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Mixed flora in urine cultures usually occur due to preanalytic contamination. In our outpatient urology clinic, we detected a high prevalence of mixed flora (46.2%), which was associated with female sex and older age. Patient education did not influence the rate of mixed flora. Future efforts should target high-risk patients.
Implicit in the UN's Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Agenda is the notion that environmental sustainability is intertwined with, and underpins, the 17 Goals. Yet the language of the Goals, and their Targets and indicators is blind to the myriad ways in which nature supports people's health and wealth – which we argue represents a key impediment to progress. Using examples of nature–human wellbeing linkages, we assess the language of all 169 Targets to identify urgent research, policy, and action needed to spotlight and leverage nature's foundational role, to help enable truly sustainable development for all.
Nature's foundational role in helping achieve the SDGs is implicit rather than explicit in the language of SDGs Goals, Targets, and indicators. Drawing from the scientific literature describing how nature underpins human wellbeing, we carry out a systematic assessment of the language of all 169 Targets, categorizing which Targets are dependent upon nature for their achievement, could harm nature if attained through business-as-usual actions, or may synergistically benefit nature through their attainment. We find that half are dependent upon nature for their achievement – yet for more than two-thirds of those nature's role goes unstated and risks being downplayed or ignored. Moreover, while achieving the overwhelming majority of the 169 Targets could potentially benefit nature, more than 60% are likely to deliver ‘mixed outcomes’ – benefitting or harming nature depending on how they're achieved. Furthermore, of the 241 official indicators <5% track nature's role in achieving the parent Target. Our analysis provides insights important for increasing effectiveness across the SDG agenda regarding where to invest, how to enhance synergies and limit unanticipated impacts, and how to measure success. It also suggests a path for integrating the ‘nature that people need’ to achieve the SDGs into the CBD's post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.
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Harmonizing links between the SDGs and the CBD's post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is vital for promoting sustainable development
This study aimed to explore effects of adjunctive minocycline treatment on inflammatory and neurogenesis markers in major depressive disorder (MDD). Serum samples were collected from a randomised, placebo-controlled 12-week clinical trial of minocycline (200 mg/day, added to treatment as usual) for adults (n = 71) experiencing MDD to determine changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). General Estimate Equation modelling explored moderation effects of baseline markers and exploratory analyses investigated associations between markers and clinical outcomes. There was no difference between adjunctive minocycline or placebo groups at baseline or week 12 in the levels of IL-6 (week 12; placebo 2.06 ± 1.35 pg/ml; minocycline 1.77 ± 0.79 pg/ml; p = 0.317), LBP (week 12; placebo 3.74 ± 0.95 µg/ml; minocycline 3.93 ± 1.33 µg/ml; p = 0.525) or BDNF (week 12; placebo 24.28 ± 6.69 ng/ml; minocycline 26.56 ± 5.45 ng/ml; p = 0.161). Higher IL-6 levels at baseline were a predictor of greater clinical improvement. Exploratory analyses suggested that the change in IL-6 levels were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (HAMA; p = 0.021) and quality of life (Q-LES-Q-SF; p = 0.023) scale scores. No other clinical outcomes were shown to have this mediation effect, nor did the other markers (LBP or BDNF) moderate clinical outcomes. There were no overall changes in IL-6, LBP or BDNF following adjunctive minocycline treatment. Exploratory analyses suggest a potential role of IL-6 on mediating anxiety symptoms with MDD. Future trials may consider enrichment of recruitment by identifying several markers or a panel of factors to better represent an inflammatory phenotype in MDD with larger sample size.
Without progress on mitigation, the costs of adaptation to climate change will become prohibitive. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates the cost of adaptation in the water sector alone could exceed USD 50 billion/annum as droughts become more intense and frequent as well as causing more severe rainstorms, flooding and cyclones, and increasing water scarcity in cities. Climate change also risks melting glaciers and snow, upon which over 2 billion people depend for part of their water. Many urban water systems have been built without adequately factoring in the risks of climate change. These risks are already impacting cities: extreme droughts, or sewer systems overwhelmed by storms, sending raw sewage into streets, rivers and drinking water. Declining water availability risks higher energy and carbon intensity of water. This chapter gives a number of climate change mitigation strategies that also yield significant climate adaptation co-benefits and explores how pursuing these strategies can help improve sustainable development goals of improved productivity, public health, new jobs in water/energy efficiency functions and better social equity outcomes.
Cognitive deficits at the first episode of schizophrenia are predictive of functional outcome. Interventions that improve cognitive functioning early in schizophrenia are critical if we hope to prevent or limit long-term disability in this disorder.
We completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and of long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone with 60 patients with a recent first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation involved programs focused on basic cognitive processes as well as more complex, life-like situations. Healthy behavior training of equal treatment time was the comparison group for cognitive remediation, while oral risperidone was the comparator for LAI risperidone in a 2 × 2 design. All patients were provided supported employment/education to encourage return to work or school.
Both antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation contributed to cognitive improvement. Cognitive remediation was superior to healthy behavior training in the LAI medication condition but not the oral medication condition. Cognitive remediation was also superior when medication adherence and protocol completion were covaried. Both LAI antipsychotic medication and cognitive remediation led to significantly greater improvement in work/school functioning. Effect sizes were larger than in most prior studies of first-episode patients. In addition, cognitive improvement was significantly correlated with work/school functional improvement.
These results indicate that consistent antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation can significantly improve core cognitive deficits in the initial period of schizophrenia. When combined with supported employment/education, cognitive remediation and LAI antipsychotic medication show separate significant impact on improving work/school functioning.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Pregnancy is a time when weight increases as part of a physiological process to aid fetal growth. However, when excess weight is gained during pregnancy, and retained thereafter, the risk of obesity in the future increases. Increasing BMI between pregnancies and maternal obesity are associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the risks of increasing BMI on future pregnancies is well defined, the predictors of this weight gain are not. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of interpregnancy BMI change.
Materials and methods
This study was conducted in one of Europe's largest maternity hospitals delivering approximately 8000 infants per annum. Women's sociodemographic and clinical data were self-reported at the first antenatal visit and computerised to an electronic recording system by trained midwives. Weight and height were measured at the first antenatal visits of both pregnancies, and body mass index was calculated. Data was extracted and analysed for women who delivered their first and second singleton infants between 2009–2018.
A total of 12,056 women delivered their first and second baby over the 10-year period. The mean interval between pregnancies was 32.3months (SD15.9) and the median BMI change was 0.6units (IQR1.3). From the first to the second pregnancy the rate of obesity increased from 11.6% to 16.0%. Between pregnancies 46.1% of women maintained their BMI (-1 to + 1units), 13.3% lost > 1 BMI unit(s), whereas 15.5% gained 1–2unit(s), 9.9% gained 2–3units and 12.0% gained > 3units. Overall, 5.8% became obese by the second pregnancy. On multinomial regression analysis, having a pregnancy interval of > 3years (aOR2.1, 95%CI 1.9–2.5, p < 0.001), artificial feeding after the first pregnancy (aOR1.8, 1.5–2.0, p < 0.001), postnatal depression after the first pregnancy (aOR1.6, 1.3–2.1, p < 0.001) and taking prescribed anxiolytics or antidepressants (aOR1.6, 1.1–2.5, p = 0.013) were predictors of gaining > 3 BMI units between pregnancies after adjusting for maternal occupation and age. The predictors of becoming obese in the second pregnancy also included a pregnancy interval of > 3years (aOR1.5, 1.2–1.8, p < 0.001), artificial feeding after the first pregnancy (aOR2.1, 1.8–2.6, p < 0.001), postnatal depression after the first pregnancy (aOR1.7, 1.2–2.3, p = 0.001) and taking prescribed anxiolytics or antidepressants (aOR1.8, 1.1–3.1, p = 0.016) following the same adjustments.
Longer pregnancy interval, not breastfeeding and psychological health disorders are predictors of BMI increase between pregnancies and becoming obese in the second pregnancy. Interventions provided following women's first delivery should aim to promote breastfeeding, manage weight and improve mental health.
Historians have used a number of political, social, and other factors to explain the controversy surrounding elementary education in Victorian Britain. This article underscores the importance of religious motivations. The Act of 1870 – a significant extension of state responsibility – did not end debates about the purpose of education and the pros and cons of government involvement and religious instruction. Prominent among voluntaryists and anti-secularists was A. J. Beresford Hope, whose position offers useful insights into the educational agencies of the Church and the manner in which churchmen responded to new circumstances. This article explains Hope’s attitude and uses it to explore some of the causes and consequences of the Act of 1870. What type of schooling best suited the British people? Should it have a basis in something other than religion? How could the Church and its supporters meet the challenges posed by education reform?
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
This study evaluated in a rigorous 18-month randomized controlled trial the efficacy of an enhanced vocational intervention for helping individuals with a recent first schizophrenia episode to return to and remain in competitive work or regular schooling.
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) was adapted to meet the goals of individuals whose goals might involve either employment or schooling. IPS was combined with a Workplace Fundamentals Module (WFM) for an enhanced, outpatient, vocational intervention. Random assignment to the enhanced integrated rehabilitation program (N = 46) was contrasted with equally intensive clinical treatment at UCLA, including social skills training groups, and conventional vocational rehabilitation by state agencies (N = 23). All patients were provided case management and psychiatric services by the same clinical team and received oral atypical antipsychotic medication.
The IPS–WFM combination led to 83% of patients participating in competitive employment or school in the first 6 months of intensive treatment, compared with 41% in the comparison group (p < 0.005). During the subsequent year, IPS–WFM continued to yield higher rates of schooling/employment (92% v. 60%, p < 0.03). Cumulative number of weeks of schooling and/or employment was also substantially greater with the IPS–WFM intervention (45 v. 26 weeks, p < 0.004).
The results clearly support the efficacy of an enhanced intervention focused on recovery of participation in normative work and school settings in the initial phase of schizophrenia, suggesting potential for prevention of disability.
Objectives: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study, a total of 241 high-school seniors (147 females, 94 males) diagnosed with T1D underwent baseline assessment that included the IGT. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects glycemic control over the course of the past 2 to 3 months, was also assessed at baseline. Of the 241,189 (127 females, 62 males, mean age=17.76, mean HbA1c=8.11) completed HbA1c measurement 1 year later. Results: Baseline IGT performance in the impaired range (per norms) was associated with greater dysregulation in glycemic control 1 year later, as evidenced by an average increase in HbA1c of 2%. Those with normal IGT scores (per norms) exhibited a more moderate increase in glycemic control, with an HbA1c increase of 0.7%. Several IGT scoring approaches were compared, showing that the total scores collapsed across all trials was most sensitive to change in glycemic control. Conclusions: IGT assessment offers promise as a tool for identifying late adolescents at increased risk for glycemic dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 204–213)
This year's General Synod, the second meeting of the triennium, was held in Dún Laoghaire, to the south of Dublin. It was a hotel conference venue, albeit one new to the Synod meeting. The Synod passed Bills relating to the areas of episcopal election and part-time ministry, as well as the ongoing areas of charity legislation and pensions. A Bill relating to diocesan boundaries was withdrawn.
To provide accurate estimates of the commencement time, duration and dosage of folic acid (FA) supplementation taken by Irish women in the periconceptional period. The study also aimed to establish the factors associated with optimal FA supplementation practices.
Cross-sectional observational study. Women’s clinical and sociodemographic details were computerised. Maternal weight and height were measured before calculating BMI. Detailed FA supplementation questionnaires were completed under the supervision of a trained researcher.
A large university maternity hospital, Republic of Ireland, January 2014–April 2016.
Women (n 856) recruited at their convenience in the first trimester.
While almost all of the women (97 %) were taking FA at enrolment, only one in four women took FA for at least 12 weeks preconceptionally (n 208). Among the 44 % of women who were supplementing with FA preconceptionally, 44 % (162/370) reported taking FA for less than the 12 weeks required to achieve optimal red-blood-cell folate levels for prevention of neural tube defects. On multivariate analysis, only planned pregnancy and nulliparity were associated with taking FA for at least 12 weeks preconceptionally. Among women who only took FA postconceptionally, almost two-thirds commenced it after day 28 of their pregnancy when the neural tube had already closed.
As the timing of FA was suboptimal both before and after conception, we recommend that current national FA guidelines need to be reviewed.
Objectives: Treatments for childhood brain tumors (BT) confer substantial risks to neurological development and contribute to neuropsychological deficits in young adulthood. Evidence suggests that individuals who experience more significant neurological insult may lack insight into their neurocognitive limitations. The present study compared survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of executive functioning (EF), and their associations with treatment intensity history in a subsample of young adult survivors of childhood BTs. Methods: Thirty-four survivors (52.9% female), aged 18 to 30 years (M=23.5; SD=3.4), 16.1 years post-diagnosis (SD=5.9), were administered self-report and performance-based EF measures. Mothers also rated survivor EF skills. Survivors were classified by treatment intensity history into Minimal, Average/Moderate, or Intensive/Most-Intensive groups. Discrepancies among survivor, mother, and performance-based EF estimates were compared. Results: Survivor-reported and performance-based measures were not correlated, although significant associations were found between mother-reported and performance measures. Survivors in the Intensive/Most-Intensive treatment group evidenced the greatest score discrepancies, reporting less executive dysfunction relative to mother-reported F(2,31)=7.81, p<.01, and performance-based measures F(14,50)=2.54, p<.05. Conversely, survivors in the Minimal treatment group reported greater EF difficulties relative to mothers t(8)=2.82, p<.05, but not performance-based estimates (ps>.05). Conclusions: There may be a lack of agreement among survivor, mother, and performance-based estimates of EF skills in young adult survivors of childhood BT, and these discrepancies may be associated with treatment intensity history. Neuropsychologists should use a multi-method, multi-reporter approach to assessment of EF in this population. Providers also should be aware of these discrepancies as they may be a barrier to intervention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 900–910)