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High-power fiber lasers have experienced a dramatic development over the last decade. Further increasing the output power needs an upscaling of the fiber mode area, while maintaining a single-mode output. Here, we propose an all-solid anti-resonant fiber (ARF) structure, which ensures single-mode operation in broadband by resonantly coupling higher-order modes into the cladding. A series of fibers with core sizes ranging from 40 to 100 μm are proposed exhibiting maximum mode area exceeding 5000 μm2. Numerical simulations show this resonant coupling scheme provides a higher-order mode (mainly TE01, TM01, and HE21) suppression ratio of more than 20 dB, while keeping the fundamental mode loss lower than 1 dB/m. The proposed structure also exhibits high tolerance for core index depression.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
In this work ice breaking caused by a pair of interacting collapsing bubbles was studied by an experimental approach. The bubbles were generated by an underwater electric discharge simultaneously, positioned either horizontally or vertically below a floating ice plate and observed via high-speed photography. The bubble-induced shock waves, which turn out to be crucial to the fracturing of the ice, were visualized using a shadowgraph method and also measured using pressure transduces. Unique bubble behaviour was observed, including bubble coalescence, bubble splitting, inclined counter-jets and asymmetric toroidal bubble collapse. Bubble dynamic properties, such as jet speed, jet energy and bubble centre displacement, were measured. Shock wave emission and ice breaking capability of the two bubbles were investigated over a range of inter-bubble and bubble–boundary distances. Regions where the damaging potential of the bubble pair are strengthened or weakened were summarized and possible reasons for the variation in the ice breaking capability were analysed based on bubble morphology, jet characteristics and shock wave pressure. The findings may contribute to more efficient ice breaking and also inspire new ways to manipulate cavitation bubble damage.
The experimental study on thermocapillary convection in liquid bridges of large Prandtl number has been carried out on Tiangong-2 in space. The purpose of these experiments is to study the oscillation instability of thermocapillary convection, and to discover and recognize the mechanism of destabilization of thermocapillary convection in the microgravity environment in space. In this paper, the geometry of a half-floating-zone liquid bridge is featured by the aspect ratio Ar and volume ratio Vr, and its influence on critical conditions of oscillatory thermocapillary convection is studied. More than 700 sets of space experiments have been finished. The critical conditions and oscillation characteristics of thermocapillary convection instability in the Ar–Vr parameter space have been fully obtained under microgravity conditions for the first time. It is found that the Ar–Vr parameter space can be divided into two regions of different critical conditions and oscillation characteristics: the region of low frequency oscillation, and the region of high frequency oscillation. More importantly, we obtain the complete configuration of these two stability neutral curves, and find that the low frequency mode is a ‘’ type curve. Based on this, we discuss the influence of heating rate on the oscillation mode. It is found that the heating rate affects the selection of critical mode, which results in a jump change of critical temperature difference. The findings of this study are helpful to better understand the critical modes and transition processes of thermocapillary convection in liquid bridges with different configurations.
This work focuses on using the power of a collapsing bubble in ice breaking. We experimentally validated the possibility and investigated the mechanism of ice breaking with a single collapsing bubble, where the bubble was generated by underwater electric discharge and collapsed at various distances under ice plates with different thicknesses. Characteristics of the ice fracturing, bubble jets and shock waves emitted during the collapse of the bubble were captured. The pattern of the ice fracturing is related to the ice thickness and the bubble–ice distance. Fractures develop from the top of the ice plate, i.e. the ice–air interface, and this is attributed to the tension caused by the reflection of the shock waves at the interface. Such fracturing is lessened when the thickness of the ice plate or the bubble–ice distance increases. Fractures may also form from the bottom of the ice plate upon the shock wave incidence when the bubble–ice distance is sufficiently small. The ice plate motion and its effect on the bubble behaviour were analysed. The ice plate motion results in higher jet speed and greater elongation of the bubble shape along the vertical direction. It also causes the bubble initiated close to the ice plate to split and emit multiple shock waves at the end of the collapse. The findings suggest that collapsing bubbles can be used as a brand new way of ice breaking.
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect is considered to be one of the main obstacles for power scaling in general-type fiber lasers. Different from previous techniques that aim at suppressing SRS, nonlinear fiber amplifier (NFA), which manipulates and employs the SRS for power scaling in rare-earth-doped fiber, is under intensive research in recent years. In this paper, the authors will present an all-round study on this new kind of high-power fiber amplifier. A theoretical model is proposed based on the rate equation and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), with random noise taken into account. By numerical solving of the theoretical model, the power scaling potential, heat analysis and advantages in suppressing the undesired backscattering light are quantificationally analyzed for the first time. Then two different types of high-power NFAs are demonstrated individually. Firstly, a laser diode pumped NFA has reached kilowatt output power, and the results agree well with theoretical predictions. Secondly, a tandem-pumped NFA is proposed for the first time and validated experimentally, in which 1.5 kW output power has been achieved. The authors also briefly discuss several new issues relating to the complex nonlinear dynamics that occur in high-power NFAs, which might be interesting topics for future endeavors.
In this paper, we experimentally investigated the extreme frequency shift in high-power Raman fiber laser (RFL). The RFL was developed by using a pair of fiber Bragg gratings with fixed and matched central wavelength (1120 nm) combined with a piece of 31-m-long polarization maintaining (PM) passive fiber adopted as Raman gain medium. The pump source was a homemade high-power, linearly polarized (LP) wavelength-tunable master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) source with
tunable working range (1055–1080 nm). High-power and high-efficiency RFL with extreme frequency shift between the pump and Stokes light was explored. It is found that frequency shift located within 10.6 THz and 15.2 THz can ensure efficient Raman lasing, where the conversion efficiency is more than 95% of the maximal value, 71.3%. In addition, a maximum output power of 147.1 W was obtained with an optical efficiency of 71.3%, which is the highest power ever reported in LP RFLs to the best of our knowledge.
Compared with traditional uniform fibers, tapered fiber has numerous unique advantages, such as larger mode area, higher pump absorption, suppression to nonlinear effects, and maintaining good beam quality. In this manuscript, we have constructed an all-fiberized fiber amplifier which is based on a piece of ytterbium-doped tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF). The fiber amplifier is operated under continuous wave (CW) regime at 1080 nm wavelength. The
factor of the amplifier at 1.39 kW output power is
. The maximum output power of the system reached 1.47 kW, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest output power of long tapered fiber based fiber laser system. Our result successfully verifies the potential of power scalability and all-fiberized capability of long tapered fiber, and the performance of our system can be further enhanced by fiber design optimization.
This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the RNAhybrid software, and KEGG pathways associated with these genes were analysed. A total of 18 555 913 and 20 847 000 effective reads were obtained from the test and control groups, respectively. In total, 373 known and 399 novel miRNAs were detected in the test group, and 358 known and 232 novel miRNAs were uncovered in the control group. A total of 35 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the test group compared to the control group, including 10 up-regulated miRNAs and 25 down-regulated miRNAs. Of these miRNAs, miR-223 exhibited the highest degree of up-regulation with an approximately 3-fold increase in expression, whereas miR-26a exhibited the most decreased expression level (more than 2-fold). The RNAhybrid software predicted 18 801 genes as potential targets of these 35 miRNAs. Furthermore, several immune response and signal transduction pathways, including the RIG-I-like receptor signalling pathway, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and Notch signal pathway, were enriched in these predicted targets. In summary, this study provided experimental evidence for the mechanism underlying the regulation of bovine mastitis by miRNAs and showed that miRNAs might be involved in signal pathways during S. agalactiae-induced mastitis.
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner is a major leaf pest of sugarcane. Widely distributed, it affects both the yield and quality of sugarcane in China. This study aimed to assess real yield and sugar yield losses, and the effect of C. lanigera damage on emergence of newly planted and ratoon cane under current production levels. Field experiments were carried out from 2014 to 2016 in Yunnan Province China. At maturity, plants were harvested and weighed to determine yield, and the effect on sugarcane quality and sucrose content analyzed. Real yield decreased by average of 46,185 kg hm−2 (range: 37,545–61,845 kg hm−2) in damaged versus undamaged areas, with an average yield loss rate of 35.9% (28.5–45.7%). Juice yield decreased by an average of 3.01% (2.4–4.13%) and sucrose content by 6.38% (5.48–8.16%). Juice brix decreased by an average of 7.66°BX (6.95–9.05°BX) and juice gravity purity by 12.35% (8.43–19.97%). In contrast, the reducing sugar content increased by an average of 1.21% (1.01–1.3%). Emergence rates of newly planted cane decreased by an average of 26.0% (24.7–27.3%). The emergence number of ratoon cane decreased by 66,834 hm2 (57,429–76,238 hm−2) and relative emergence loss rates of ratoon cane decreased by an average of 57.8% (57.6–58.0%). These findings confirm that C. lanigera damage severely affects sugarcane yield and quality in Yunnan Province. The results will help the implementation of effective control measures, thereby supporting sustainable development of the Chinese sugar industry.
Biological hydrogel is important in drug delivery system and tissue engineering. In this paper, we prepared a series of biological hydrogels with N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) and oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II (oxidized SLWP-II). Morphological analysis indicated the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized SLWP-II hydrogels (CSLHs) had porous interior structures, pore diameter ranged from tens to hundreds of micrometers. In vitro release test showed, with proportion of N,O-carboxymethyl CS to oxidized SLWP increasing from 1:1 to 1:3, cumulative release of bovine serum albumin decreased from 99 to 82%. In vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the developed hydrogels were not cytotoxic during one week of culturing with WI-38 cells, and they have a role in promoting cell proliferation. So the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II hydrogels might have potential application in the drug delivery system and tissue engineering.
Charged particle diagnostics is one of the required techniques for implosion areal density diagnostics at the SG-III facility. Several proton spectrometers are under development, and some preliminary areal density diagnostics have been carried out. The response of the key detector, CR39, to charged particles was investigated in detail. A new track profile simulation code based on a semi-empirical model was developed. The energy response of the CR39 detector was calibrated with the accelerator protons and alphas from a 241Am source. A proton spectrometer based on the filtered CR39 detector was developed, and D–D primary proton measurements were implemented. A step range filter spectrometer was developed, and preliminary areal density diagnostics was carried out. A wedged range filter spectrometer array made of Si with a higher resolution was designed and developed at the SG-III facility. A particle response simulation code by the Monte Carlo method and a spectra unfolding code were developed. The capability was evaluated in detail by simulations.
A novel coaxial relativistic transit-time oscillator with low guiding magnetic field is proposed and investigated to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. With the coaxial structure and a quasi body wave adopted as the operating mode, the device has a larger space-charge limiting current, higher power handling capacity, and lower guiding magnetic field. Moreover, for further improving the output power, a coaxial TM02 mode resonant reflector is well designed. Main structure parameters of the device are optimized by particle in cell simulations. A typical simulation result is that, with a 358 keV, 7.25 kA beam guided by a magnetic field of about 0.7 T, an 810 MW microwave pulse at 14.25 GHz is generated, yielding a conversion efficiency of about 31%. The primary experiments are also carried out. At a low guiding magnetic field of 0.7 T, a microwave pulse with power of 400 MW, pulse duration of 30 ns, frequency of 14.3 GHz close to the simulation one, and efficiency of 15.4% is generated.
The intensity distributions of a high-power broadband laser beam passing through a nonlinear optical medium with defects and then propagating in free space are investigated based on the general nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the split-step Fourier numerical method. The influences of the bandwidth of the laser beam, the thickness of the medium, and the defects on the light intensity distribution are revealed. We find that the nonlinear optical effect can be suppressed and that the uniformity of the beam can be improved for a high-power broadband laser beam with appropriate wide bandwidth. It is also found that, under the same incident light intensity, a thicker medium will lead to a stronger self-focusing intensity, and that the influence of defects in the optical elements on the intensity is stronger for a narrowband beam than for a broadband beam.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare testicular tissue in immunized and control boars. Eighteen male piglets, aged 12 weeks, were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a maltose-binding protein–gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer peptide (MBP-GnRH-I6). Blood samples were taken at 12, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Serum concentrations of testosterone and GnRH-I antibodies were determined by radioimmunoassay. The pigs were sacrificed 6 weeks after the second immunization. Testicular weight and size were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The results demonstrated that active immunization against MBP-GnRH-I6 increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (P < 0.05) and reduced serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) when compared with controls. Histological studies performed on testicular tissue revealed clear signs of atrophy in the MBP-GnRH-I6 immunized pigs, and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in paired testes weight and size were seen in the treated boars. Microscopically, the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). Spermatogonia were visible, as well as few spermatocytes, but no spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Ultramicroscopic analysis of testicular tissue revealed an increase in the thickness of the basement membrane and extensive damage in the cell organelles of the treated animals, including small spermatogonial size, decreased number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the primary spermatocyte and spermatid, a shallow hollow for nuclear membranes in Sertoli cells and mitochondrial vacuolation in Leydig cells. We conclude that MBP-GnRH-I6 induces severe atrophy in the testes of immunized boars.
New single-buffer layers of YBiO3 and SmBiO3 have been proposed for YBa2Cu3O7−y (YBCO) and SmBa2Cu3O7−y coated conductors. Highly c-axis oriented YBiO3 and SmBiO3 buffer layers have been deposited on single-crystal LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, respectively, by a low-cost chemical solution deposition method in a temperature range as low as 730 to 800 °C in air. Precursor solution of yttrium nitrate, samarium nitrate, and bismuth nitrate has been deposited using spin coating and heat treated in air in a single stage to yield textured YBiO3 and SmBiO3 buffers. A very dense, smooth, pinhole-free, and crack-free morphology has been observed for both buffers. Dense, homogeneous, and epitaxially grown YBCO film with thickness about 300 nm has been obtained on YBiO3 buffer with onset critical temperature 90 K and Jc (77 K, self-field) over 3 MA/cm2. These results offer an effective alternative to prepare desirable buffer layer(s) for YBCO-coated conductors.
During approximately the past five decades, changes in snow cover, mountain glaciers, frozen ground (including permafrost), sea ice and river ice have been observed in China. However, most data were published in Chinese and thus unknown to the international communities. Here we review these published results to show an overview of cryospheric changes in China for the last ~50 years. Long-term variability of snow cover over the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau (QXP) is characterized by large interannual variability superimposed on a continuously increasing trend. Glacier changes in western China vary remarkably in different regions. Although in most mountains the glaciers display a retreating trend (~80%) or have even vanished, some glaciers (~20%) are still advancing. Frozen ground (including permafrost) has experienced a rapid decay since the 1980s, and these changes are occurring both in the QXP and in the cold regions of north China. Sea-ice areas in the Bohai and north Yellow Seas have been shrinking since the 1970s. Interannual variations possibly relate to the solar cyles, and sea-ice extent extremes relate to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The freeze-up and break-up dates of river ice in north China in the 1990s are, on average, 1–6 days later and 1–3 days earlier, respectively, than the 1950s–1990 mean. Frozen duration and the maximum thickness of river ice are, respectively, 4–10 days shorter and 0.06–0.21cm thinner in the 1990s than the average.
Magnetic field amplification by the motion of an electrically conducting fluid is studied, using a rotating plane-layer geometry. The fluid flow is driven by convection, and by a moving bottom boundary, which leads to an Ekman layer localized at the base of the system. The system thus has the structure of an interface dynamo, with convection lying over a thin layer of shear.
The combination of shear in the Ekman layer and convection above leads to amplification of seed magnetic fields. In kinematic regimes the magnetic field is mostly localized in sheets in the shear layer, but thin tongues are pulled out by the convection above and folded. The nonlinear saturation of these growing fields is studied at moderately high values of magnetic Reynolds number and Taylor number. It is found that the sheets of field tend to gain fine-scale structure when the dynamo saturates, breaking up into tubes, and the fluid flow shows complex time-dependence. Although the magnetic field lies predominantly within the highly sheared Ekman layer, this flow remains remarkably unchanged despite the action of Lorentz forces. Instead, the effect of the field is to suppress or modify the convection above. A simple alpha-omega dynamo model is set up, and gives some insights into the dynamo processes occurring in the full magnetohydrodynamic simulation.