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We aimed to examine the association between the quantity and quality of dietary fat in early pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In total, 1477 singleton pregnant women were included from Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Southwest China. Dietary information was collected by a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 gestational weeks. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CI. The results showed that total fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 1·40; 95 % CI 1·11, 1·76; Ptrend = 0·001). This association was also observed for the intakes of animal fat and vegetable fat. After stratified by total fat intake (< 30 %E v. ≥ 30 %E), the higher animal fat intake was associated with higher GDM risk in the high-fat group, but the moderate animal fat intake was associated with reduced risk of GDM (T2 v. T1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·96) in the normal-fat group. Vegetable fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk in the high-fat group but not in the normal-fat group. No association between fatty acids intakes and GDM risk was found. In conclusion, total fat, animal and vegetable fat intakes were positively associated with GDM risk, respectively. Whereas when total fat intake was not excessive, higher intakes of animal and vegetable fat were likely irrelevant with increased GDM risk, even the moderate animal fat intake could be linked to lower GDM risk.
Fruit intake may influence gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. However, prospective evidence remains controversial and limited. The current study aimed to investigate whether total fruit and specific fruit intake influence GDM risk.
A prospective cohort study was conducted. Dietary information was collected by a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. All participants underwent a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 gestational weeks. Log-binomial models were used to estimate the association between fruit intake and GDM risk, and the results are presented as relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI.
Totally, 1453 healthy pregnant women in 2017.
Total fruit intake was not associated with lower GDM risk (RR of 1·03 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·27) (Ptrend = 0·789)). The RR of GDM risk was 0·73 for the highest anthocyanin-rich fruit intake quartile compared with the lowest quartile (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93; Ptrend = 0·015). A higher grape intake had a linear inverse association with GDM risk (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·044), and after further adjustment for anthocyanin intake, the inverse association tended to be non-linear (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·079). However, we did not find an association between glycaemic index-grouped fruit, glycaemic load-grouped fruit or other fruit subtype intake and GDM risk.
In conclusion, specific fruit intake (particularly anthocyanin-rich fruit and grapes) but not total fruit intake was inversely associated with GDM risk.
We aimed to examine the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) scores during the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in a Chinese population. A total of 1455 women were included in 2017. Dietary information during the first trimester was collected by 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d. The overall, animal and plant LCD scores, which indicated adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns, were calculated. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. The results showed that the multivariable-adjusted RR of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the overall LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·42), 1·30 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·60) and 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·52) (P = 0·026 for trend). Multivariable-adjusted RR (95 % CI) of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the animal LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·20 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·50), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·14, 1·73) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·59) (P = 0·002 for trend). After additional adjustment for gestational weight gain before GDM diagnosis, the association of the overall LCD score with GDM risk was non-significant, while the association of animal LCD score with GDM risk remained significant. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of GDM in Chinese women.
To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) in the first trimester (GWG-F) and the rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exploring the optimal GWG ranges for the avoidance of GDM in Chinese women.
A population-based prospective study was conducted. Gestational weight was measured regularly in every antenatal visit and assessed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria (2009). GDM was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of GWG-F and RGWG-S on GDM, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In each BMI category, the GWG values corresponding to the lowest prevalence of GDM were defined as the optimal GWG range.
Pregnant women (n 1910) in 2017.
After adjusting for confounders, GWG-F above IOM recommendations increased the risk of GDM (OR; 95 % CI) among underweight (2·500; 1·106, 5·655), normal-weight (1·396; 1·023, 1·906) and overweight/obese women (3·017; 1·118, 8·138) compared with women within IOM recommendations. No significant difference was observed between RGWG-S and GDM (P > 0·05) after adjusting for GWG-F based on the previous model. The optimal GWG-F ranges for the avoidance of GDM were 0·8–1·2, 0·8–1·2 and 0·35–0·70 kg for underweight, normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively.
Excessive GWG in the first trimester, rather than the second trimester, is associated with increased risk of GDM regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI. Obstetricians should provide more pre-emptive guidance in achieving adequate GWG-F.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
New discoveries of the early Cambrian yiliangellinine trilobite Zhangshania typica Li and Zhang in Kunming preserve almost all instars from early postembryonic (protaspid) to mature (holaspid) phases in articulated state, in addition to mature specimens with antennae bearing paired spines on the basal articles. The ontogenetic series shows protarthrous development with some, but likely not all, early holaspid instars expressing additional pygidial segments, gradual rearward migration of the location of the longest pleural spines on the trunk segments, and striking positive allometry of the genal spines. It also reveals Parazhangshania sichuanensis Li and Zhang, 1990 to be the holaspid stage 3 of Z. typica, and therefore its junior synonym. This new find in the Hongjingshao Formation provides species-based regional correlation across the South China block and Z. typica may provide an important biostratigraphic marker for the base of the traditional Tsanglangpuan Stage.
A one-dimensional (1D) position sensitive detector (PSD) with the active layer imbedded in resonant cavity is proposed. The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) on the surface of active layer is related to the lifetime of photo-generated carriers-electrons and holes pairs. Theoretically, by improving the transmittance of multiple layered systems, the lifetime of carriers can be lengthened. For a photodetector in near infrared, we design the multiple layered system stacked by alternating layers with MgF2 and InP. The calculated result of electric field distribution in the proposed PSD is maximized in active layer with appropriate thickness. By this means, our aim is theoretically accomplished to enhance LPE in PSD based on resonant cavity structure.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
To investigate the effects of partially substitution of lanthanum for bismuth in the BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BSPT) ceramics, the 0.38(Bi1−xLax)ScO3-0.62PbTiO3 (BLSPTx) ceramics were prepared by using conventional solid state process. It was found that the partial replacement of lanthanum for bismuth do not affects the crystalline structure of the BSPT ceramics. With increasing of the lanthanum content, the grains of BLSPTx ceramics grown much bigger than those of BSPT ceramics when BLSPTx and BSPT ceramics were sintered at the same temperature. The temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity of BLSPTx ceramics shows that the Curie temperature (Tc) shifts toward lower temperature with the increasing of lanthanum content, and the BLSPTx samples for x=0.02 show the highest value of the dielectric constant at Tc.
Pb(Sc1/2Ta1/2)O3 (PST) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics were investigated widely in the past decades for their excellent pyroelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties and comprehensive applications in uncooled focal plane arrays infrared detectors and other electronic devices. However, some other ferroelectrics could be added into the PST ceramics to form the complex perovskite ferroelectrics with better electric properties. In this paper, (1-x)PST-xPZT(PSTZT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by wolframite precursor process (named two-step -sintering method, TSSM). The experiment results showed that the PSTZT ceramics with pure perovskite structure could be prepared by using TSSM. The temperature dependence of permittivity and dielectric loss of PSTZT ceramics were investigated in detail, which indicated that PSTZT ceramics showed partly diffusive phase transition with little frequency dispersion. The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of PSTZT ceramics were also investigated and discussed.
Lithium sodium potassium niobate (Li, Na, K)NbO3 (LNKN) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by using conventional solid state process. The phase structures of LNKN ceramics were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The dielectric properties of LNKN ceramics have been also studied at different temperature and frequency. It was found that LNKN ceramics have high Curie temperature Tc(about 460°C), and relatively high piezoelectric constant d33 (∼200pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling coefficient kp(∼0.40). Both of the piezoelectric constant d33 and electromechanical coupling coefficient kp of LNKN ceramics decreased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The piezoelectric property dependence of composition of LNKN ceramics has also been studied.
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