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Despite the widely recognized value of wetlands in providing vital ecosystem services, these are presently being degraded and ultimately destroyed, leading to a decrease in the biodiversity associated with these areas. Some species inextricably linked to wetlands, however, have been increasing and (re)colonizing areas across their range; a notable example being the Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia. In this study we aimed to identify the most important habitats for juvenile spoonbills fledging from a traditional colony in Portugal, located in Ria Formosa, during the period of their life with the lowest survival rates: the first months after leaving the colony. We deployed 16 GPS/GSM tags on juveniles captured in different years (2016 to 2020) and tracked them during post-fledging dispersal and first winter (average 166.4 ± 29.2 SE days). Using Corine Land Cover data, we were able to identify which habitats were most important. Several habitats were used in variable proportions by individuals originating from the same colony, but there was a general trend towards using fewer habitats along the first months of life. Intertidal wetlands were the most used habitat, but anthropogenic habitats such as Wastewater Treatment Plants, saltpans and rice fields were identified as alternative habitats for young spoonbills, and may had contributed to the recent expansion of this species in Portugal.
To evaluate the associations of pregestational BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum with four patterns of weight change during the first year after delivery: postpartum weight retention (PPWR), postpartum weight gain (PPWG), postpartum weight retention + gain (PPWR + WG) and return to pregestational weight.
In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, we categorised postpartum weight change into four patterns using pregestational weight and weights at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. We evaluated their associations with pregestational BMI, GWG and breast-feeding using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95 % CI.
Women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort.
Five hundred women were included (53 % of the cohort). Most women returned to their pregestational weight by 1 year postpartum (57 %); 8 % experienced PPWR, 14 % PPWG and 21 % PPWR + WG. Compared with normal weight, pregestational overweight (RRR 2·5, 95 % CI 1·3, 4·8) and obesity (RRR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·7) were associated with a higher risk of PPWG. Exclusive breast-feeding, compared with no breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of PPWR (RRR 0·3, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·9). Excessive GWG, compared with adequate, was associated with a higher risk of PPWR (RRR 3·3, 95 % CI 1·6, 6·9) and PPWR + WG (RRR 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·2).
Targeting women with pregestational overweight or obesity and excessive GWG, as well as promoting breast-feeding, may impact the pattern of weight change after delivery and long-term women’s health.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
Common mental disorders are highly prevalent and disabling, leading to substantial individual and societal costs. This study aims to characterize the association between disability and common mental disorders in Portugal, using epidemiological data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.
Twelve-month common mental disorders were assessed with the CIDI 3.0. Disability was evaluated with the modified WMHS WHODAS-II. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between disability and each disorder or diagnostic category (mood or anxiety disorders).
Among people with a common mental disorder, 14.6% reported disability. The specific diagnoses significantly associated with disability were post-traumatic stress disorder (OR: 6.69; 95% CI: 3.20, 14.01), major depressive disorder (OR: 3.49; 95% CI: 2.13, 5.72), bipolar disorder (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04, 11.12) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.90). Both categories of anxiety and mood disorders were significantly associated with disability (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.86 and OR: 3.94; 95% CI: 2.45, 6.34 respectively).
The results of this study add to the current knowledge in this area by assessing the disability associated with common mental disorders using a multi-dimensional instrument, which may contribute to mental health policy efforts in the development of interventions to reduce the burden of disability associated with common mental disorders.
Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite, which causes bovine besnoitiosis. Recently increased emergence within Europe was responsible for significant economic losses in the cattle industry due to the significant reduction of productivity. However, still limited knowledge exists on interactions between B. besnoiti and host innate immune system. Here, B. besnoiti bradyzoites were successfully isolated from tissue cysts located in skin biopsies of a naturally infected animal, and we aimed to investigate for the first time reactions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) exposed to these vital bradyzoites. Freshly isolated bovine PMN were confronted to B. besnoiti bradyzoites. Scanning electron microscopy (s.e.m.)- and immunofluorescence microscopy-analyses demonstrated fine extracellular networks released by exposed bovine PMN resembling suicidal NETosis. Classical NETosis components were confirmed via co-localization of extracellular DNA decorated with histone 3 (H3) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Live cell imaging by 3D holotomographic microscopy (Nanolive®) unveiled rapid vital NETosis against this parasite. A significant increase of autophagosomes visualized by specific-LC3B antibodies and confocal microscopy was observed in B. besnoiti-stimulated bovine PMN when compared to non-stimulated group. As such, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.37; P = 0.042) was found between B. besnoiti-triggered suicidal NETosis and autophagy. These findings suggest that vital- as well as suicidal-NETosis might play a role in early innate host defence mechanisms against released B. besnoiti bradyzoites from tissue cysts, and possibly hampering further parasitic replication. Our data generate first hints on autophagy being associated with B. besnoiti bradyzoite-induced suicidal NETosis and highlighting for first time occurrence of parasite-mediated vital NETosis.
Assessing durum wheat genomic diversity is crucial in a changing environmental particularly in the Mediterranean region where it is largely used to produce pasta. Durum wheat varieties cultivated in Portugal and previously assessed regarding thermotolerance ability were screened for the variability of coding sequences associated with technological traits and repetitive sequences. As expected, reduced variability was observed regarding low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) but a specific LMW-GS allelic form associated with improved pasta-making characteristics was absent in one variety. Contrastingly, molecular markers targeting repetitive elements like microsatellites and retrotransposons – Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) – disclosed significant inter and intra-varietal diversity. This high level of polymorphism was revealed by the 20 distinct ISSR/IRAP concatenated profiles observed among the 23 individuals analysed. Interestingly, median joining networks and PCoA analysis grouped individuals of the same variety and clustered varieties accordingly with geographical origin. Globally, this work demonstrates that durum wheat breeding strategies induced selection pressure for some relevant coding sequences while maintaining high levels of genomic variability in non-coding regions enriched in repetitive sequences.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, yet its dietary intake is low, mostly due to the low bioavailability in soils and therefore in edible plant tissues. To overcome Se deficiency, the breeding approach (i.e., genetic biofortification), namely in rice, is largely dependent on available Se pools. To ensure the success of genetic biofortification with Se, agronomic biofortification can be accomplished through foliar Se application. Considering this background, the main hypothesis of this work was centered in the foliar application of Se to attain agronomic biofortification of rice crops. This study also aimed to assess the full potential for increasing grain Se concentrations during rice filling, as well as the types of nutrients deposition. An experimental design applying two foliar fertilizers (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) was developed. As test systems, four rice genotypes (Ariete, Albatros, OP1105 and OP1109) were used and the kinetics of micro- and macro-nutrients accumulation and deposition were assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials for two years with foliar fertilization ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. At the end of the plant cycle, selenite applications triggered 427- to 884-fold increases in grain Se concentrations among rice genotypes (Albatros > OP1105 > OP1109 > Ariete). The application of selenate also prompted 128- to 347-fold increases in grain Se concentrations in rice crops (Albatros > OP1105 > Ariete > OP1109). Regardless of the foliar fertilizer applied, Se deposition among genotypes occurred throughout the grain without relevant inhibitory effects on yields. In each genotype, micro and macronutrients varied among crop tissues.
Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls.
Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for the subjective passage of time and a neuropsychological evaluation.
MCI patients presented no changes in the perception of interval length. However, for MCI patients, time seemed to pass more slowly than it did for controls. This experience was significantly correlated with memory deficits but not with performance in executive tests, nor with complaints of depression or anxiety.
Memory deficits do not affect the perception of interval length, but are associated with alterations in the subjective passage of time. (JINS, 2016, 22, 755–764)
Recent studies suggest that sand can serve as a vehicle for exposure of humans to pathogens at beach sites, resulting in increased health risks. Sampling for microorganisms in sand should therefore be considered for inclusion in regulatory programmes aimed at protecting recreational beach users from infectious disease. Here, we review the literature on pathogen levels in beach sand, and their potential for affecting human health. In an effort to provide specific recommendations for sand sampling programmes, we outline published guidelines for beach monitoring programmes, which are currently focused exclusively on measuring microbial levels in water. We also provide background on spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of microbes in sand, as these factors influence sampling programmes. First steps toward establishing a sand sampling programme include identifying appropriate beach sites and use of initial sanitary assessments to refine site selection. A tiered approach is recommended for monitoring. This approach would include the analysis of samples from many sites for faecal indicator organisms and other conventional analytes, while testing for specific pathogens and unconventional indicators is reserved for high-risk sites. Given the diversity of microbes found in sand, studies are urgently needed to identify the most significant aetiological agent of disease and to relate microbial measurements in sand to human health risk.
This chapter reviews the origins and nature of stigma. It traces a shift from considering stigma from the perspective of those stigmatized, viewing them as indelibly marked, to a broader social determinants framework that considers stigma from the perspective of the stigmatizing groups, as a form of social oppression. Significant contributions to the field of stigma research have been made by sociologists, social psychologists, geographers, psychiatrists, and more recently epidemiologists and public health professionals. Self-stigma is a form of self-fulfilling prophesy. It occurs when members of a stigmatized group internalize negative stereotypes and adopt a stigmatized illness identity. Self-stigma has its origins in cultural conceptions of mental illness that begin in childhood and become crystalized throughout adulthood. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has provided an important rallying point for legislative and social reform.
This study presents new information on feeding habits of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis, in south-eastern Brazil, together with new regression equations to evaluate the weight and length of fish from otoliths, showing an overview on the knowledge about this species’ diet in this area. Eighteen stomach contents had been analysed and compared to 180 samples collected in another eight feeding studies. The analysed specimens were either incidentally caught in gillnets used in coastal waters by the fleet based in the Cananéia main harbour (25°00′S 47°55′W), south of São Paulo State, or found dead in inner waters of the Cananéia estuary between 2003 and 2009. Based on the index of relative importance analysis, the most important fish species were the banded croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis. Doryteuthis plei was the most representative cephalopod species. Stellifer rastrifer was the most important fish species observed in dolphins in inner estuarine waters and P. brasiliensis in recovered dolphins from coastal waters. Loliguncula brevis is the only cephalopod species reported from dolphins found in inner estuarine waters up to date. Doryteuthis plei was the most important cephalopod species observed in coastal dolphins. When considering other feeding studies, the most representative fish family in the diet of S. guianensis was Sciaenidae, which is mainly represented by demersal fishes. The main preys of S. guianensis are abundant in the studied areas, which may indicate an opportunistic feeding habit. The majority of them are not the most important target species by the commercial fishery in south-eastern Brazil.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a positive deviance strategy for the improvement of hand hygiene compliance in 2 adult step-down units.
A 9-month, controlled trial comparing the effect of positive deviance on compliance with hand hygiene.
Two 20-bed step-down units at a tertiary care private hospital.
The first phase of our study was a 3-month baseline period (from April to June 2008) in which hand hygiene episodes were counted by use of electronic handwashing counters. From July to September 2008 (ie, the second phase), a positive deviance strategy was implemented in the east unit; the west unit was the control unit. During the period from October to December 2008 (ie, the third phase), positive deviance was applied in both units.
During the first phase, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 step-down units in the number of episodes of hand hygiene per 1,000 patient-days or in the incidence density of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) per 1,000 patient-days. During the second phase, there were 62,000 hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days in the east unit and 33,570 hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days in the west unit (P < .01). The incidence density of HAIs per 1,000 patient-days was 6.5 in the east unit and 12.7 in the west unit (P = .04). During the third phase, there was no statistically significant difference in hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days (P = .16) or in incidence density of HAIs per 1,000 patient-days.
A positive deviance strategy yielded a significant improvement in hand hygiene, which was associated with a decrease in the overall incidence of HAIs.
The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and internal sulfatic reaction (ISR), normally both referred as internal expansive reactions, are among the most common causes of concrete structures deterioration worldwide. These reactions, which could be present simultaneously, origin products those are responsible for expansive stresses in the cement-based building materials, leading to severe cracking and loss of strength. The reaction products are also often amorphous or badly crystallized, or even present in very low content that they are very difficult to identify by current analytical physico-chemical techniques. The main macroscopic evidence of these degradation phenomena in concrete structures are the superficial occurrence of map-cracking, pop-outs and exudates (figure 1). Nevertheless, these symptoms are not exclusive and enough to establish a correct diagnosis.
X-ray powder diffraction data for N,N'-diphenylguanidinium nitrate, within the temperature range of 103–293 K, are reported. The pattern at 293 K was confirmed by a fitting of the overall parameters performed with FULLPROF using the atomic parameters obtained from single-crystal studies. The compound is orthorhombic, space group Pna21 (33), with unit-cell parameters a=1.7058(4) nm, b=1.3933(3) nm, c=0.5821(1) nm, and V=1.3834(6) nm3. The unit-cell parameters for the other six temperatures measured were determined by performing pattern matching with FULLPROF. The unit-cell volume contracted on cooling from 1.3834(6) nm3 to 1.3403(4) nm3. The thermal expansion tensor was calculated from the changes of the unit-cell parameters with temperature. The elements of the thermal expansion tensor at 293 K are α11=125(4),α22=57(9), and α33=82(3)×10−6 K−1.
New X-ray powder diffraction patterns for two cholesterol derivatives, cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione and cholest-4-en-3-one are reported in the range 0<2θ<115°. Both compounds crystallize in similar monoclinic cells in space-group P21, with unit cell parameters a=10.481(3) Å, b=8.0354(8) Å, c=14.677(3) Å, β=105.265(7)°, V=1192.5(4) Å3 for C27H42O2, and a=10.703(2) Å, b=7.8750(6) Å, c=14.660(3) Å, β=105.205(14)°, V=1192.4(4) Å3 for C27H44O. The patterns, confirmed by single-crystal studies, do not match the PDF 17-1144 and PDF 10-649. A fitting of the overall parameters was performed with Fullprof using the atomic parameters obtained from single-crystal studies.
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