in cumulative FEC and worm burdens in challenged goats. In addition, HcADRM1 preparations-immunized goats showed significant differences in mucosal and serum antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, total mucosal IgA levels, haemoglobin values and circulating interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17A production compared to control goats in both trials. The preliminary data of these laboratory trials validated the immunoprophylactic effects of rHcADRM1 protein. It can be pursued as a potential vaccine antigen to develop an effective recombinant subunit vaccine against H. contortus under field conditions.