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Conservation tillage adoption continues to be threatened by glyphosate and acetolactate synthase–resistant Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weeds. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2010 through crop harvest in 2013 at two locations in Alabama to evaluate the effect of integrated management practices on weed control and seed cotton yield in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The effects of a cereal rye cover crop using high- or low-biomass residue, followed by wide or narrow within-row strip tillage and three PRE herbicide regimens were evaluated. The three PRE regimens were (1) pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1 applied broadcast, (2) pendimethalin plus fomesafen applied banded on the row, or (3) no PRE. Each PRE treatment was followed by (fb) glyphosate (1.12 kg ae ha−1) applied POST fb layby applications of diuron (1.12 kg ai ha−1) plus monosodium methanearsonate (2.24 kg ai ha−1). Low-residue plots ranged in biomass from 85 to 464 kg ha−1, and high-biomass residue plots ranged from 3,119 to 6,929 kg ha−1. In most comparisons, surface disturbance width, residue amount, and soil-applied herbicide placement did not influence within-row weed control; however, broadcast PRE resulted in increased carpetweed, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, tall morning-glory, and yellow nutsedge weed control in row middles compared with plots receiving banded PRE. In addition, high-residue plots had increased carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, sicklepod, and tall morning-glory weed control between rows. Use of banded PRE herbicides resulted in equivalent yield and revenue in four of six comparisons compared with those with broadcast PRE herbicide application; however, this would likely result in many between-row weed escapes. Thus, conservation tillage cotton would benefit from broadcast soil-applied herbicide applications regardless of residue amount and tillage width when infested with Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weed species.
Despite advances in endovascular interventions, including the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES), high target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates still burden the treatment of symptomatic lower-limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD). EluviaTM, a novel, sustained-release, paclitaxel-eluting DES, was shown to further reduce TLRs when compared with the paclitaxel-coated Zilver® PTX® stent, in the IMPERIAL randomized controlled trial. This evaluation estimated the cost-effectiveness of Eluvia when compared with Zilver PTX in Australia, based on 12-month clinical outcomes from the IMPERIAL trial.
A state-transition, decision-analytic model with a 12-month time horizon was developed from an Australian public healthcare system perspective. Cost parameters were obtained from the Australian National Hospital Cost Data Collection Cost Report (2016–17). All costs were captured in Australian dollars (AUD), where AUD 1 = USD 0.69 (June 2020). Complete sets of clinical parameters (primary patency loss, TLR, amputation, and death) and cost parameters from their respective distributions were bootstrapped in samples of 1,000 patients, for each intervention arm of the model. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
At 12 months, modeled TLR rates were 4.5 percent for Eluvia and 8.9 percent for Zilver PTX, and mean total direct costs were AUD 6,537 [USD 4,511] and AUD 6,908 [USD 4,767], respectively (Eluvia average per patient savings; overall cohort=AUD 371 [USD 256]; diabetic cohort=AUD 625 [USD 431]). In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, Eluvia was cost-effective relative to Zilver PTX in 92.0 percent of all simulations at a threshold of $10,000 per TLR avoided. Eluvia was more effective and less costly (dominant) than Zilver PTX in 76.0 percent of simulations.
In the first year after the intervention, Eluvia was more effective and less costly than Zilver PTX, making Eluvia the dominant treatment strategy for treatment of symptomatic lower-limb PAD, from an Australian public healthcare system perspective. These findings should be considered when formulating policy and practice guidelines in the context of priority setting and making evidence-based resource allocation decisions for treatment of PAD in Australia.
Interstellar signals might be intermittent for many reasons, such as targeted sequential transmissions, isotropic broadcasts that are not 'on' continuously or many other reasons. The time interval between such signals would be important, because searchers would need to observe for long enough to achieve an initial detection and possibly determine a period. This article suggests that: (1) the power requirements of interstellar transmissions could be reduced by orders of magnitude by strategies that would result in intermittent signals, (2) planetary rotation might constrain some transmissions to be intermittent and in some cases to have the period of the source planet, and (3) signals constrained by planetary rotation might often have a cadence in the range of 10–25 h, if the majority of planets in our Solar system are taken as a guide. Extended observations might be needed to detect intermittent signals and are rarely used in SETI but are feasible, and seem appropriate when observing large concentrations of stars or following up on good candidate signals.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is doubled when a patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 starts haemodialysis. Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be independently associated with increased risk of SCD and all cardiac death in haemodialysis patients. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA; 20:5n-3, EPA and 22:6n-3, DHA) may exert anti-arrhythmic effects on cardiac myocytes. Haemodialysis patients have lower serum LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to populations without CKD. Few studies have investigated the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA and HRV in patients with CKD. This study aimed to characterise the variability of LC n-3 PUFA status in patients who recently commenced haemodialysis, and to investigate relationships between LC n-3 PUFA status and HRV. A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults aged 40–80 years with CKD commencing haemodialysis (within 6–10 weeks) (NRES research ethics committee ref: 14/LO/0186). At 2 separate study days, pre-dialysis blood samples were taken to measure fatty acid composition by GC, and HRV monitors (Actiheart, CamNtech Ltd, UK) were fitted after dialysis had started to monitor parameters of cardiac autonomic function during dialysis, during the night, and for a total of 24 h. Forty-five patients (mean age 58 y, SD 9, 20 females/25 males) completed data collection at least once; 91% presented hypertension and 39% had type 2 diabetes. Sample mean omega-3 index (O3I; EPA + DHA as a % of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes) was very low (3.45%, SD 1.25; median 3.26 %, IQR 1.32); only 2 individuals had O3I > 5%. Variability in erythrocyte EPA (median 0.66 %, IQR 0.42) and DHA (median 2.40 %, IQR 1.32) was limited. Most HRV parameters did not significantly correlate with O3I following adjustment (e.g. age, BMI, β-blockers). Plasma EPA significantly positively correlated with overall and longer phase components of HRV and significantly negatively correlated with beat-to-beat variability over 24 h after full adjustment for confounders. This suggests that although higher circulating EPA concentrations were associated with better cardiac responsivity to environmental stimulations over 24 h, they were also associated with poorer parasympathetic tone (the predominant influence on beat-to-beat HRV). No correlations were observed between plasma DHA and HRV. The divergent pattern of relationships between plasma EPA versus DHA and HRV raises the theory that patients commencing haemodialysis may have compromised conversion of EPA to DHA which may impair vagally-mediated regulation of cardiac autonomic function, a potential mechanism for high risk of SCD.
Interesterified (IE) fats are widely used to replace partially-hydrogenated fats as hard fats with functional and sensory properties needed for spreads/margarines, baked goods, and confectionary, while avoiding the health hazards of trans fats. Detailed mechanistic work to determine the metabolic effects of interesterification of commonly-consumed hard fats has not yet been done. Earlier studies using fats less commonly consumed have shown either neutral or a lowering effect on postprandial lipaemia. We investigated postprandial lipaemia, lipoprotein remodelling, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction apolipoprotein concentrations following a common IE blend of palm oil/kernel fractions versus its non-IE counterpart, alongside a reference monounsaturated (MUFA) oil. A 3-armed, double blind, randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03191513) in healthy adults (n = 20; 10 men, 10 women) aged 45–75 y, assessed effects of single meals (897 kcal, 50 g fat, 16 g protein, 88 g carbohydrate) on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations, lipoprotein profiles, and TRL fraction apolipoprotein B48 and TAG concentrations. Test fats were IE 80:20 palm stearin/palm kernel fat, the equivalent non-IE fat, and a high-MUFA reference oil (rapeseed oil, RO). Blood was collected at baseline and hourly for 8 h. Linear mixed modelling was performed, adjusting for treatment order and baseline values (ver. 24.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Total 8 h incremental area under the curves (iAUC) for plasma TAG concentrations were lower following IE and non-IE compared with RO (mean difference in iAUC: non-IE vs. RO -1.8 mmol/L.h (95% CI -3.3, -0.2); IE vs. RO -2.6 mmol/L.h (95% CI -5.3, 0.0)), but iAUCs for IE and non-IE were not significantly different. There were no differences between IE and non-IE for chylomicron fraction apoB48 concentrations nor TAG:apoB48 ratio. No differences were observed between IE and non-IE for lipoprotein (VLDL, HDL, LDL) particle size or sub-class particle concentrations. However, LDL particle diameters were reduced at 5 and 6 h following IE vs RO (P < 0.05). XXL- (including chylomicron remnants and VLDL particles), XL- and L-VLDL particle concentrations (average diameters > 75, 64, and 53.6 nm respectively) were higher following IE and non-IE vs. RO at 6 h (P < 0.05) and 8 h postprandially (P < 0.005–0.05). In conclusion, both IE and non-IE palmitic acid-rich fats generated a greater preponderance of pro-atherogenic large TRL remnant particles in the late postprandial phase relative to an oleic acid-rich oil. However, the process of interesterification did not modify postprandial TAG response or lipoprotein metabolism.
Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20–C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40–70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference −67 ms; 95 % CI −130, −3·4, P<0·05), but there were no significant differences over 24 h or during sleep. Vegans had higher overall HRV, measured as 24 h standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) (mean adjusted difference 27 ms; 95 % CI 1, 52, P=0·039). Conversely, vegans presented with decreased 8 h day-time HRV: mean adjusted difference in SDNN −20 ms; 95 % CI −37, −3, P=0·021, with no differences during nocturnal sleep. Day-time parameters of beat-to-beat HRV (root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals, percentage of adjacent normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.
We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a human half of Earth. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
We establish links between countable algebraically closed graphs and the endomorphisms of the countable universal graph R. As a consequence we show that, for any countable graph Γ, there are uncountably many maximal subgroups of the endomorphism monoid of R isomorphic to the automorphism group of Γ. Further structural information about End R is established including that Aut Γ arises in uncountably many ways as a Schützenberger group. Similar results are proved for the countable universal directed graph and the countable universal bipartite graph.
This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform individuals’ social and environmental concerns over food systems. Community participation in urban food production can promote a learning process that generates political understanding and concerns over food systems. We use the education theories of transformative learning and critical consciousness to discuss how Australian urban food production systems can create this social and environmental support for alternative food systems. By having control over food production practices and building collective understandings of how food choices impact global food systems, elements of food sovereignty can develop in an Australian urban context.
Background: “Mapping” onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies.
Methods: In the absence of previously published reporting checklists or reporting guidance documents, a de novo list of reporting items was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. A two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies, and the biomedical journal editorial community was used to identify a list of essential reporting items from this larger list.
Results: From the initial de novo list of twenty-nine candidate items, a set of twenty-three essential reporting items was developed. The items are presented numerically and categorized within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract, (ii) introduction, (iii) methods, (iv) results, (v) discussion, and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document.
Conclusions: It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency. and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years’ time.
In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.