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Based on erosion coupon tests, a sand erosion model for 17-4PH steel was developed. The developed erosion model was validated against the results of compressor erosion tests from a generic rig and from other researchers. A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the test rig was built, a user-defined function was developed to implement the erosion model into the ANSYS CFD software, and the turbulent, two-phase flow-field in multiple reference frames was solved. The simulation results are consistent with the test results from the compressor rig and with experimental findings from other researchers. Specifically, the sand erosion blunts the leading edge, sharpens the trailing edge and increases pressure-surface roughness. The comparisons between the experimental observations and numerical results as well as a quantitative comparison with three other sand erosion models indicate that the developed sand erosion model is adequate for erosion prediction of engine components made of 17-4PH steel.
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex mental illnesses that are associated with cognitive deficits. There is considerable cognitive heterogeneity that exists within both disorders. Studies that cluster schizophrenia and bipolar patients into subgroups based on their cognitive profile increasingly demonstrate that, relative to healthy controls, there is a severely compromised subgroup and a relatively intact subgroup. There is emerging evidence that telomere shortening, a marker of cellular senescence, may be associated with cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive subgroups in bipolar-schizophrenia spectrum disorders and telomere length against a healthy control sample.
Participants included a transdiagnostic group diagnosed with bipolar, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 73) and healthy controls (n = 113). Cognitive clusters within the transdiagnostic patient group, were determined using K-means cluster analysis based on current cognitive functioning (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores). Telomere length was determined using quantitative PCRs genomic DNA extracted from whole blood. Emergent clusters were then compared to the healthy control group on telomere length.
Two clusters emerged within the patient group that were deemed to reflect a relatively intact cognitive group and a cognitively impaired subgroup. Telomere length was significantly shorter in the severely impaired cognitive subgroup compared to the healthy control group.
This study replicates previous findings of transdiagnostic cognitive subgroups and associates shorter telomere length with the severely impaired cognitive subgroup. These findings support emerging literature associating cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders to accelerated cellular aging as indexed by telomere length.
Borophagus is the terminal genus of the highly diverse and successful subfamily, Borophaginae. Skeletal remains of this bone-crushing canid are most commonly found in transitional or grassland environments across North America between Late Miocene–Middle Pleistocene, but are rare or absent in forested habitats. Here, we describe a humerus from the Gray Fossil Site of Tennessee, which is the first occurrence of this genus in a heavily forested ecosystem. The distinct limb proportions of Borophagus suggest the genus may have been well suited for a closed habitat like the Gray Fossil Site, contrary to where a majority of their fossils have been previously found. This discovery documents the first pre-Pleistocene occurrence of a canid in the Appalachian region of the eastern United States.
The chapter proposes a novel interpretative account that functionally constructs the UNCLOS requirement of ship manning. The legal rationale underlying the argument in favor of functional flexibility is informed by the international regulatory developments at the level of the International Maritime Organization and considers that technological progress is best served by the emerging law-making philosophy of setting goal-based standards. The posited methodology further proposes that the functional interpretation of manning shall be linked to a test for reviewing the flag state margin of discretion in the context of the obligation to take measures toward achieving and maintaining comprehensive safety at sea for autonomous ships.
The performance of hypersonic vehicles in the take-off stage considerably influences their capability of accomplishing the flight tasks. This study is aimed at enhancing the take-off performance of a cruise aircraft using the improved chimp optimisation algorithm. The proposed algorithm, which uses the Sobol sequence for initial population generation and a function of the weight factors, can effectively overcome the problems of premature convergence and low accuracy of the original algorithm. In particular, the Sobol sequence aims to obtain a better fitness value in the first iteration, and the weight factor aims to accelerate the convergence speed and avoid the local optimal solution. The take-off mass model of the hypersonic vehicle is constructed considering the flight data obtained using the pseudo-spectral method in the climb phase. Simulations are performed to evaluate the algorithm performance, and the results show that the algorithm can rapidly and stably optimise the benchmark function. Compared to the original algorithm, the proposed algorithm requires 28.89% less optimisation time and yields an optimised take-off mass that is 1.72kg smaller.