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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
We aimed to validate a method for assessing trans-fatty acid (TFA) intake in the Japanese population using the FFQ developed in the 1990s from a prospective study that was based on the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study. For FFQ validation, we included 565 participants (Cohort I: n 215, Cohort II: n 350) aged 40–69 years. We used a 28-d dietary record (DR) over 1 year and two FFQ administered before and after DR assessment. We calculated total TFA intake, TFA from industrial oils (i-TFA) and TFA from ruminants (r-TFA) considering a database of measurements obtained mainly from Japan. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (CC) were computed for validity and reproducibility. Energy adjustments were applied using two methods considering the TFA measurement: density method for TFA % of total energy and residual method for TFA g/d. The total TFA intake (% of the total energy intake) was 0·08–0·76 % (median, 0·27–0·37 %) in DR of both cohorts and was 0·00–1·13 % (median, 0·30–0·40 %) in FFQ. The i-TFA accounted for approximately 50 % of the total TFA intake in DR and approximately 40 % in FFQ. For total TFA (% of the total energy intake), CC were 0·54–0·69, and weighted κ coefficients were 0·88–0·92 for both cohorts. The de-attenuated CC was 0·46–0·62 for i-TFA (g/d) and 0·57–0·68 for r-TFA (g/d). Our study showed that the validity and reproducibility of TFA intake estimation using the FFQ were reasonable, suggesting its suitability among the Japanese population with low-TFA intake.
Reducing Na intake is an urgent global challenge, especially in East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions. However, the sources of Na and their effects on urinary Na excretion have not been fully studied. We sought to clarify these sources and their association with urinary Na excretion. We examined four 3-d weighed food records and five 24-h urinary collections from each of 253 participants in Japan, aged 35–80 years, between 2012 and 2013. We compared the levels of Na according to four categories: foods contributing to discretionary or non-discretionary Na intake, the situation in which dishes were cooked and consumed, food groups and types of cuisine. We also conducted regression analysis in which 24-h urinary Na excretion was a dependent variable and the amounts of food intake in the four categories were independent variables. Levels of Na were the highest in discretionary intake (60·6 %) and in home-prepared dishes (84·0 %). Of the food groups, miso soup showed the highest percentage contribution to Na intake (13·3 %) after seasonings such as soya sauce. In the regression analysis, the standardised coefficient for foods of non-discretionary Na sources was larger than that for discretionary sources, whereas that for home-prepared dishes was consistent with the levels of Na in those foods. Pickled products, followed by fresh fish and shellfish, miso soup and rice, were associated with high urinary Na excretion. Thus, discretionary foods (such as miso soup) contribute the most to Na consumption, although non-discretionary intake (such as pickled vegetables) may influence urinary Na excretion.
The association between the intake of non-alcoholic beverages and CVD in Asians is uncertain. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages was estimated in 77 407 participants of the Japan Public Health Centre-based cohort study aged 45–74 years. The Cox regression calculated the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for incident CVD according to sex-specific quintiles of intake of non-alcoholic beverages. A total of 4578 incident CVD (3751 strokes and 827 CHD) were diagnosed during a 13·6-year median follow-up. The risks of stroke and total CVD were lower for the highest v. lowest intake quintiles of non-alcoholic beverages in men and women: the multivariable HRs (95 % CIs) were 0·82 (0·71, 0·93, Ptrend = 0·005) and 0·86 (0·76, 0·97, Ptrend = 0·02), respectively, in men and were 0·73 (0·63, 0·86, Ptrend = 0·003) and 0·75 (0·65, 0·87, Ptrend = 0·005), respectively, in women. The reduced risk was evident for both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and was mainly attributable to green tea consumption. The intake of non-alcoholic beverages from coffee and other beverages was not associated with the risk of CVD in both men and women. Also, there was no association between the intake of non-alcoholic beverages and the risk of CHD in either sex. In conclusion, the risks of stroke and total CVD were lower with a higher intake of non-alcoholic beverages in Japanese men and women.
We examine the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a subsample of participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study using a database of polyphenol-containing foods commonly consumed in the Japanese population. Participants of the validation study were recruited from two different cohorts. In Cohort I, 215 participants completed a 28-d dietary record (DR) and the FFQ, and in Cohort II, 350 participants completed DRs and the FFQ. The total polyphenol intake estimated from the 28-d DR and FFQ were log-transformed and adjusted for energy intake by the residual method. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQ and 28-d DR as well as two FFQs administered at a 1-year interval were computed. Median intakes of dietary polyphenols calculated from the DRs were 1172 mg/d for men and 1024 mg/d for women in Cohort I, and 1061 mg/d for men and 942 mg/d for women in Cohort II. The de-attenuated CCs for polyphenol intake between the DR and FFQ were 0⋅47 for men and 0⋅37 for women in Cohort I and 0⋅44 for men and 0⋅50 for women in Cohort II. Non-alcoholic beverages were the main contributor to total polyphenol intake in both men and women, accounting for 50 % of total polyphenol intake regardless of cohort and gender, followed by alcoholic beverages and seasoning and spices in men, and seasoning and spices, fruits and other vegetables in women. The present study showed that this FFQ had moderate validity and reproducibility and is suitable for use in future epidemiological studies.
We sought to examine the prospective associations of specific fruit consumption, in particular flavonoid-rich fruit (FRF) consumption, with the risk of stroke and subtypes of stroke in a Japanese population. A study followed a total of 39 843 men and 47 334 women aged 44–76 years, and free of CVD, diabetes and cancer at baseline since 1995 and 1998 to the end of 2009 and 2012, respectively. Data on total and specific FRF consumption for each participant were obtained using a self-administrated FFQ. The hazard ratios (HR) of stroke in relation to total and specific FRF consumption were estimated through Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 13·1 years, 4091 incident stroke cases (2557 cerebral infarctions and 1516 haemorrhagic strokes) were documented. After adjustment for age, BMI, study area, lifestyles, dietary factors and other risk factors, it was found that total FRF consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0·70; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·84), while the association in men was not significant (HR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·09). As for specific FRF, consumptions of citrus fruits, strawberries and grapes were found associated with a lower stroke risk in women. Higher consumptions of FRF, in particular citrus fruits, strawberries and grapes, were associated with a lower risk of developing stroke in Japanese women.
Although the association between fruit consumption and CHD risk has been well studied, few studies have focused on flavonoid-rich fruits (FRF), in particular strawberries and grapes. We aimed to verify the association of total and specific FRF consumption with risk of CHD by a large prospective cohort study. A total of 87 177 men and women aged 44–75 years who were free of CVD and cancer at study baseline were eligible for the present analysis. FRF consumption was assessed using a FFQ. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of CHD in relation to FRF consumption with adjustment for potential risk factors and confounders. During a mean follow-up of 13·2 years, we identified 1156 incident CHD cases. After full adjustment for covariates including demographics, lifestyles and dietary factors, the HR were 0·93 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·11), 0·91 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·11), 0·84 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·04) and 0·78 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·99) for the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles compared with the lowest quintile of FRF consumption. Regarding specific fruits, we observed a significant inverse association for citrus fruit consumption and a borderline inverse association for strawberry consumption, while no association was observed for apple/pear or grape consumption. Although the associations appeared to be stronger in women, they were not significantly modified by sex. Higher consumption of FRF, in particular, citrus fruits, may be associated with a lower risk of developing CHD.
Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; Ptrend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; Ptrend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; Ptrend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; Ptrend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.
Limited and inconsistent associations between cholesterol and egg consumption and type 2 diabetes risk have been observed in Western countries. In the present study, the association of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with type 2 diabetes risk was examined prospectively. The study subjects comprised 27 248 men and 36 218 women aged 45–75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no histories of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Dietary cholesterol and egg intakes were estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years were estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 1165 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Although dietary cholesterol intake was not associated with type 2 diabetes risk in men, it was found to be associated with a 23 % lower odds of type 2 diabetes risk in women in the highest quartile of intake, albeit not statistically significant, compared with those in the lowest quartile (Ptrend= 0·08). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among postmenopausal women; the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest quartile of cholesterol intake compared with the lowest quartile was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·94; Ptrend= 0·04). No association between egg intake and type 2 diabetes risk was found in either men or women. In conclusion, higher intake of cholesterol or eggs may not be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations. The observed association between decreased type 2 diabetes risk and higher dietary cholesterol intake in postmenopausal women warrants further investigation.
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