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To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on clinical practice. Safe standards of practice are essential to protect health care workers while still allowing them to provide good care. The Canadian Society of Clinical Neurophysiologists, the Canadian Association of Electroneurophysiology Technologists, the Association of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, the Board of Registration of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, and the Canadian Board of Registration of Electroencephalograph Technologists have combined to review current published literature about safe practices for neurophysiology laboratories. Herein, we present the results of our review and provide our expert opinion regarding the safe practice of neurophysiology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada.
Magnetic field-assisted freeze-casting of porous alumina structures is reported. Different freeze-casting parameters were investigated and include the composition of the original slurry (Fe3O4 and PVA content) and the control of temperature during the free casting process. The optimum content of the additives in the slurry were 3 and 6 wt% for PVA and Fe3O4, respectively. These conditions provided the most unidirectional porous structures throughout the length of the sample. The sintering temperature was maintained at 1500 °C for 3 h. The application of a vertical magnetic field (parallel to ice growth direction) with using a cooling rate mode technique was found to enhance the homogeneity of the porous structure across the sample. The current study suggests that magnetic field-assisted freeze-casting is a viable method to create highly anisotropic porous ceramic structures.
When prolonged social withdrawal was first described in Japan as ‘hikikomori’, many studies examining its etiology suggested it to be related to factors unique to Japan and thus a culture-bound syndrome. However, existing research has suffered from a lack of standardised definitions, impeding comparability between studies. We summarise existing research and discuss its relevance to psychiatric practice today.
Since the killing of Trayvon Martin, the Stand Your Ground law has come to emblematize contemporary racial injustice. Yet, the legitimacy of the statute endures, as more than thirty-three states maintain and enforce some version of Stand Your Ground. This article probes the legitimacy basis for Stand Your Ground by excavating and reconstructing its formative logic. Drawing on archival records of the Florida state legislature’s 2005 pioneering of the statute, I examine how lawmakers justified its introduction, design, and enactment. I find that proponents of Stand Your Ground framed it as a response to the cost impositions of criminal prosecution and civil action. In introducing Stand Your Ground, they sought to protect self-defensive actors against the burdens of administrative and judicial proceedings by granting them civil immunity. During the mark-up process, legislators held an extensive debate over the intended beneficiaries and victims of Stand Your Ground. Racial codes animated this debate: “drug dealers,” “gangs,” and “cop killers” represented the types of criminal subjects whom the legal protections of Stand Your Ground should exclude, while “violent criminals” in the “bad part of town” represented the intended objects of the statute’s authorization of deadly force. Ultimately, legislators translated the concerns raised during this debate into statutory design choices that baked race into Stand Your Ground.
Laboratory experiments were performed on a geometrically scaled vertical-axis wind turbine model over an unprecedented range of Reynolds numbers, including and exceeding those of the full-scale turbine. The study was performed in the high-pressure environment of the Princeton High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF). Utilizing highly compressed air as the working fluid enabled extremely high Reynolds numbers while still maintaining dynamic similarity by matching the tip speed ratio (defined as the ratio of tip velocity to free stream,
) and Mach number (defined at the turbine tip,
). Preliminary comparisons are made with measurements from the full-scale field turbine. Peak power for both the field data and experiments resides around
. In addition, a systematic investigation of trends with Reynolds number was performed in the laboratory, which revealed details about the asymptotic behaviour. It was shown that the parameter that characterizes invariance in the power coefficient was the Reynolds number based on blade chord conditions (
). The power coefficient reaches its asymptotic value when
, which is higher than what the field turbine experiences. The asymptotic power curve is found, which is invariant to further increases in Reynolds number.
Inertial lift forces are exploited within inertial microfluidic devices to position, segregate and sort particles or droplets. However, the forces and their focusing positions can currently only be predicted by numerical simulations, making rational device design very difficult. Here we develop theory for the forces on particles in microchannel geometries. We use numerical experiments to dissect the dominant balances within the Navier–Stokes equations and derive an asymptotic model to predict the lateral force on the particle as a function of particle size. Our asymptotic model is valid for a wide array of particle sizes and Reynolds numbers, and allows us to predict how focusing position depends on particle size.
This brief report investigated coping strategies and their perceived effectiveness in response to a social stressor for 7–12 year olds with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Ninety-eight participants completed a self-report coping scale in response to a self-identified socially stressful situation. Responses yielded three categories of use and perceived effectiveness: (1) strategies used frequently and viewed as effective, (2) strategies not used frequently and not perceived as effective, and (3) strategies used frequently but not perceived as effective. Respondents reported high frequency use and high perceived effectiveness of six strategies that are generally considered as positive/engagement oriented coping. They also indicated low frequency use and low perceived effectiveness of five strategies broadly regarded as negative and avoidant/disengagement coping. The last cluster of four strategies, identified as frequently used but not effective, consisted of strategies less clearly categorised as positive/engaged vs. negative/disengaged. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are proposed.
This study investigated the relationships among stress, intrapersonal resiliency factors (self-esteem, locus of control, and optimism) and quality of life [QOL] (physical health and mental health) among caregivers of children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Participants consisted of 113 caregivers of children with HFASDs (males = 38.1%, females = 61.9%; age range = 27–62; 93.6% Caucasians) and 47 caregivers of typically developing children (males = 29.8%; females = 70.2%; age range = 30–56; 93.3% Caucasians). They completed a set of self-rating surveys on perceived locus of control, self-esteem, optimism, and QOL. Within-group inferential statistical analyses were applied. For the HFASD group analyses, two simultaneous regression analyses were used to study the independent effects of the three intrapersonal variables on the physical health and mental health QOL of the caregivers. Intrapersonal factors predicted self-reported mental health QOL but not physical health QOL in caregivers of children with HFASDs.
Many challenges remain in the effort to realize the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in composite materials. Here, we report on electrically conductive composites fabricated via infiltration of CNT-based aerogels. The ultra low-density, high conductivity, and extraordinary robustness of the CNT aerogels make them ideal scaffolds around which to create conductive composites. Infiltrating the aerogels with various insulating materials (e.g. epoxy and silica) resulted in composites with electrical conductivities over 1 Scm-1 with as little as 1 vol% nanotube content. The electrical conductivity observed in the composites was remarkably close to that of the CNT scaffold in all cases.
The possibility of a simple heating process of POM to obtain tungsten bronze was investigated for nuclear waste immobilisation via DTA/TG and high temperature XRD. Heating process up to 900°C caused the decomposition of structure for both systems. Cooling process seemed to have little effect on the final product for the K11[Nd(PW11O39)2]·xH2O, whereas the cooling profile showed a significant effect on the K13[Nd(SiW11O39)2]·xH2O. Nd formed two types of tungsten bronzes, namely Nd2WO6 and Nd4W3O15 in K11[Nd(PW11O39)2]·xH2O and K13[Nd(SiW11O39)2]·xH2O, respectively.