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To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
Arazyme, an alkaline metalloprotease, is produced by Serratia proteamaculans, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the intestinal ecosystem of Nephila clavata. Arazyme is known to play a crucial role in facilitating the digestion process in N. clavata. Recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring invertebrate-associated gut symbionts as a valuable source of novel and biologically active enzymes. Animal husbandry has shown significant interest in this spider-derived bioactive enzyme. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding and knowledge of arazyme in the context of animal husbandry, offering valuable references for potential applications of this enzyme.
Zinc finger protein (Zelda) of Tribolium castaneum (TcZelda) has been showed to play pivotal roles in embryonic development and metamorphosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of TcZelda associated with these physiology processes is unclear. Herein, the developmental expression profile showed that Zelda of T. castaneum was highly expressed in early eggs. Tissue expression profiling revealed that TcZelda was mainly expressed in the larval head and adult ovary of late adults and late larvae. TcZelda knockdown led to a 95% mortality rate in adults. These results suggested that TcZelda is related to the activation of the zygote genome in early embryonic development. Furthermore, 592 differentially expressed genes were identified from the dsZelda treated group. Compared with the control group, altered disjunction (ALD) and AGAP005368-PA (GAP) in the dsZelda group were significantly down-regulated, while TGF-beta, propeptide (TGF) was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that TcZelda may be involved in insect embryonic development. In addition, the expression of Ubx ultrabithorax (UBX), Cx cephalothorax (CX), En engrailed (EN), and two Endocuticle structural glycoprotein sgabd (ABD) genes were significantly down-regulated, suggesting that they may cooperate with TcZelda to regulate the development of insect wings. Additionally, Elongation (ELO), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acyl-CoA desaturase (FAD) expression was inhibited in dsZelda insects, which could disturb the lipase signaling pathways, thus, disrupting the insect reproductive system and pheromone synthesis. These results may help reveal the function of TcZelda in insects and the role of certain genes in the gene regulatory network and provide new ideas for the prevention and control of T. castaneum.
Achieving an all-fiber ultra-fast system with above kW average power and mJ pulse energy is extremely challenging. This paper demonstrated a picosecond monolithic master oscillator power amplifier system at a 25 MHz repetition frequency with an average power of approximately 1.2 kW, a pulse energy of approximately 48 μJ and a peak power of approximately 0.45 MW. The nonlinear effects were suppressed by adopting a dispersion stretched seed pulse (with a narrow linewidth of 0.052 nm) and a multi-mode master amplifier with an extra-large mode area; then an ultimate narrow bandwidth of 1.32 nm and a moderately broadened pulse of approximately 107 ps were achieved. Meanwhile, the great spatio-temporal stability was verified experimentally, and no sign of transverse mode instability appeared even at the maximum output power. The system has shown great power and energy capability with a sacrificed beam propagation product of 5.28 mm
mrad. In addition, further scaling of the peak power and pulse energy can be achieved by employing a lower repetition and a conventional compressor.
Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) in insects can encode various detoxification enzymes and catabolize heterologous substances, conferring tolerance to insecticides. This study describes the identification of a P450 gene (CYP6BQ8) from Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and investigation of its spatiotemporal expression profile and potential role in the detoxification of terpinen-4-ol, a component of plant essential oils. The developmental expression profile showed that TcCYP6BQ8 expression was relatively higher in early- and late-larval stages of T. castaneum compared with other developmental stages. Tissue expression profiles showed that TcCYP6BQ8 was mainly expressed in the head and integument of both larvae and adults. The expression profiling of TcCYP6BQ8 in developmental stages and tissues is closely related to the detoxification of heterologous substances. TcCYP6BQ8 expression was significantly induced after exposure to terpinen-4-ol, and RNA interference against TcCYP6BQ8 increased terpinen-4-ol-induced larval mortality from 47.78 to 66.67%. This indicates that TcCYP6BQ8 may be involved in T. castaneum's metabolism of terpinen-4-ol. Correlation investigation between the CYP6BQ8 gene and terpinen-4-ol resistance in T. castaneum revealed that the TcCYP6BQ8 gene was one of the factors behind T. castaneum's resistance to terpinen-4-ol. This discovery may provide a new theoretical foundation for future regulation of T. castaneum.
Almost all hospitals are equipped with air-conditioning systems to provide a comfortable environment for patients and staff. However, the accumulation of dust and moisture within these systems increases the risk of transmission of microbes and have on occasion been associated with outbreaks of infection. Nevertheless, the impact of air-conditioning on the transmission of microorganisms leading to infection remains largely uncertain. We conducted a scoping review to screen systematically the evidence for such an association in the face of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were explored for relevant studies addressing microbial contamination of the air, their transmission and association with infectious diseases. The review process yielded 21 publications, 17 of which were cross-sectional studies, three were cohort studies and one case−control study. Our analysis showed that, compared with naturally ventilated areas, microbial loads were significantly lower in air-conditioned areas, but the incidence of infections increased if not properly managed. The use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration not only decreased transmission of airborne bioaerosols and various microorganisms, but also reduced the risk of infections. By contrast, contaminated air-conditioning systems in hospital rooms were associated with a higher risk of patient infection. Cleaning and maintenance of such systems to recommended standards should be performed regularly and where appropriate, the installation of HEPA filters can effectively mitigate microbial contamination in the public areas of hospitals.
This study deploys RTK-GNSS in 2012, TLS in 2015 and UAV in 2018 to monitor the changes of Urumqi Glacier No. 1 (UG1), eastern Tien Shan, and analyzes the feasibility of three technologies in monitoring the mountain glaciers. DEM differencing shows that UG1 has experienced a pronounced thinning and mass loss for the period of 2012–18. The glacier surface elevation change of −0.83 ± 0.57 m w.e. a−1 has been recorded for 2012–15, whereas the changes of glacier tongue surface elevation in 2015–18 and 2012–18 were −2.03 ± 0.95 and −1.34 ± 0.88 m w.e. a−1, respectively. The glacier area shrunk by 0.07 ± 0.07 × 10−3 km2 and the terminus retreat rate was 6.28 ± 0.83 m a−1 during 2012–18. The good agreement between the glaciological and geodetic specific mass-balances is promising, showing the combination of the three technologies is suitable to monitor glacier mass change. We recommend application of the three technologies to assess each other in different locations of the glacier, e.g. RTK-GNSS base stations, ground control points, glacier tongue and terminus, in order to avoid the inherent limitations of each technology and to provide reliable data for the future studies of mountain glacier changes in western China.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) is an important target for discovering new herbicides that interfere with the synthesis of porphyrin. To discover new PPO inhibitors with improved biological activity, a series of new diphenyl ethers containing tetrahydrophthalimide were designed and synthesized. Among them, J6.1 (IC50 = 4.7 nM) and J6.3 (IC50 = 30.0 nM) show higher maize (Zea mays L.) PPO inhibitory activity than the commercial herbicides oxyfluorfen (IC50 = 117.9 nM) and flumioxazin (IC50 = 157.1 nM). The greenhouse herbicidal activity of J6.3 is comparable to that of oxyfluorfen, and it is greater than that of flumioxazin. Even at a dose of 300 g ai ha−1, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) show greater tolerance to J6.3, suggesting that J6.3 could be used for further development of new herbicide candidates in those fields. In addition, molecular docking has been used to further study the mechanism of action of J6.3. The results show that the introduction of a nitro group and tetrahydrophthalimide into the diphenyl ether structure is beneficial to biological activity.
Six acidic dykes were discovered surrounding the Laiziling pluton, Xianghualing area, in the western Cathaysia Block, South China. A number of captured zircons are found in two of these acidic dykes. By detailed U–Pb dating, Lu–Hf isotopes and trace-element analysis, we find that these zircons have ages clustered at c. 2.5 Ga. Two acidic dyke samples yielded upper intersection point 206U/238Pb ages of 2505 ± 42 Ma and 2533 ± 22 Ma, and weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2500 ± 30 Ma and 2535 ± 16 Ma. The majority of these zircons have high (Sm/La)N, Th/U and low Ce/Ce* ratios, indicating a magmatic origin, but some grains were altered by later hydrothermal fluid. Additionally, the magmatic zircons have high Y, U, heavy rare earth element, Nb and Ta contents, indicating that their host rocks were mainly mafic rocks or trondhjemite–tonalite–granodiorite rock series. Equally, their moderate Y, Yb, Th, Gd and Er contents also indicate that a mafic source formed in a continental volcanic-arc environment. These zircons have positive ϵHf(t) values (2.5–6.9) close to zircons from the depleted mantle, with TDM (2565–2741 Ma) and TDM2 (2608–2864 Ma) ages close to their formation ages, indicating that these zircons originated directly from depleted mantle magma, or juvenile crust derived from the depleted mantle in a very short period. We therefore infer that the Cathaysia Block experienced a crustal growth event at c. 2.5 Ga.
The Wulian complex is located on the northern margin of the Sulu orogenic belt, and was formed by collision between the North China Craton (NCC) to the north and South China Craton (SCC) to the south. It consists of the metasedimentary Wulian Group, gneissic granite and meta-diorite. The U–Pb analyses for the detrital zircons from the Wulian Group exhibit one predominant age population of 2600–2400 Ma with a peak at c. 2.5 Ga and several secondary age populations of > 3000, 3000–2800, 2800–2600, 2200–2000, 1900–1800, 1500–1300 and 1250–950 Ma; some metamorphic zircons have metamorphic ages of c. 2.7, 2.55–2.45, 2.1–2.0 and 1.95–1.80 Ga, which are consistent with magmatic-metamorphic events in the SCC. Additionally, the Wulian Group was intruded by the gneissic granite and meta-diorite at c. 0.76 Ga, attributed to Neoproterozoic syn-rifting bimodal magmatic activity in the SCC and derived from partial melting of Archaean continental crust and depleted mantle, respectively. The Wulian Group therefore has tectonic affinity to the SCC and was mainly sourced from the SCC. The detrital zircons have positive and negative ϵHf(t) values, indicating that their source rocks were derived from reworking of both ancient and juvenile crustal rocks. The major early Precambrian crustal growth took place during c. 3.4–2.5 Ga with a dominant peak at 2.96 Ga and several secondary peaks at 3.27, 2.74 and 2.52 Ga. The two oldest zircons with ages of 3307 and 3347 Ma record the recycling of ancient continental crust (> 3.35 Ga) and crustal growth prior to c. 3.95 Ga in the SCC.
Perovskite solar cells are poised to be a game changer in photovoltaic technology with a current certified efficiency of 25.2%, already surpassing that for multicrystalline silicon solar cells. On the path to higher efficiencies and much needed higher stability, however, interfacial and bulk defects in the active material should be carefully engineered or passivated. Post-treatment techniques show great potential to address defect issues (e.g., by coarsening the perovskite grains or establishing an interfacial heterogeneous layer). In this article, we summarize current fundamental understanding of the major energy-loss routes in perovskite materials and devices, including bulk/interfacial defects mediated nonradiative recombination and band mismatch-induced recombination. This is followed by a survey of the important post-treatment techniques developed over the past few years to minimize energy loss in perovskite solar cells, including solvent annealing, amine halide solution dripping-induced Ostwald ripening, three-dimensional–two-dimensional interface layer from phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) dripping, and wide bandgap interface layer engineering from n-hexyl trimethylammonium bromide washing. Finally, we provide a prospective view about further developments of post-treatment techniques.
The purpose of this study was to construct a glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-mediated, breakable, intracellular, nanoscale drug-delivery carrier via amide and esterification reactions. The structures were identified by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrophotometry. The compatibility and safety of the carrier were evaluated using hemolysis and cytotoxicity tests. The GA-copolymer micelle was prepared using the solvent evaporation method. FTIR and 1H-NMR detection demonstrated the successful construction of the polymer. No hemolysis occurred in any concentration of polymer within 3 h, and the hemolysis rate was less than 5%. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) experimental results showed that the novel polymer reduced the cell survival rate and had significant cytotoxic effects. The blank nanoparticles were liquid with light blue opalescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the empty micelles were uniform spheres, with an average size of 62 nm and a zeta potential of −13 mV. The novel GA-mediated polymeric carrier material developed here has the potential to effectively kill human SMMC-7721 cancer cells within 3 days when the dose is above 500 ug/mL.
Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesised that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be an underlying factor relevant to this potential association. In a prospective birth cohort study, descriptive statistics were evaluated for the demographic characteristics of 3407 pregnancies in the second trimester from three antenatal clinics in Hefei, China. The association of the combined status of vitamin D and PTH with birth weight and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) was assessed by a multivariate linear and binary logistic regression. We found that declined status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with lower birth weight (for moderate VDD: adjusted β = −49·4 g, 95 % CI −91·1, −7·8, P < 0·05; for severe VDD: adjusted β = −79·8 g, 95 % CI −127·2, −32·5, P < 0·01), as well as ascended levels of PTH (for elevated PTH: adjusted β = −44·5 g, 95 % CI −82·6, −6·4, P < 0·05). Compared with the non-VDD group with non-elevated PTH, pregnancies with severe VDD and elevated PTH had the lowest neonatal birth weight (adjusted β = −124·7 g, 95 % CI −194·6, −54·8, P < 0·001) and the highest risk of SGA (adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 3·36, 95 % CI 1·41, 8·03, P < 0·01). Notably, the highest risk of less Ca supplementation was founded in severe VDD group with elevated PTH (adjusted RR = 4·67, 95 % CI 2·78, 7·85, P < 0·001). In conclusion, elevated PTH induced by less Ca supplementation would further aggravate the risk of FGR in pregnancies with severe VDD through impaired maternal Ca metabolism homoeostasis.
To gain more comprehensive understanding of metabolic syndrome (Mets) among in general Chinese population.
Cross-sectional study. Mets was defined by three widely accepted definitions including modified Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and harmonized definition. Risk factors were evaluated by using multivariate logistic regression.
Nineteen rural villages in northeast China.
The survey was conducted in September 2017 and May 2018 on 10 926 individuals.
According to modified ATP III criteria, IDF criteria and harmonised definition, the overall prevalence of Mets was 41·3 % (95 % CI 40·3, 42·2), 34·2 % (95 % CI 33·2, 35·1) and 44·1 % (95 % CI 43·1, 45·1), respectively. Females had a higher prevalence, and elevated blood pressure was the most frequent. Age, female sex, non-peasant worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income were independent risk factors of Mets in all three definitions (all ps < 0·05). Based on modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition, heavy drinking was positively correlated with Mets. In contrast, former drinking was inversely associated with Mets.
Mets is highly prevalent in rural areas of northeast China. Its independent risk factors include higher age, female sex, non-peasantry worker, higher BMI and lower-annual income. Modified ATP III criteria and harmonised definition may be superior definitions of Mets.