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Although the ICD and DSM differentiate between different psychiatric disorders, these often share symptoms, risk factors, and treatments. This was a population-based, case–control, sibling study examining familial clustering of all psychiatric disorders and low IQ, using data from the Israel Draft-Board Registry on all Jewish adolescents assessed between 1998 and 2014.
We identified all cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, N = 2128), severe intellectual disability (ID, N = 9572), attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) (N = 3272), psychotic (N = 7902), mood (N = 9704), anxiety (N = 10 606), personality (N = 24 816), or substance/alcohol abuse (N = 791) disorders, and low IQ (⩾2 SDs below the population mean, N = 31 186). Non-CNS control disorders were adolescents with Type-1 diabetes (N = 2427), hernia (N = 29 558) or hematological malignancies (N = 931). Each case was matched with 10 age-matched controls selected at random from the Draft-Board Registry, with replacement, and for each case and matched controls, we ascertained all full siblings. The main outcome measure was the relative recurrence risk (RRR) of the sibling of a case having the same (within-disorder RRR) or a different (across-disorder RRR) disorder.
Within-disorder RRRs were increased for all diagnostic categories, ranging from 11.53 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.23–14.40] for ASD to 2.93 (95% CI: 2.80–3.07) for personality disorders. The median across-disorder RRR between any pair of psychiatric disorders was 2.16 (95% CI: 1.45–2.43); the median RRR between low IQ and any psychiatric disorder was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.93–1.98). There was no consistent increase in across-disorder RRRs between the non-CNS disorders and psychiatric disorders and/or low IQ.
These large population-based study findings suggest shared etiologies among most psychiatric disorders, and low IQ.
Increasing the scale of renewable integration is a key component of China’s decarbonization strategy. While the immediate challenge is to reduce renewable curtailment and increase its penetration, mitigating climate change in the long term will require a transition from an electricity system dominated by coal to one that consists primarily of renewables. This chapter summarizes the current governance structure and policies for renewable energy development and integration in China. It identifies two key considerations for China to transition towards large-scale penetration of renewables: geographic mismatch between renewable resources and demand centers, and concerns associated with integrating high penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources. Responding to these considerations, this chapter discusses four foundational elements that China needs to put in place in the near term to plan for the longer-term transition: flexible conventional generators, an appropriately large and more integrated transmission network, storage technology development, and demand-side flexibility/responsiveness.
Rapid economic growth in China has predominantly relied on coal-fired electricity and coal use in industry, generating an increasing range of economic, environmental, and health costs. While many policies aim to restrict – and reverse – coal’s growth, the transition from coal to low-carbon alternatives is neither automatic nor just around the corner. Entrenched technological systems, political interests, and historical factors serve to maintain coal’s dominance. For China to prepare for deep decarbonization by mid-century, it must proactively convert coal from a barrier to a bridge – productively repurposing and valuing coal assets for flexible operation, addressing the difficult coal-based district heating infrastructure in the north – develop alternative fuels and feedstocks for industry and households, and mitigate the immense socioeconomic consequences of this transition on governments, firms, and workers.
Climate change is a key problem of the 21st century. China, as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has committed to stabilize its current emissions and dramatically increase the share of electricity production from non-fossil fuels by 2030. However, this is only a first step: in the longer term, China needs to aggressively strive to reach a goal of zero-emissions. Through detailed discussions of electricity pricing, electric vehicle policies, nuclear energy policies, and renewable energy policies, this book reviews how near-term climate and energy policies can affect long-term decarbonization pathways beyond 2030, building the foundations for decarbonization in advance of its realization. Focusing primarily on the electricity sector in China - the main battleground for decarbonization over the next century – it provides a valuable resource for researchers and policymakers, as well as energy and climate experts.
Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for laboratory inspection and diagnosis of malaria. Smear inspection is, however, time-consuming and dependent on trained microscopists with results varying in accuracy. We sought to develop an automated image analysis method to improve accuracy and standardization of smear inspection that retains capacity for expert confirmation and image archiving. Here, we present a machine learning method that achieves red blood cell (RBC) detection, differentiation between infected/uninfected cells, and parasite life stage categorization from unprocessed, heterogeneous smear images. Based on a pretrained Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN) model for RBC detection, our model performs accurately, with an average precision of 0.99 at an intersection-over-union threshold of 0.5. Application of a residual neural network-50 model to infected cells also performs accurately, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98. Finally, combining our method with a regression model successfully recapitulates intraerythrocytic developmental cycle with accurate lifecycle stage categorization. Combined with a mobile-friendly web-based interface, called PlasmoCount, our method permits rapid navigation through and review of results for quality assurance. By standardizing assessment of Giemsa smears, our method markedly improves inspection reproducibility and presents a realistic route to both routine lab and future field-based automated malaria diagnosis.
Chronic subdural hematomata (CSDH) are treated by evacuation. Recurrence occurs in 3-20% of cases, but the factors determining its occurrence have not been determined. Having observed that eosinophil cell infiltrates are often present in the outer membrane of CSDH, our aim was to determine whether such infiltrates are associated with risk of recurrence. Histological sections of the resections from 72 patients with primary CSDH (Mean age 73.4) and 16 with recurrent CSDH (Mean age 72.1) stained with H&E were graded by blinded observers for eosinophilic cell infiltrates using a semiquantitative 0 to 3 scale. The risk of recurrence requiring reoperation (RrR) in primary CSDH was 11.1%, and 12.5% in recurrent CSDH (meaning third surgery was required). A dense (grades 2 or 3) eosinophilic infiltrate was present in 22.2% of primary CSDH; the RrR was 0% in these cases, as compared with 14.8% in cases with sparse (grades 0-1) eosinophilic infiltrate. Among recurrent CSDH cases, 12.5% (2/15) showed a dense eosinophilic infiltrate; the RrR was also 0%, contrasting with 14.3% in those with sparse eosinophilic infiltrate. We conclude that eosinophils either play a role or are a marker of a process leading to stabilizing CSDH, making them less prone to rebleeding. Abstract not previously published
Describe the risk of recurrence following surgical evacuation of chronic subdural hematomata
Recognize the variable presence of eosinophils in chronic subdural hematomata
Cite the presence of eosinophils is predictive of absence of recurrence
The political underrepresentation of women and racial minorities in Canadian politics is well documented. One political arena that has yet to be examined in this respect, however, is school boards. Using data from a candidate survey conducted during the course of the 2018 Ontario school board elections, as well as demographic data collected on the entire population of school board candidates, we explore the unique characteristics of school board elections. The research note begins by describing the gender and racial composition of candidates and trustees in Canada's most populous province. It then considers the ways in which school board elections may serve as a launchpad to higher office for either of these two traditionally underrepresented groups, as we explore the features of progressive political ambition, recruitment into school board campaigns and the relative electoral success of racialized candidates and women in this local office. While women do very well in school board elections, they are significantly less likely than their male counterparts to have the desire to move up to provincial or federal politics. Meanwhile, racialized candidates contest school board election in significant numbers and report similar levels of progressive ambition relative to their white counterparts, but they fare exceptionally poorly in school board elections.
China’s state-directed technology development and deployment programs have led to unprecedented adoption of advanced technologies in its electricity sector. However, signs of inefficient capital allocation are widespread, such as continued coal plant capacity build-out amidst slowing electricity demand growth and underutilization of renewable energy investments. The separation of technology programs from durable local autonomies in electricity systems operation and planning, as well as unsuccessful central reforms to create a market for the fundamental commodity, electricity, contribute to uncaptured economic and public health benefits. China’s programs on high-efficiency coal-fired power plants demonstrate this important lesson for industrial upgrading: technological innovation and adoption do not reap their full benefits without comparable modernization of regulatory and policy frameworks. Ongoing power sector reforms may be insufficient to address these issues.
Previous studies reported an association between advanced paternal age at birth and increased risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While some hypothesize that this association is caused by de-novo mutations in paternal spermatozoa, others cite factors associated with psycho-social characteristics of fathers who have children at a late age. This study aims to test these hypotheses.
A historical-prospective, population-based cohort study, performed by linking the Israeli Draft Board Registry and the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Registry (N = 916 439; 4488 with schizophrenia, 883 with bipolar disorder). Odds ratios (OR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models, using paternal age as predictor and risk for later hospitalizations for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder as outcome measure. Models were first fitted unadjusted, then adjusted for paternal age at birth of the first child.
In the unadjusted model, offspring of fathers aged 45 and above at birth had increased risk of schizophrenia (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.49–1.99) and bipolar disorder (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.16–2.24). However, taking into account paternal age at birth of first child, advanced paternal age was no longer associated with increased risk of schizophrenia (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.48–0.79) or bipolar disorder (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.56–1.90).
Controlling for paternal age at birth of the first offspring, advanced paternal age does not predict increased risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. These data indicate that the association between advanced paternal age and having an offspring with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is likely due to psychos-social factors, or common genetic variation associated with delayed initial fatherhood.
Being a current psychiatric in-patient is one of the strongest statistical risk factors for suicide. It is usually assumed that this strong association is not causal but is a result of the combination of the selection of high-risk patients for admission and the imperfect protection from suicide afforded by psychiatric wards. Logically, a third factor, which is causal, might play a role in the association. It has recently been suggested that adverse experiences in psychiatric units such as trauma, stigma and loss of social role might precipitate some in-patient suicides.
To consider whether there is a causal association between psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide.
We used the framework of Austin Bradford Hill's criteria for assessing causality in epidemiology to consider the possibility that psychiatric hospitalisation might causally contribute to the extent and variation in in-patient suicide rates.
The association between psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide clearly meets five of the nine Hill's criteria (strength of association, consistency, plausibility, coherence and analogy) and partially meets three of the remaining four criteria (gradient of exposure, temporality and experimental evidence).
Admission to hospital itself might play a causal role in a proportion of in-patient suicides. The safety of being in hospital with respect to suicide could be examined with a large-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the absence of an RCT, the possibility of a causal role provides further impetus to calls to make care in the community more available and psychiatric hospitals more acceptable to patients.
There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting.
We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤−1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤−2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.
Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador.
Children (n 516) aged 6–36 months.
Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of <42·5 nmol/l; 18·6 % of children had serum 25(OH)D<42·5 nmol/l. Children who were underweight were more likely to have serum 25(OH)D<42·5 nmol/l (adjusted OR (aOR)=2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·3). Children with low serum 25(OH)D levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7).
Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.
The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens (measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D) shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which might make people more socially integrated. However, it also predicts certain anti-social behaviors and disorders associated with lower socialization. We explore whether 2D:4D correlates with network position later in life and find that individuals with low 2D:4D become more central in their social environment. Interestingly, low 2D:4D males are more likely to exhibit high betweenness centrality (they connect separated parts of the social structure), while low 2D:4D females are more likely to exhibit high in-degree centrality (more people name them as friends). These gender-specific differences are reinforced by transitivity (the likelihood that one's friends are also friends with one another): neighbors of low 2D:4D men tend not to know each other; the contrary is observed for low 2D:4D women. Our results suggest that biological predispositions influence the organization of human societies and that exposure to prenatal androgens influences different status seeking behaviors in men and women.
Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. Results: 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Conclusion: Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.