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Diet has been shown to have an effect on both inflammation and oesophageal cancer. This study investigated the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and the risk of oesophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. A case–control study was conducted during 2008–2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi. DII scores were calculated based on dietary intake assessed by a validated FFQ administered to 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Higher DII scores indicate more pro-inflammatory diets. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between DII scores and oesophageal cancer risk. Oesophageal cancer patients had a significantly higher median DII score (−0·35; interquartile range (IQR)=−2·25, 1·86) than that of controls (−1·41; IQR −3·07, 0·40). Multivariable logistic analysis revealed a positive association between higher DII scores and oesophageal cancer risk (ORQuartile 4 v. 1 2·55; 95 % CI 1·61, 4·06; Ptrend<0·001). A pro-inflammatory diet appears to be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Specific carcinogenic mechanisms are discussed. Accumulating evidence, to which the study contributes, indicates that encouraging the intake of more anti-inflammatory foods may be a strategy to protect against oesophageal cancer in this high-risk area of China.
This paper describes the characteristics of damage, introduced under different conditions of diamond wire sawing, on the Si wafer surfaces. The damage occurs in the form of frozen-in dislocations, phase changes, and microcracks. The in-depth damage was determined by conventional ways such as TEM, SEM and angle-polishing/defect-etching, which only provide local information. We have also applied a new technique based on sequential measurement of the minority carrier lifetime after etching thin layers from the surfaces to determine average damage depth and its in-depth distribution. The lateral spatial damage variations, which seem to be mainly related to wire reciprocation process, were observed by photoluminescence and lifetime mapping. Our results show a strong correlation of damage depth on the diamond grit size and wire usage.
Short-term randomised, controlled trials have found that dietary protein relative to carbohydrate can reduce blood pressure. Our objective was to investigate the effects on blood pressure of an increase in protein intake from whey over 2 years in women aged over 70 years. From the general population, 219 women aged between 70 and 80 years were recruited to a 2-year randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-design trial: 181 women completed the trial to the end of year 2. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a daily whey protein-based beverage (protein) or an energy-matched low-protein high-carbohydrate beverage (control). Blood pressure measurements were performed at baseline, year 1 and year 2. For protein relative to control, the estimated mean net differences in protein and carbohydrate intakes were 18 (95 % CI 13, 23) and − 22 (95 % CI − 9, − 35) g/d at year 1, and 22 (95 % CI 17, 28) and − 18 (95 % CI − 6, − 31) g/d at year 2. Intention-to-treat analysis found no overall differences between groups in blood pressure (P>0·5). Net differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were − 2·3 (95 % CI − 5·3, 0·7) and − 1·5 (95 % CI − 3·6, 0·6) mmHg at year 1, and 1·6 (95 % CI − 1·5, 4·7) and 0·3 (95 % CI − 1·9, 2·4) mmHg at year 2. Similar differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure at years 1 and 2 were observed with per-protocol analysis. Therefore, the present study did not provide evidence that a higher whey protein intake in older women can have prolonged effects on blood pressure.
The Western Australian Health Department’s Go for 2&5® campaign aimed to increase adults’ awareness of the need to eat more fruit and vegetables and encourage increased consumption of one serving over five years.
The multi-strategy fruit and vegetable social marketing campaign, conducted from 2002 to 2005, included mass media advertising (television, radio, press and point-of-sale), public relations events, publications, a website (www.gofor2and5.com), and school and community activities. Campaign development and the evaluation framework were designed using health promotion theory, and assessed values, beliefs, knowledge and behaviour. Two independent telephone surveys evaluated the campaign: the Campaign Tracking Survey interviewed 5032 adults monitoring fruit and vegetable attitudes, beliefs and consumption prior to, during and 12 months after the campaign; and the Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 17 993 adults between 2001 and 2006, continuously monitoring consumption.
Population public health intervention–social marketing campaign in Western Australia, population of 2 010 113 in 2005.
Adults in the Perth metropolitan area.
The campaign reached the target audience, increasing awareness of the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables. There was a population net increase of 0.8 in the mean number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day over three years (0.2 for fruit (1.6 in 2002 to 1.8 in 2005) and 0.6 for vegetables (2.6 in 2002 to 3.2 in 2005), significant at P < 0.05).
Sustained, well-executed social marketing is effective in improving nutrition knowledge, attitudes and consumption behaviour. The Go for 2&5® campaign provides guidance to future nutrition promotion through social marketing.
To document the infant feeding practices of Maldivian mothers.
A cross-sectional survey of 251 Maldivian mothers recruited in 2004 from the ‘well baby’ or ‘well child’ clinics on the island of Male' and including 75 mothers from three other islands, Hura, Himmafushi and Thulusdhoo.
The full breast-feeding rate at hospital discharge was 93% but declined to 41% at 4 months. Any breast-feeding rates were high among Maldivian mothers: 100% at 1 month and 85% were still breast-feeding at 6 months. The median duration of breast-feeding was 24 months.
Breast-feeding rates are high and the average duration of breast-feeding is more than 2 years in the Maldives. Health promotion activities should be directed towards maintaining the already high ‘any breast-feeding’ rates and increasing the proportion of infants exclusively breast-fed to 6 months.
Good control of steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN)
during the continuous casting process is essential for improving surface quality
and reducing cleanliness defects. Argon bubbles, biased flow and alumina deposits
may all contribute to actual flow differing from the ideal case. The steel flow
visualization project aims to penetrate the “black box”, which is the SEN, using
electromagnetic techniques. A sensor array consisting of transmitter and receiver
coils is positioned around an SEN and the resultant signals are compared to those
from pilot plant measurements designed to simulate known continuous casting conditions.
To provide a simple means of ”real time“ recognition of emergence from post-traumatic amnesia (PTA).
Ninety-one patients with traumatic brain injury (PBI); 53 minor (GCS 13-15), 19 moderate (GCS 9-12), 18 severe (GCS 3-8). Twenty-seven control subjects treated at two regional trauma units for their acute phase and followed in a hospital-based research institute were studied prospectively. Subjects were examined repeatedly following injury with the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) and tests of their ability to learn and retain new information. Word triplets balanced for concreteness and frequency were presented. Immediate and 24-hour recall were tested. If 24-hour recall was imperfect, recognition was tested by presenting the 3 target words and 6 distracters. The target words were then re-presented and recall was tested the next day. The time intervals to first perfect recognition and first free perfect recall were compared with the patients' first GOAT score of 75 or greater on 2 successive days. Simple line drawings of common objects were also presented to the subjects using an identical paradigm. The outcome measures were GOAT, 3-word recognition and recall, 3 picture recognition and recall.
For all categories of head injury severity, the median interval to perfect free recall of words followed the achievement GOAT criterion by a significant interval. The mean GOAT scores for perfect 3-word recall and recognition corresponding to minor, moderate and severe injuries were 97, 90 and 88, and 97, 76 and 68 respectively. The recognition and recall of pictures preceded the recognition and recall of words by approximately 1 day.
The orientation measures of the GOAT that contain material that the patient knew prior to injury obscure the determination of recovery of continuous memory and should be tested separately. Three-word recall which is simpler to administer than the GOAT is a more reliable measure of emergence from PTA. For patients who are dysphasic or who do not share a common language with the examiner, 3-picture recognition and recall may substitute for word recognition and recall.
A collection (164) of isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica
made predominantly from cats (132)
but also from dogs (15), pigs (12) and other species was examined by pulsed
electrophoresis following macrorestriction digestion with XbaI.
isolate was analysed twice
and the patterns were entirely reproducible. The isolates fell into 17
different strains (>3 bands different) and within strains there were
numerous subtypes. Feline isolates fell into 12 of
the 17 strains. In general, cats housed together had similar or identical
strains and subtypes of
B. bronchiseptica. There was no difference in the PFGE patterns
of isolates made from carrier
cats and those from cats with respiratory disease. Isolates from pigs and
dogs were in general
similar to the feline isolates and there was no great evidence for
species specificity. The PFGE
pattern of feline and canine isolates were more related to whether the
animals were housed
together rather than whether they came from dogs or cats.
Working rules for determining plot size and number of plots within a block in field experiments are proposed based on the value of the intrablock correlation (ρ), which can be obtained from the analysis of variance of a randomized-block experiment. The method uses Binns' (1982) equation to relate this correlation to Smith's (1938) empirical law. The rules are: (1) if ρ is greater than 0·5, use an incomplete block design or reduce the plot size in order to increase the number of replications; (2) if ρ is less than 0·1, an increase in plot size is effective; (3) if ρ is between 0·1 and 0·5, an increase in plot size and a decrease in the number of plots per block may be helpful in combination.
In Quebec commercial apple orchards, spider populations are shown to have been depressed numerically by current pest management practices. Hunting species appeared to be more sensitive to insecticides than web-building species. There were large differences in spider distribution among orchards and years, although some consistent patterns were observed. Specimens from the following families were captured: Theridiidae, Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Araneidae, Erigonidae, Clubionidae, Tetragnathidae, Dictynidae, Salticidae, Philodromidae, and Thomisidae. In orchards treated only for scab control or with only a single insecticide application for apple maggot control, spiders attained their maximal numbers in August. With two treatments for apple maggot control, spiders attained their maximal numbers towards the end of September.
The third High Energy Astronomical Observatory, HEAO-3 was launched on the 20th Sept., 1979 into a 496 km, 43.6° orbit, and has since been successfully returning data from all three experiments on board. One of these experiments, that intended to study the heavy and ultra heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation, is described here.
During 1977, a detailed study was undertaken to develop efficient sampling procedures for estimating egg and larval populations of the alfalfa blotch leafminer, Agromyza frontella (Rond.), in Vernal alfalfa. Distributions of the stages within and between stems were contagious and stem totals tended to follow negative binomial distributions. Within stems, the density of eggs and larval mines increased exponentially from base to tip. Taking these patterns and the costs of sampling into account, and using the relevant components of variance, four leaves taken systematically from a single stem is proposed as the appropriate sample unit for both eggs and mines. On this basis, 200 stems per field will give adequate precision (less than 10% of the mean with confidence probability 90%) for population estimates. However, the propensity of the leafminer to prefer the middle leaflet to the basal leaflets in the approximate ratio 3:4:3 suggests that sampling costs may be further reduced by restricting counts to the middle leaflet and raising them by a factor of 2.5.
Fifteen life tables were compiled from population and mortality data collected in the Quinte area of eastern Ontario during the 5-year period, 1972–76, that spanned the rise and fall of an outbreak of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyll.).
Components analysis of the data showed that a disease of the feeding larvae caused by Entomophthora phytonomi Arthur, a fungus new to the insect in North America, was the principal determinant of intrageneration survival. Multivariate analysis of the separate mortalities, expressed as k-values, confirmed that this agent was the key factor governing population trends of the weevil and was mainly responsible for its population decline.
Examination of the properties of the various mortality factors showed that E. phytonomi was density dependent but overcompensating. Other agents, including the parasitoids Bathyplectes curculionis (Thom.) and Tetrastichus incertus (Ratz.) acted in a density independent manner and contributed little to population trend.
The discovery of the Sutton Hoo ship-burial in the summer of 1939 opened a window on the early Anglo-Saxon world through which we have all since been looking. But the view has inevitably been blurred until now, lacking the precise definition which only the publication of the definitive study could provide. The first of the four volumes of this most eagerly awaited and often anticipated account has now appeared: it is an offering worthy of its subject, comprehensive, generous in detail, splendidly produced.
Chemical, optical, and X-ray data are presented for pyroxenes from a representative selection of chondrites. The Mg-Fe pyroxenes originally crystallized above 1000-1200 °C as the protoenstatite-protohypersthene polymorph, and inverted on cooling to the polysynthetically twinned clinoenstatite-clinohypersthene polymorph. In most chondrites the latter became converted to orthopyroxene during recrystallization at temperatures ranging up to 900 to 950 °C. The contents of certain minor elements changed during the clino-ortho inversion. Ancestral protoenstatiteprotohypersthene may have been slightly non-stoichiometric. Accessory Ca-rich pyroxenes are discussed briefly.
Petrological and chemical analyses of stone, bronze and iron implements are playing an increasingly important role in the study of prehistoric economies. Their contributions, long familiar to students of European prehistory, were recently discussed in a paper which also reviewed the evidence from Polynesia, Melanesia and Australia (Clark, 1965). Apart from some studies limited to stone artefacts from individual archaeological sites, these techniques have not previously been applied to material from Australian prehistory (Gutsche in McBryde, 1966; Branagan and Megaw, 1969). In this brief communication we present some of the results of a petrological analysis of ground-edge artefacts from north-eastern New South Wales.
The widespread dispersal of stone for axe-making based on organized exploitation of definite quarry sites is well documented in the historical and anthropological literature for eastern Australia at the time of European settlement. Unfortunately few of these historical records are sufficiently detailed, so even for the recent past as well as for prehistory, techniques of petrological analysis may make vital contributions to our knowledge both of quarry sites in eastern Australia and of the distribution of their products. Our preliminary discussion here is based on an investigation of some 200 axes mainly taken from the archaeological collections in the History Department of the University of New England and various local museum and private collections, but also including axes from northern New South Wales in the Australian collections of the British Museum, the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and the Anthropological Museum of Aberdeen University.
Section 54 of the Mental Health (Scotland) Act, 1960, enables a court to remand to hospital for psychiatric examination and report persons charged with an offence who also appear to be mentally disordered. This article reviews this section of the Act in its practical aspects as experienced by the consultant staff of one Scottish mental hospital during the two-year period 1965–6.
The following review deals with all persons remanded for trial or sentence in 1965 and 1966 on whom psychiatric reports were furnished by senior psychiatric staff of Leverndale Hospital, excluding those remanded directly to hospital under Section 54 of the Mental Health (Scotland) Act, 1960, this latter group having been the subject of a previous article by ourselves.