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Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Little is known about the neural substrates of suicide risk in mood disorders. Improving the identification of biomarkers of suicide risk, as indicated by a history of suicide-related behavior (SB), could lead to more targeted treatments to reduce risk.
Participants were 18 young adults with a mood disorder with a history of SB (as indicated by endorsing a past suicide attempt), 60 with a mood disorder with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) but not SB, 52 with a mood disorder with no history of SI or SB (MD), and 82 healthy comparison participants (HC). Resting-state functional connectivity within and between intrinsic neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), salience and emotion network (SEN), and default mode network (DMN), was compared between groups.
Several fronto-parietal regions (k > 57, p < 0.005) were identified in which individuals with SB demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity within (in the CCN) and across networks (CCN-SEN and CCN-DMN). Connectivity with some of these same regions also distinguished the SB group when participants were re-scanned after 1–4 months. Extracted data defined SB group membership with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (79–88%).
These results suggest that individuals with a history of SB in the context of mood disorders may show reliably distinct patterns of intrinsic network connectivity, even when compared to those with mood disorders without SB. Resting-state fMRI is a promising tool for identifying subtypes of patients with mood disorders who may be at risk for suicidal behavior.
Frascati international research criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are controversial; some investigators have argued that Frascati criteria are too liberal, resulting in a high false positive rate. Meyer et al. recommended more conservative revisions to HAND criteria, including exploring other commonly used methodologies for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV including the global deficit score (GDS). This study compares NCI classifications by Frascati, Meyer, and GDS methods, in relation to neuroimaging markers of brain integrity in HIV.
Two hundred forty-one people living with HIV (PLWH) without current substance use disorder or severe (confounding) comorbid conditions underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing and brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Participants were classified using Frascati criteria versus Meyer criteria: concordant unimpaired [Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un)], concordant impaired [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Imp)], or discordant [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un)] which were impaired via Frascati criteria but unimpaired via Meyer criteria. To investigate the GDS versus Meyer criteria, the same groupings were utilized using GDS criteria instead of Frascati criteria.
When examining Frascati versus Meyer criteria, discordant Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter, greater sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volume, and greater evidence of neuroinflammation (i.e., choline) than concordant Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. GDS versus Meyer comparisons indicated that discordant GDS(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter and lower levels of energy metabolism (i.e., creatine) than concordant GDS(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. In both sets of analyses, the discordant group did not differ from the concordant impaired group on any neuroimaging measure.
The Meyer criteria failed to capture a substantial portion of PLWH with brain abnormalities. These findings support continued use of Frascati or GDS criteria to detect HIV-associated CNS dysfunction.
Objectives: Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. Methods: 734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. Results: Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. Conclusions: Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507–519)
The increased use of insecticide seed treatments in rice has raised many questions about the potential benefits of these products. In 2014 and 2015, a field experiment was conducted near Stuttgart and Lonoke, AR, to evaluate whether an insecticide seed treatment could possibly lessen injury from acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice. Two IR cultivars were tested (a hybrid, ‘CLXL745’, and an inbred, ‘CL152’), with and without an insecticide seed treatment (thiamethoxam). Four different herbicide combinations were evaluated: a nontreated control, two applications of bispyribac-sodium (hereafter bispyribac), two applications of imazethapyr, and two applications of imazethapyr plus bispyribac. The first herbicide application was to two- to three-leaf rice, and the second immediately prior to flooding (one- to two-tiller). At both 2 and 4 wk after final treatment (WAFT), the sequential applications of imazethapyr or bispyribac plus imazethapyr were more injurious to CLXL745 than CL152. This increased injury led to decreased groundcover 3 WAFT. Rice treated with thiamethoxam was less injured than nontreated rice and had improved groundcover and greater canopy heights. Even with up to 32% injury, the rice plants recovered by the end of the growing season, and yields within a cultivar were similar with and without a thiamethoxam seed treatment across all herbicide treatments. Based on these results, thiamethoxam can partially protect rice from injury caused by ALS-inhibiting herbicides as well as increase groundcover and canopy height; that is, the injury to rice never negatively affected yield.
Most agree that models of binary time-series-cross-sectional data in political science often possess unobserved unit-level heterogeneity. Despite this, there is no clear consensus on how best to account for these potential unit effects, with many of the issues confronted seemingly misunderstood. For example, one oft-discussed concern with rare events data is the elimination of no-event units from the sample when estimating fixed effects models. Many argue that this is a reason to eschew fixed effects in favor of pooled or random effects models. We revisit this issue and clarify that the main concern with fixed effects models of rare events data is not inaccurate or inefficient coefficient estimation, but instead biased marginal effects. In short, only evaluating event-experiencing units gives an inaccurate estimate of the baseline risk, yielding inaccurate (often inflated) estimates of predictor effects. As a solution, we propose a penalized maximum likelihood fixed effects (PML-FE) estimator, which retains the complete sample by providing finite estimates of the fixed effects for each unit. We explore the small sample performance of PML-FE versus common alternatives via Monte Carlo simulations, evaluating the accuracy of both parameter and effects estimates. Finally, we illustrate our method with a model of civil war onset.
The evolution of herbicide resistance is making it extremely difficult for US rice producers to use chemical control on weed species such as barnyardgrass and red rice. To combat herbicide resistance, it is imperative that alternative herbicide sites of action (SOAs) be incorporated into rice whenever possible. There are currently no very-long-chain fatty acid–inhibiting herbicides (WSSA Group 15) labeled for use in US rice; however, pethoxamid is one such herbicide currently under development. If appropriate rice tolerance and weed control can be established, pethoxamid would represent a unique herbicide SOA for use in US rice. We conducted field trials near Stuttgart, AR, in 2015 and near Colt and Lonoke, AR, in 2016 to assess selectivity of pethoxamid and weed control alone and in combination with other herbicides as a delayed preemergence (DPRE) application in drill-seeded rice. Pethoxamid was applied at 0, 420, or 560 g ai ha–1 alone and in combination with clomazone, imazethapyr, pendimethalin, and quinclorac. Minimal rice injury occurred with any treatment assessed. A reduction in rice shoot density and plant height compared to the nontreated control followed the use of pethoxamid; however, no decrease in yield resulted. The highest levels of barnyardgrass control followed the use of imazethapyr at 91% and quinclorac at 89% regardless of the presence of pethoxamid near Lonoke; however, pethoxamid applied at both rates in combination with clomazone and quinclorac increased barnyardgrass control compared to clomazone and quinclorac applied alone. Near Colt, barnyardgrass control of 92% and 96% resulted from pethoxamid alone, averaged over the high and low rates. Based on these data, rice can tolerate pethoxamid when applied DPRE, and adequate levels of barnyardgrass control can be achieved at the rates evaluated within a program; hence, pethoxamid appears to be a viable option for use in rice to allow for increased rotation of herbicide SOAs to combat herbicide-resistant and difficult-to-control weeds.
Each year there are multiple reports of drift occurrences, and the majority of drift complaints in rice are from imazethapyr or glyphosate. In 2014 and 2015, multiple field experiments were conducted near Stuttgart, AR, and near Lonoke, AR, to evaluate whether insecticide seed treatments would reduce injury from glyphosate or imazethapyr drift or decrease the recovery time following exposure to a low rate of these herbicides. Study I was referred to as the “seed treatment study,” and Study II was the “drift timing study.” In the seed treatment study the conventional rice cultivar ‘Roy J’ was planted, and herbicide treatments included imazethapyr at 10.5 g ai ha–1, glyphosate at 126 g ae ha–1, or no herbicide. Each plot had either a seed treatment of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, or no insecticide seed treatment. The herbicides were applied at the two- to three-leaf growth stage. Crop injury was assessed 1, 3, and 5 wk after application. Averaged over site-years, thiamethoxam-treated rice had less injury than rice with no insecticide seed treatment at each rating, along with an increased yield. Clothianidin-treated rice had an increased yield over no insecticide seed treatment, but the reduction in injury for both herbicides was less pronounced than in the thiamethoxam-treated plots. Overall, chlorantraniliprole was generally the least effective of the three insecticides in reducing injury from either herbicide and in protecting rice yield potential. A second experiment conducted at Stuttgart, AR, was meant to determine whether damage to rice from glyphosate and imazethapyr was influenced by the timing (15, 30, and 45 d after planting) of exposure to herbicides for thiamethoxam-treated and nontreated rice. There was an overall reduction in injury with the use of thiamethoxam, but the reduction in injury was not dependent on the timing of the drift event. Reduction in damage from physical drift of glyphosate and imazethapyr as well as increased yields over the absence of an insecticide seed treatment appear to be an added benefit.
Pennsylvania smartweed [Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez] is a common weed of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the midsouthern United States and has recently become a concern for farmers because of reduced tillage systems. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors have been extensively used for controlling smartweeds in imidazolinone-resistant and conventional rice. In the present study, we confirmed resistance to commonly used ALS inhibitors in rice and characterized the underlying resistance mechanism in a P. pensylvanica biotype from southeast Missouri. A dose–response experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using bensulfuron-methyl, imazethapyr, and bispyribac-sodium to determine the resistance index (resistance/susceptibility [R/S]) based on GR50 estimates. The target-site ALS gene was amplified from R and S plants, and sequences were analyzed for mutations known to confer ALS-inhibitor resistance. The P. pensylvanica biotype in question was found to be resistant to bensulfuron-methyl (R/S=2,330), imazethapyr (R/S=12), and bispyribac-sodium (R/S=6). Sequencing of the ALS gene from R plants revealed two previously known mutations (Pro-197-Ser, Ala-122-Ser) conferring resistance to sulfonylureas and imidazolinones. This is the first report of ALS-inhibitor resistance in P. pensylvanica.
Herbicide resistance to several of the most common weed species in US rice production, such as barnyardgrass and red rice, has made weed control extremely difficult with available herbicide options. No very-long-chain fatty acid–inhibiting herbicides are labeled for use in US rice; however, pethoxamid is one such herbicide under development for soil-applied use to control grasses and small-seeded broadleaves in rice and various row crops. Field trials were conducted in 2015 and 2016 near Stuttgart, AR, for rice tolerance and in 2016 near Colt, AR, and Lonoke, AR, for weed control with the use of pethoxamid-containing rice herbicide programs. Pethoxamid was applied alone and in a program at 420 and 560 g ai ha–1 with other herbicides labeled in rice including clomazone, quinclorac, propanil, imazethapyr, and carfentrazone POST. Injury less than 10% was seen for all treatments 2 wk after application in 2015 and 2016, except for pethoxamid at 420 g ha–1 to clomazone to one-leaf rice. Rice injury dissipated to less than 5% following all treatments by 4 wk after flood establishment. Barnyardgrass was controlled 95% or more near Colt and 93% or more near Lonoke for herbicide programs including clomazone PRE followed by pethoxamid plus quinclorac or imazethapyr at three- to four-leaf stage rice. Considering the minimal injury and high levels of barnyardgrass control associated with pethoxamid-containing weed control programs, pethoxamid provides a unique and effective site of action for use in US rice production.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.
Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to evaluate the residual activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)–inhibiting herbicides for monocot crop injury and weed control. Conventional rice, quizalofop-resistant rice, grain sorghum, and corn crops were evaluated for tolerance to soil applications of six herbicides (quizalofop at 80 and 160 g ai ha–1, clethodim at 68 and 136 g ai ha–1, fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1, cyhalofop at 313 g ai ha–1, fluazifop at 210 and 420 g ai ha–1, and sethoxydim at 140 and 280 g ai ha–1). Overhead sprinkler irrigation of 1.3 cm was applied immediately after treatment to half of the plots, and the crops planted into the treated plots at 0, 7, and 14 d after herbicide treatment. In 2014, injury from herbicide treatments increased with activation for all crops evaluated, except for quizalofop-resistant rice. At 14 d after treatment (DAT) in 2014, corn and grain sorghum were injured 19% and 20%, respectively, from the higher rate of sethoxydim with irrigation activation averaged over plant-back dates. Conventional rice was injured 13% by the higher rate of fluazifop in 2014. Quizalofop-resistant rice was injured no more than 4% by any of the graminicides evaluated in either year. In 2015, a rainfall event occurred within 24 h of initiating the experiment; thus, there were no differences between activation via irrigation or by rainfall. However, as in 2014, grain sorghum and corn were injured 16% and 13%, respectively, by the higher rate of sethoxydim, averaged over plant-back dates. All herbicides provided little residual control of grass weeds, mainly broadleaf signalgrass and barnyardgrass. These findings indicate the need to continue allowing a plant-back interval to rice following a graminicide application, unless quizalofop-resistant rice is to be planted. The plant-back interval will vary by graminicide and the amount of moisture received following the application.
With the widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern U.S. rice, new technologies are needed to achieve adequate weed control. A new non–genetically modified rice trait has been commercialized that is resistant to quizalofop, an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide. The addition of quizalofop-resistant rice to production systems will increase the use of quizalofop, possibly increasing the risk for injury to other grass crops. Experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to determine the sensitivity of corn, grain sorghum, and conventional rice to low rates of quizalofop (1/10× to 1/200× of 160 g ai ha–1). Conventional rice was not affected by quizalofop rate or application timing. Corn displayed the greatest response to the 1/10× quizalofop rate at the two- to three-leaf stage, with 50% to 65% injury and 35% to 37% relative yield compared to the nontreated check. Grain sorghum was injured 31% to 34% by the 1/10× quizalofop rate applied at the two- to three-leaf stage, and there was 20% to 26% injury at the panicle exertion growth stage. The highest rate of quizalofop at the panicle exertion stage reduced yields 28% to 46%. Overall, risk for injury to any of the three evaluated crops from quizalofop appears low, with greatest injury observed at the highest quizalofop drift rate, with minimal injury at lower rates.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement.
To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS
American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011–2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined. Pooled SSI rates for colorectal procedures were calculated and risk was evaluated. The independent importance of potential risk factors was assessed using logistic regression.
Of 22 invited NCCN centers, 11 participated (50%). Colorectal procedures were selected by principal procedure current procedural technology (CPT) code. Cancer was defined by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes.
The primary outcome of interest was 30-day SSI rate.
A total of 652 SSIs (11.06%) were reported among 5,893 CRSs. Risk of SSI was similar for patients with and without cancer. Among CRS patients with underlying cancer, disseminated cancer (SSI rate, 17.5%; odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–2.26; P=.001), ASA score ≥3 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09–1.83; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.06–2.53; P=.02), and longer duration of procedure were associated with development of SSI.
Patients with disseminated cancer are at a higher risk for developing SSI. ASA score >3, COPD, and longer duration of surgery predict SSI risk. Disseminated cancer should be further evaluated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in generating risk-adjusted outcomes.
Antineuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis, although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined.
To examine all patients admitted for treatment of FEP for antineuronal antibodies and describe clinical presentations and treatment outcomes in those who were antibody positive.
Individuals admitted for FEP to six mental health units in Queensland, Australia, were prospectively tested for serum antineuronal antibodies. Antibody-positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological assessment and therapy.
Of 113 consenting participants, six had antineuronal antibodies (anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies [n = 4], voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies [n = 1] and antibodies against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Five received immunotherapy, which prompted resolution of psychosis in four.
A small subgroup of patients admitted to hospital with FEP have antineuronal antibodies detectable in serum and are responsive to immunotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to optimise recovery.
Posthodiplostomum minimum utilizes a three-host life cycle with multiple developmental stages. The metacercarial stage, commonly known as ‘white grub’, infects the visceral organs of many freshwater fishes and was historically considered a host generalist due to its limited morphological variation among a wide range of hosts. In this study, infection data and molecular techniques were used to evaluate the host and tissue specificity of Posthodiplostomum metacercariae in centrarchid fishes. Eleven centrarchid species from three genera were collected from the Illinois portion of the Ohio River drainage and necropsied. Posthodiplostomum infection levels differed significantly by host age, host genera and infection locality. Three Posthodiplostomum spp. were identified by DNA sequencing, two of which were relatively common within centrarchid hosts. Both common species were host specialists at the genus level, with one species restricted to Micropterus hosts and the other preferentially infecting Lepomis. Host specificity is likely dictated by physiological compatibility and deviations from Lepomis host specificity may be related to host hybridization. Posthodiplostomum species also differed in their utilization of host tissues. Neither common species displayed strong genetic structure over the scale of this study, likely due to their utilization of bird definitive hosts.