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This study evaluated the association between dietary patterns, gas-related symptoms (GRS) and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in a representative sample (n 936) of the French adult population. During the 2018–2019 ‘Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France’ survey (Behaviors and Food Consumption in France), online evaluation of GRS in adult participants was performed using the validated Intestinal Gas Questionnaire (IGQ), which captures the perception of GRS and their impact on QoL via six symptom dimensions scores (range 0–100; 100 = worse) and a global score (mean of the sum of the six symptom dimensions scores). Socio-demographics, lifestyle parameters and dietary habits (7-d e-food diary) were also collected online. Quality of diet was determined using the Nutrient-Rich Food 9.3 (NRF9.3) score (range 0–900; 900 = best). Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with IGQ global score. K-means was used to identify clusters of subjects based on their dietary records. Data from 936 adults who completed both the IGQ and the food diary showed a mean IGQ global score of 11·9 (sd 11·2). Younger age and female sex were associated with a higher IGQ global score. Only 7 % of subjects reported no symptom at all and nearly 30 % of study participants reported a high impact of GRS on their QoL. Two dietary clusters were identified: cluster 1, characterised by a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, lower sugars intake and higher NRF9.3 score and cluster 2, characterised by higher intake of sugars, lower intake in dietary fibres and lower NRF9.3 score. The IGQ global score was lower in cluster 1 and higher in cluster 2 v. the total sample average (P < 0·001). The prevalence of GRS in the French adult population is high and is associated with impaired QoL and dietary patterns. A change in food habits towards healthier patterns could help reducing the burden of GRS.
In, essentially, all species where meiotic crossovers (COs) have been studied, they occur preferentially in open chromatin, typically near gene promoters and to a lesser extent, at the end of genes. Here, in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana, we unveil further trends arising when one considers contextual information, namely summarised epigenetic status, gene or intergenic region size, and degree of divergence between homologs. For instance, we find that intergenic recombination rate is reduced if those regions are less than 1.5 kb in size. Furthermore, we propose that the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms enhances the rate of CO formation compared to when homologous sequences are identical, in agreement with previous works comparing rates in adjacent homozygous and heterozygous blocks. Lastly, by integrating these different effects, we produce a quantitative and predictive model of the recombination landscape that reproduces much of the experimental variation.
Social anxiety (SA), a prevalent comorbid condition in psychotic disorders with a negative impact on functioning, requires adequate intervention relatively early. Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for SA (CBT-SA) that we developed for youth who experienced the first episode of psychosis (FEP). For our primary outcome, we hypothesized that compared to the active control of group cognitive remediation (CR), the CBT-SA group would show a reduction in SA that would be maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. For secondary outcomes, it was hypothesized that the CBT-SA group would show a reduction of positive and negative symptoms and improvements in recovery and functioning.
Ninety-six patients with an FEP and SA, recruited from five different FEP programs in the Montreal area, were randomized to 13 weekly group sessions of either CBT-SA or CR intervention.
Linear mixed models revealed that multiple measures of SA significantly reduced over time, but with no significant group differences. Positive and negative symptoms, as well as functioning improved over time, with negative symptoms and functioning exhibiting a greater reduction in the CBT-SA group.
While SA decreased over time with both interventions, a positive effect of the CBT-SA intervention on measures of negative symptoms, functioning, and self-reported recovery at follow-up suggests that our intervention had a positive effect that extended beyond symptoms specific to SA.
Patients with psychiatric disorders are exposed to high risk of COVID-19 and increased mortality. In this study, we set out to assess the clinical features and outcomes of patients with current psychiatric disorders exposed to COVID-19.
This multi-center prospective study was conducted in 22 psychiatric wards dedicated to COVID-19 inpatients between 28 February and 30 May 2020. The main outcomes were the number of patients transferred to somatic care units, the number of deaths, and the number of patients developing a confusional state. The risk factors of confusional state and transfer to somatic care units were assessed by a multivariate logistic model. The risk of death was analyzed by a univariate analysis.
In total, 350 patients were included in the study. Overall, 24 (7%) were transferred to medicine units, 7 (2%) died, and 51 (15%) patients presented a confusional state. Severe respiratory symptoms predicted the transfer to a medicine unit [odds ratio (OR) 17.1; confidence interval (CI) 4.9–59.3]. Older age, an organic mental disorder, a confusional state, and severe respiratory symptoms predicted mortality in univariate analysis. Age >55 (OR 4.9; CI 2.1–11.4), an affective disorder (OR 4.1; CI 1.6–10.9), and severe respiratory symptoms (OR 4.6; CI 2.2–9.7) predicted a higher risk, whereas smoking (OR 0.3; CI 0.1–0.9) predicted a lower risk of a confusional state.
COVID-19 patients with severe psychiatric disorders have multiple somatic comorbidities and have a risk of developing a confusional state. These data underline the need for extreme caution given the risks of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.
The interpersonal dependency inventory comprised three subscales called Emotional reliance of another person (ER), lack of social self confidence (LSS) and Assertion of autonomy (AUT). Several formula have been developed for deriving whole-scale scores.
The aim of the study on 621 addictive subjects was to determine the best formula using the DSM-IV dependent personality disorder as gold standard. The formula 3 ER + LSS – AUT yielded the best values of sensitivity and specificity.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of the self-critical and dependent depressive experiences in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients and to explore the impact of adverse childhood experiences on these dimensions of personality.
A sample of 94 anorexic and 61 bulimic patients meeting DSM-IV criteria and 236 matched controls were assessed with the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ), the abridged version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the AMDP Life Events Inventory. Subjects presenting a major depression or a comorbid addictive disorder were excluded from the sample using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
Anorexic and bulimic patients showed higher scores than controls on both self-criticism and dependency sub-scales of the DEQ. Bulimic patients scored significantly higher than anorexic patients on self-criticism and reported more adverse childhood experiences. Finally, negative life events correlated only with self-criticism in the whole sample.
Differences in the DEQ Self-Criticism between anorexics and bulimics could not be accounted for by depression since bulimic patients did not show higher BDI levels compared to anorexic patients and depressive symptoms measured with the BDI were not found to be significant predictors of diagnostic grouping in a logistic multiple regression.
This study supports the diagnostic specificity of the dependent and self-critical depressive dimensions in eating disorders and strengthens previous research on the role of early experiences in the development of these disorders.
The high-Alpine ice-core drilling site Colle Gnifetti (CG), Monte Rosa, Swiss/Italian Alps, provides climate records over the last millennium and beyond. However, the full exploitation of the oldest part of the existing ice cores requires complementary knowledge of the intricate glacio-meteorological settings, including glacier dynamics. Here, we present new ice-flow modeling studies of CG, focused on characterizing the flow at two neighboring drill sites in the eastern part of the glacier. The3-D full Stokes ice-flow model is thermo-mechanically coupled and includes firn rheology, firn densification and enthalpy transport, and is implemented using the finite element software Elmer/Ice. Measurements of surface velocities, accumulation, borehole inclination, density and englacial temperatures are used to validate the model output. We calculate backward trajectories and map the catchment areas. This constrains, for the first time at this site, the so-called upstream effects for the stable water isotope time series of the two ice cores drilled in 2005 and 2013. The model also provides a 3-D age field of the glacier and independent ice-core chronologies for five ice-core sites. Model results are a valuable addition to the existing glaciological and ice-core datasets. This especially concerns the quantitative estimate of upstream conditions affecting the interpretation of the deep ice-core layers.
This work presents the synthesis of minerals with a layered structure in supercritical water/ethanol mixtures to decrease the critical coordinates of the solvent regarding water. Depending on the water/ethanol ratio of the solvent, we obtained three different minerals adopting an octahedral brucitic sheet: (1) without a Si-tetrahedral sheet (O); (2) associated with one Si-tetrahedral sheet (T-O); or (3) intercalated between two Si-tetrahedral sheets (T-O-T). We have thus shown that ethanol in a supercritical water/ethanol mixture changes the solubility of silicon with a direct consequence on the formation of the tetrahedral silicon sheets and thus makes it possible to control the structure of the synthesized layered material.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36–54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months.
Non-demented older adults (n = 446) underwent Aβ neuroimaging and BDNF Val66Met genotyping. EM and HV were assessed at baseline and 18 months later. Fasted blood samples were obtained from each participant at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Aβ PET neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ– or Aβ+.
At baseline, Aβ+ adults showed worse EM impairment and lower serum mBDNF levels relative to Aβ- adults. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not affect serum mBDNF, EM, or HV at baseline. When considered over 18-months, compared to Aβ– Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Val homozygotes showed significant decline in EM and HV but not serum mBDNF. Similarly, compared to Aβ+ Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Met carriers showed significant decline in EM and HV over 18-months but showed no change in serum mBDNF.
While allelic variation in BDNF Val66Met may influence Aβ+ related neurodegeneration and memory loss over the short term, this is not related to serum mBDNF. Longer follow-up intervals may be required to further determine any relationships between serum mBDNF, EM, and HV in preclinical AD.
Initial results en route toward construction of complex magnetic core-shell silica and organosilica nanotheranostics are presented. Magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by three different methods and embedded within mesoporous silica and organosilica frameworks by different surfactant-templated procedures to produce three types of core-shell nanoparticles. Magnetite nanoparticles (15 nm in diameter) are embedded within mesoporous silica nanoparticles to produce cell-like material with predominantly one magnetite nuclei-resembling core per nanoparticle, with final particle diameter of ca. 150 nm, specific surface area of 573 m2/g and hexagonally structured tubular pores (2.6 nm predominant diameter), extended throughout the volume of nanoparticles. Two forms of spherical core-shell nanoparticles composed of magnetite cores embedded within mesoporous organosilica shells are also obtained by employing ethylene and ethane bridged organobisalkoxysilane precursors. The obtained nanomaterials are characterized by high surface area (978 and 820 m2/g), tubular pore morphology (2 and 2.8 nm predominant pore diameters), different diameters (386 and 100-200 nm), in case of ethylene- and ethane-composed organosilica shells, respectively. Different degree of agglomeration of magnetite nanoparticles was also observed in the obtained materials, and in the case of utilization of surfactant-pre-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles for the syntheses, their uniform and non-agglomerated distribution within the shells was noted.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh.
ThabouillotO, PerrierP, RocheNC, AgardD, BarbierO, MartinG, ViantE, LeclereJB. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343–345.
Medical savings accounts (MSAs) allow enrolees to withdraw money from earmarked funds to pay for health care. The accounts are usually accompanied by out-of-pocket payments and a high-deductible insurance plan. This article reviews the association of MSAs with efficiency, equity, and financial protection. We draw on evidence from four countries where MSAs play a significant role in the financing of health care: China, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States of America. The available evidence suggests that MSA schemes have generally been inefficient and inequitable and have not provided adequate financial protection. The impact of these schemes on long-term health-care costs is unclear. Policymakers and others proposing the expansion of MSAs should make explicit what they seek to achieve given the shortcomings of the accounts.
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and laboratory signs for the diagnosis of septic arthritis (SA).
Patients and methods
This prospective study included all adult patients with suspected SA seen in the emergency department or rheumatology department at the University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, over a period of 18 months.
In total, 105 patients with suspected SA were included, 38 (36%) presenting with SA (29 [28%] with bacteriologically documented SA). In the univariate analysis, chills (p=0.015), gradual onset (p=0.04), local redness (p=0.01), as well as an entry site for infection (p=0.01) were most often identified in SA. A history of crystal-induced arthritis (p=0.004) was more frequent in non-SA cases. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)>50 mm (p=0.005), a C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100 mg/L (p=0.019), and radiological signs suggestive of SA (p=0.001) were more frequent in the SA cases. Synovial fluid appearance: purulent (p<0.001) and clear (p=0.007), synovial white blood cell (WBC) count >50,000/μL (p < 0.001), differentiated between SA and non-SA.
In multivariate analysis, only chills (odds ration [OR]=4.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–17.1), a history of crystal-induced arthritis (OR=0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.9), purulent appearance of the joint fluid (OR=8.4, 95% CI 2.4–28.5), synovial WBC count >50,000/mm3 (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.3–36), and radiological findings (OR=7.1, 95% CI 13–37.9) remained significant.
No clinical sign or laboratory test (excluding bacteriological test), taken alone, is conclusive for the differentiation between SA and non-SA, but the association of several signs, notably chills, history of crystal-induced arthritis, radiological findings, and the appearance and cellularity of joint fluid may be suggestive.
This paper presents an original characterization method of trapping phenomena in gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors (GaN HEMTs). This method is based on the frequency dispersion of the output-admittance that is characterized by low-frequency S-parameter measurements. As microwave performances of GaN HEMTs are significantly affected by trapping effects, trap characterization is essential for this power technology. The proposed measurement setup and the trap characterization method allow us to determine the activation energy Ea and the capture cross-section σn of the identified traps. Three original characterizations are presented here to investigate the particular effects of bias, ageing, and light, respectively. These measurements are illustrated through different technologies such as AlGaN/GaN and InAlN/GaN HEMTs with non-intentionally doped or carbon doped GaN buffer layers. The extracted trap signatures are intended to provide an efficient feedback to the technology developments
The flow of Glacier d’Argentière, French Alps, has been extensively studied by glaciologists for >100 years, but high-temporal- and high-spatial-resolution monitoring of its dynamics has rarely been carried out. In this paper, the terminal part of the main glacier was selected to undertake such a survey. The 2 month experiment (September–November 2013) included remote sensing to map the velocity field of the whole area, and a network of in situ measurements to record the ice velocity at the surface as well as at the base of the glacier with high precision and at high temporal resolution. These monitoring methods are combined to produce a comprehensive and reliable picture of the ice flow. Basal and surface in situ measurements are used to precisely monitor the temporal variability of the ice flow at a section of the glacier where crevassed areas and non-cracked ice coexist. The achieved results are an innovative and efficient tool to investigate the acceleration/deceleration pattern heterogeneities in ice flow that occur after heavy rainfall.