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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Given a hereditary property of graphs
, the edit distance function
is asymptotically the maximum proportion of edge additions plus edge deletions applied to a graph of edge density p sufficient to ensure that the resulting graph satisfies
. The edit distance function is directly related to other well-studied quantities such as the speed function for
-chromatic number of a random graph.
be the property of forbidding an Erdős–Rényi random graph
, and let
represent the golden ratio. In this paper, we show that if
, then a.a.s. as
Moreover, this holds for
A primary tool in the proof is the categorization of p-core coloured regularity graphs in the range
. Such coloured regularity graphs must have the property that the non-grey edges form vertex-disjoint cliques.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations as part of the disease. Previous neuroimaging studies showed brain connectivity dysfunction among HCV-infected patients
To assess, by MR in resting state, the potential structural and connectivity changes before (BL) and after HCV eradication (FU12) with direct-acting antivirals (DAA), along with clinical parameters.
Twenty-one HCV-patients, aged≤55 years, without psychiatric history, nor advanced liver disease, and eligible for DAA, and 25 healthy controls were included. Evaluations were performed at BL and FU12. Brain volume and local gyrification index (LGI) were assessed in MR-T1, and functional connectivity by seed-based analysis (left insula). Depression (MADRS/PHQ9) and neurotoxicity symptomatology (NRS) were assessed. We compared patients between BL/FU12, and controls by means of paired/independent T-test analysis.
Substained virologycal response was obtained in all patients (100%). Depressive and neurotoxicity symptomatology improved after cure (p<0.01). HCV-patients showed a reduced volume in a right latero-occipital area compared to controls (CWP<0.005) in both BL and FU12. This difference was smaller between FU12 and controls. LGI was higher in FU12-HCV compared to BL-HCV. fMRI connectivity showed a high association between insula and occipital/parietal territories in patients than controls, being higher among BL-HCV and controls. Differences were limited to occipital areas among FU12-HCV and controls.
Neuropsychiatric symptomatology improved after cure. Left insula is altered among HCV-patients in structured and connectivity (mainly occipital areas). After cure differences with controls were reduced, suggesting a partial restoration of brain connectivity.
Age-related vascular changes have long been documented as an etiopathogenic factor of some geriatric depressive syndromes. More recently, it has emerged the concept of “Vascular Depression” recognizing that cardiovascular disease may predispose, precipitate or perpetuate late life depression. This condition was defined by an episode of major depressive disorder within the preceding 12 months in elderly with cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease, or major cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular Depression isn`t described in DSM-V, and that difficults clinical recognition and affects clinically informed systematic studies.
Regarding a clinical case, we enphasize the clinical impact of Vascular Depression`s hypothesis.
We present a qualitative review of this topic using the Pubmed Central database.
74 years old male patient, with major depressive disorder about ten years. Depressive and cognitive symptoms didn`t respond to antidepressive treatment and his functional state has gradually declined.
Vascular depression develops after the 60 – 65 years in the absence of personal and family history of affective disorder. The key symptoms are low energy, anhedonia, deficits in selfinitiation, psychomotor retardation, reduced processing speed and lack of insight into mood symptoms. Clinical assessment includes a review of history of vascular risk factors or/and disease, but also an imagiological evidence demonstrating subcortical white matter abnormalities. Insidious and chronic course tends to delay its recognition and management. This becomes critical because Vascular Depression is associated with poor response to antidepressant treatment and persistent depressive symptoms. It`s also associated with poor selfmanagement of comorbidities and impairment in daily function. Increased mortality from all causes is widely documented.
Relapse prevention is a key objetive for patients with a First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and the low adherence to antipsychotic (AP) treatment is the main reason for relapse after a FEP.
There are no clear recommendations about the early use of long-acting injectables (LAIs) in FEP. We review the impact on hospitalization rates of the early use (earlier than 1 year after the inclusion in our Early Intervention Service “Lehenak”) of LAI paliperidone in a FEP sample.
We evaluated in a naturalistic study a sample (N=384) of patients with a FEP. We carried out a mirror-design study to compare the numer of hospitalizations before and after the introduction of LAI paliperidone (1 and 3 monthly) in early users (<1 year) vs late users (>1 year).
A total of 384 FEP patients with LAI paliperidone were assessed.
Early Paliperidone LAI (n=201)
Late Paliperidone LAI (n=173)
Within groups comparisons t (p)
Hospitalizations pre-LAI mirror period (media, standard deviation)
Days in hospital pre-LAI mirror period
Hospitalizations post-LAI mirror period
Days in hospital post-LAI mirror period
There was no difference between the early and late introduction of LAI Paliperidone in the number of hospitalizations after treatament. There was a trend to present more previous hospitalizations and days in hospital in late users. This could support an earlier use of paliperidone LAI to prevent an excess of hospitalizations due to late introduction.
The presenting author has received honouraria for lectures or advisory boards from Janssen, Otsuka, Lundbeck and Angelini in the last five years.
Perinatal mental health symptoms commonly remain underdiagnosed in maternity care settings in the UK, with the COVID-19 pandemic having further disrupted access to adequate care provision. Digital technologies may offer innovative ways to support the mental health needs of women and partners and assist midwives in recognition of concerns.
We set to investigate the current state of perinatal mental healthcare provision in the UK and the acceptability of a digital mental health assessment.
The study entailed completing an online survey. 829 women, 103 partners, and 90 midwives participated in the study. Quantitative data were explored using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses regarding the perceived benefits and barriers to using a digital mental health assessment were investigated using thematic analysis. Resultant themes were then mapped onto the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation Model of Behaviour (COM-B model).
The provision of perinatal mental healthcare support was limited and varied across respondents, particularly throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a strong interest in using a digital mental health assessment placed within maternity healthcare settings to screen, diagnose, and triage concerns (Figure 1). In-person and blended care approaches (i.e., in-person and remote support) were preferred by women and partners in the event of further care being advised (Figure 1). Identified barriers and benefits mainly related to physical opportunity (e.g., accessibility), psychological capability (e.g., cognitive skills) and automatic motivation (e.g., emotions).
This study provides proof-of-concept support for the development of a digital mental health assessment to inform clinical decision-making for perinatal mental health concerns.
NMK has financial interest in Psyomics Ltd., a company developing digital diagnostic devices for neuropsychiatric disorders.
The last meal of Tollund Man, a bog body from Early Iron Age Denmark, has been re-examined using new analyses of plant macrofossils, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, steroid markers and proteins found in his gut. Some 12–24 hours before he was killed, he ate a porridge containing barley, pale persicaria and flax, and probably some fish. Proteins and eggs from intestinal worms indicate that he was infected with parasites. Although the meal may reflect ordinary Iron Age fare, the inclusion of threshing waste could possibly relate to ritual practices. This re-analysis illustrates that new techniques can throw fresh light on old questions and contribute to understanding life and death in the Danish Early Iron Age.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
The growth of inequality over the past half century is closely connected to the rise of neoliberal policies and institutions, the latter of which shield capital from state actions that might limit wealth accumulation. Economic nationalism since the global financial crisis has slowed or even reversed this, yet this same era has seen the emergence of a new form of instrument in the neoliberal mold, in a stronghold of state sovereignty: taxation. Under mandatory binding tax arbitration, states cede sovereignty over the interpretation of international tax agreements to panels of transnational tax adjudicators. Focusing on the pivotal role of the United States, we use historical documents, including from the congressional archive and interviews with key actors to ask why tax arbitration emerged late in the neoliberal era, and at a counterintuitive time. We demonstrate that this outcome is the result of instrumental business power driving a process of incremental change through layering, to overcome states’ preference to retain sovereignty. This experience sheds light on the historically structured ways that business power constrains sovereignty in an era of high inequality.
Examine pre-existing learning disorders (LD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as risk factors for prolonged recovery and increased symptomology following pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children/adolescents (5-17 years) with mTBI who presented to a Children’s Minnesota Concussion Clinic between April 2018 and March 2019. Differences across strata of pre-existing conditions (present vs. absent) in time to recovery measures were estimated via Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses and differences in symptom trajectories were examined via linear mixed-effects regression models. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex and other confounders.
In our cohort of 680 mTBI patients, those with LD (n = 70) or ADHD (n = 107) experienced significantly longer median durations of symptoms (58 and 68 days, respectively) than those without (43 days). Accordingly, LD was significantly associated with delayed symptom recovery (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.16–2.29), return to school (1.47, 1.08–2.00), and return to physical activity (1.50, 1.10–2.04). Likewise, ADHD was associated with delayed recovery (1.69, 1.28–2.23), return to school (1.52, 1.17–1.97) and physical activity (1.55, 1.19–2.01). Further, patients with LD or ADHD reported, on average, significantly more concussion symptoms and higher vision symptom scores throughout recovery versus those without. There was no evidence that concussion or vision symptom recovery trajectories varied over time between those with/without LD or ADHD (joint P-interactions > 0.05).
Pre-existing LD and ADHD are risk factors for prolonged and more symptomatic mTBI recovery in youth. These results can inform clinical concussion management and recovery expectations.
Biofortified yellow cassava has been developed to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. We examined the potential contribution of yellow cassava to total retinol activity equivalent (RAE) intake if replacing white by yellow cassava among pre-school Nigerian children. Dietary intake was assessed as part of a randomised controlled trial. Pre-schoolchildren (n 176) were randomly assigned to receive either white cassava (WC) or yellow cassava (YC) for 17 weeks. Dietary intake assessments were conducted during the intervention and 1 month after, when children had resumed their habitual diet. Differences in RAE intake between groups and time points were compared using a linear mixed model regression analysis. During intervention, median RAE intake was 536 µg/d in the YC group and 301 µg/d in the WC group (P < 0·0001). YC contributed approximately 40 % to total RAE intake. Of the children, 9 % in the YC group and 29 % in the WC group had RAE intake below the Estimated Average Requirement. After intervention, median RAE intake was 300 µg/d and did not differ between intervention groups (P = 0·5). The interaction effect of group and time showed a 37 % decrease in RAE intake in the YC group after the intervention (Exp(β) = 0·63; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·72). If WC was replaced by YC after intervention, the potential contribution of YC to total RAE intake was estimated to be approximately 32 %. YC increased total RAE intake and showed a substantially lower inadequacy of intake. It is therefore recommended as a good source of provitamin A in cassava-consuming regions.
Recently, artificial intelligence-powered devices have been put forward as potentially powerful tools for the improvement of mental healthcare. An important question is how these devices impact the physician-patient interaction.
Aifred is an artificial intelligence-powered clinical decision support system (CDSS) for the treatment of major depression. Here, we explore the use of a simulation centre environment in evaluating the usability of Aifred, particularly its impact on the physician–patient interaction.
Twenty psychiatry and family medicine attending staff and residents were recruited to complete a 2.5-h study at a clinical interaction simulation centre with standardised patients. Each physician had the option of using the CDSS to inform their treatment choice in three 10-min clinical scenarios with standardised patients portraying mild, moderate and severe episodes of major depression. Feasibility and acceptability data were collected through self-report questionnaires, scenario observations, interviews and standardised patient feedback.
All 20 participants completed the study. Initial results indicate that the tool was acceptable to clinicians and feasible for use during clinical encounters. Clinicians indicated a willingness to use the tool in real clinical practice, a significant degree of trust in the system's predictions to assist with treatment selection, and reported that the tool helped increase patient understanding of and trust in treatment. The simulation environment allowed for the evaluation of the tool's impact on the physician–patient interaction.
The simulation centre allowed for direct observations of clinician use and impact of the tool on the clinician–patient interaction before clinical studies. It may therefore offer a useful and important environment in the early testing of new technological tools. The present results will inform further tool development and clinician training materials.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Whereas scholars have typically modeled climate change as a global collective action challenge, we offer a dynamic theory of climate politics based on the present and future revaluation of assets. Climate politics can be understood as a contest between owners of assets that accelerate climate change, such as fossil fuel plants, and owners of assets vulnerable to climate change, such as coastal property. To date, obstruction by “climate-forcing” asset holders has been a large barrier to effective climate policy. But as climate change and decarbonization policies proceed, holders of both climate-forcing and “climate-vulnerable” assets stand to lose some or even all of their assets' value over time, and with them, the basis of their political power. This dynamic contest between opposing interests is likely to intensify in many sites of political contestation, from the subnational to transnational levels. As it does so, climate politics will become increasingly existential, potentially reshaping political alignments within and across countries. Such shifts may further undermine the Liberal International Order (LIO); as countries develop pro-climate policies at different speeds and magnitudes, they will have incentives to diverge from existing arrangements over trade and economic integration.
Sleep quantity and quality are associated with executive function (EF) in experimental studies, and in individuals with sleep disorders. With advancing age, sleep quantity and quality decline, as does the ability to perform EF tasks, suggesting that sleep disruption may contribute to age-related EF declines. This cross-sectional cohort study tested the hypothesis that poorer sleep quality (i.e., the frequency and duration of awakenings) and/or quantity may partly account for age-related EF deficits.
Community-dwelling older adults (N = 184) completed actigraphic sleep monitoring then a range of EF tasks. Two EF factors were extracted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Sleep variables did not mediate the relationship between age and EF factors. Post hoc moderated mediation analyses were conducted to test whether cognitive reserve compensates for sleep-related EF deficits, using years of education as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve.
We found a significant interaction between cognitive reserve and the number and frequency of awakenings, explaining a small (approximately 3%), but significant amount of variance in EF. Specifically, in individuals with fewer than 11 years of education, greater sleep disturbance was associated with poorer EF, but sleep did not impact EF in those with more education. There was no association between age and sleep quantity.
This study highlights the role of cognitive reserve in the sleep–EF relationship, suggesting individuals with greater cognitive reserve may be able to counter the impact of disturbed sleep on EF. Therefore, improving sleep may confer some protection against EF deficits in vulnerable older adults.
Mucositis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa resulting from high doses of radio/chemotherapy treatment and may lead to interruption of antineoplasic therapy. Soluble fibres, like pectin, increase SCFA production, which play a role in gut homoeostasis and inflammation suppression. Due to the properties of pectin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fibre (HF) diet on chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a murine model. C57/BL6 mice received control (AIN93M), HF, low/zero fibre (LF) diets for 10 d prior to mucositis challenging with irinotecan (75 mg/kg), or they were treated with acetate added to drinking water 5 d prior to and during the mucositis induction. Mice that received the HF diet showed decreased immune cells influx and improved histopathological parameters in the intestine, compared with mice that received the normal diet. Furthermore, the HF diet decreased intestinal permeability induced in the mucositis model when compared with the control group. This effect was not observed for acetate alone, which did not improve gut permeability. For instance, mice that received the LF diet had worsened gut permeability, compared with mice that received the normal diet and mucositis. The effects of the HF and LF diets were shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota, in which the LF diet increased the levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a group associated with gut inflammation, whereas the HF diet decreased this group and increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (SCFA producers) levels. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the importance of dietary fibre intake in the modulation of gut microbiota composition and homoeostasis maintenance during mucositis in this model.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.