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Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
Extending theories of social exclusion and elite messaging, we argue that Trump’s targeted rhetoric toward Asian Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic pushes the racial group, largely “Independent” or nonpartisan affiliated, to lean more towards the Democratic Party. We support this claim by combining social media (Study 1) and survey data (Study 2) analysis. Tracing 1.4 million tweets, we find that Trump’s rhetoric has popularized racially charged coronavirus-related terms and that exclusionary, anti-Asian attitudes have increased in the United States since the pandemic began. Next, by analyzing repeated cross-sectional weekly surveys of Asian Americans from July 2019 to May 2020 (n=12,907), we find that the group has leaned more towards the Democratic Party since Trump first made inflammatory remarks towards Asian Americans. Whites, Blacks, and Latina/os, on the other hand, exhibited fewer and less consistent changes in Democratic Party-related attitudes. Our findings suggest that experiences with social exclusion that are driven by elite sources further cement Asian Americans as Democrats.
Extensive environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We report our experience with the practice of directly observed environmental disinfection (DOED) in a community isolation facility (CIF) and a community treatment facility (CTF) in Hong Kong.
The CIF, with 250 single-room bungalows in a holiday camp, opened on July 24, 2020, to receive step-down patients from hospitals. The CTF, with 500 beds in open cubicles inside a convention hall, was activated on August 1, 2020, to admit newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients from the community. Healthcare workers (HCWs) and cleaning staff received infection control training to reinforce donning and doffing of personal protective equipment and to understand the practice of DOED, in which the cleaning staff observed patient and staff activities and then performed environmental disinfection immediately thereafter. Supervisors also observed cleaning staff to ensure the quality of work. In the CTF, air and environmental samples were collected on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR. Patient compliance with mask wearing was also recorded.
Of 291 HCWs and 54 cleaning staff who managed 243 patients in the CIF and 674 patients in the CTF from July 24 to August 29, 2020, no one acquired COVID-19. All 24 air samples and 520 environmental samples collected in the patient area of the CTF were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patient compliance with mask wearing was 100%.
With appropriate infection control measures, zero environmental contamination and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to HCWs and cleaning staff was achieved.
The objectives of this three-phased investigation were to (1) characterize existing recreational programming opportunities for tenants residing in assisted living (AL) and (2) gather perceptions on factors influencing activity program planning and delivery. Using an integrated knowledge translation framework during a one-year collaboration, we targeted 51 publicly funded AL sites from two health authorities in British Columbia. We conducted an activity calendar review, staff survey, and interactive symposia to identify factors that enabled or restricted recreational programming. From the information obtained, we determined that all AL sites delivered recreational programming. Although exercise and physical activity opportunities were perceived as having high importance, most activities were social. Staff reported confidence in delivering this type of programming and believed it met the holistic needs of tenants, including their mental well-being, and fostered a sense of community. Future avenues for increasing physical activity of AL tenants should address individual, site, and organizational characteristics.
The performance of polymer-based photovoltaic devices is limited by several factors like high band-gap and low charge-carrier mobility, to name a few. Thicker active-layers have high optical absorption but the transport of carriers in them is inefficient. Thus the optimal thickness of the active-layers has to be determined carefully. This conflict can be resolved using a three-dimensional (3D) microscale textured grating shaped solar cell geometry. The solar cells in this study were fabricated on photoresist gratings to give them 3D texture required for enhanced light absorption. Introduction of texturing has a significant effect on over all power conversion efficiency of the devices. Grating based solar cell having 2 micron pitch showed improved power conversion efficiency over the flat solar cell. In addition to favorable guiding of optical modes, the improvement in efficiency is accomplished by homogenous coverage of the spin-coated active layer, which is a challenging process for non-flat surfaces. Uniform thickness in this study was facilitated by the sufficiently high pitch and low height of the underlying photoresist gratings.
Epidemiological studies have indicated that soya consumption may produce a better plasma lipid profile. The effect may be attributed to the phyto-oestrogens in soya. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A has a chemical structure similar to those phyto-oestrogens found in soya beans, and is marketed as a nutraceutical for alleviating postmenopausal symptoms. In the present study we investigated the effect of biochanin A on the mRNA expression of ApoA-1 in the hepatic cell line HepG2. Real-time PCR revealed that biochanin A increased ApoA-1 mRNA abundance in cells expressing oestrogen receptor (ER) α. Without ERα transfection, biochanin A had no effect on mRNA abundance. In order to study the transcriptional control, a fragment of the 5′-flanking region of the ApoA-1 gene was amplified and inserted in a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid. The reporter assay indicated that the transactivation of the ApoA-1 promoter was induced by biochanin A in HepG2 cells transfected with the ERα expression plasmid. This induction was reduced by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780, whereas the inhibitors of protein kinase (PK) C, PKA, or mitogen-activated kinase (ERK) had no suppressive effect. The present study illustrated that biochanin A might up regulate hepatic apoA-1 mRNA expression through an ER-dependent pathway.
A white cast iron of composition Fe81C14Si5 can be cast into a nanostructure with network morphology by a fluxing technique. The conventional morphology of white cast iron, which is brittle, is eutectic. The mechanical behavior of network white cast iron is attractive. Hardness tests indicate that its average hardness value is ∼770 HV. The indentations made during hardness tests have no cracks. A stylus surface profiler was employed to study the surface profile at and near the indentations. The studies indicate that there are severe plastic flows, but without cracks.
The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) is a large-scale investigation of cognitive aging from middle to later age. The intended sample of 1440 twin subjects is recruited from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VETR), a registry of middle-aged male-male twin pairs who both served in the military during the Vietnam conflict (1965–1975). VETSA employs a multitrait multimethod approach to cognitive assessment to focus on the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive processes over time, as well as the relative contributions to cognitive aging from health, social, personality, and other contextual factors. The cognitive domains of episodic memory, working memory, abstract reasoning, and inhibitory executive functioning are assessed through neuropsychological testing. In addition, VETSA obtains the participant's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test, taken at the time of induction into the military around age 20 years, and readministers the test. Two other projects — VETSA Cortisol and VETSA Magnetic Resonance Imaging — are also in progress using subsamples of the VETSA twins. Prior waves of data collection by VETSA investigators using the VETR have provided historical data on physical and mental health, while future waves of VETSA data collection are planned every 5 years. These methods will provide data on multiple pheno-types in the same individuals with regard to genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive functioning over time, personality and interpersonal risk and protective factors, stress and cortisol regulation, and structural brain correlates of aging processes.
To compare the public's knowledge and perception of SARS and the extent to which various precautionary measures were adopted in Hong Kong and Singapore.
Cross-sectional telephone survey of 705 Hong Kong and 1,201 Singapore adults selected by random-digit dialing.
Hong Kong respondents had significantly higher anxiety than Singapore respondents (State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] score, 2.06 vs 1.77; P < .001). The former group also reported more frequent headaches, difficulty breathing, dizziness, rhinorrhea, and sore throat. More than 90% in both cities were willing to be quarantined if they had close contact with a SARS case, and 70% or more would be compliant for social contacts. Most respondents (86.7% in Hong Kong vs 71.4% in Singapore; P < .001) knew that SARS could be transmitted via respiratory droplets, although fewer (75.8% in Hong Kong vs 62.1% in Singapore; P < .001) knew that fomites were also a possible transmission source. Twenty-three percent of Hong Kong and 11.9% of Singapore respondents believed that they were “very likely” or “somewhat likely” to contract SARS during the current outbreak (P < .001). There were large differences between Hong Kong and Singapore in the adoption of personal precautionary measures. Respondents with higher levels of anxiety, better knowledge about SARS, and greater risk perceptions were more likely to take comprehensive precautionary measures against the infection, as were older, female, and more educated individuals.
Comparative psychobehavioral surveillance and analysis could yield important insights into generic versus population-specific issues that could be used to inform, design, and evaluate public health infection control policy measures.
Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have been prepared on radio-frequency (rf) biased substrates maintained at low temperature (∼60 °C) using electron cyclotron resonance CH4 –Ar plasma. The structures of the resultant films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) spectrometry. The studies revealed that the deposited structures were DLC films with sp3/sp2 bond hybridization, extremely high hardness (>3000 kgf/mm2), and high electrical resistivity (up to 1014 Ω cm). The DLC films deposited on colorless (transparent) polymer plastics were examined to determine visible light transparencies and optical bandgaps. The results indicate that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma processing with low negative rf bias, low deposition temperature, and suitable CH4/Ar gas composition can form optically visible light transparent and hard protective DLC films on polymer plastic surfaces.
The grain boundary segregation of Sr in the La1.85Sr0.15CuO4-y system, and its effects on polycrystalline diamagnetic properties, have been characterized. Equilibration at 1000°C reduces grain boundary segregation compared to that which is present at 700°C. Results indicate that critical currents in randomly oriented polycrystalline materials will be improved if annealing treatments can be optimized to minimize grain boundary segregation without degrading lattice oxygen stoichiometry.
We analyze certain self-organizing filing techniques when accesses are assumed to be dependent on each other. The stream of requests for accessing records in a file is modelled as a Markov chain. A general framework is introduced to obtain the asymptotic search cost of a memory-free self-organizing heuristic. The move-to-front heuristic is studied in detail. A formula for the asymptotic search cost, which generalizes that in the case of independent accesses, is obtained. Numerical examples on the performance of the transposition heuristic are provided, and compared with that of the move-to-front heuristic.
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