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Most theories of curiosity emphasize the acquisition of information. Yet, recent advances from philosophy and cognitive science suggest that it may be time to complement the acquisitional theory of curiosity with a connectional theory of curiosity. This alternative perspective focuses on the actions of the knower in seeking relations among informational units, laying down lines of intersection, and thereby building a scaffold or network of knowledge. Intuitively, curiosity becomes edgework. In this chapter, we dwell on the notion of edgework, wrestle with its relation to prior accounts, and exercise its unique features to craft alternative reasons for curiosity’s value to humanity. In doing so, we find that the notion of edgework offers a fresh, flexible, and explanatory account of curiosity. More broadly, it uncovers new opportunities to use the lens of science to examine, probe, and interrogate this important dimension of the human experience.
Acritarch biostratigraphic and δ13C chemostratigraphic data from the Krol A Formation in the Solan area (Lesser Himalaya, northern India) are integrated to aid inter-basinal correlation of early–middle Ediacaran strata. We identified a prominent negative δ13C excursion (likely equivalent to EN2 in the lower Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of South China), over a dozen species of acanthomorphs (including two new species—Cavaspina tiwariae Xiao n. sp., Dictyotidium grazhdankinii Xiao n. sp.), and numerous other microfossils from an interval in the Krol A Formation. Most microfossil taxa from the Krol A and the underlying Infra-Krol formations are also present in the Doushantuo Formation. Infra-Krol acanthomorphs support a correlation with the earliest Doushantuo biozone: the Appendisphaera grandis-Weissiella grandistella-Tianzhushania spinosa Assemblage Zone. Krol A microfossils indicate a correlation with the second or (more likely, when δ13C data are considered) the third biozone in the lower Doushantuo Formation (i.e., the Tanarium tuberosum-Schizofusa zangwenlongii or Tanarium conoideum-Cavaspina basiconica Assemblage Zone). The association of acanthomorphs with EN2 in the Krol Formation fills a critical gap in South China where chert nodules, and thus acanthomorphs, are rare in the EN2 interval. Like many other Ediacaran acanthomorphs assemblages, Krol A and Doushantuo acanthomorphs are distributed in low paleolatitudes, and they may represent a distinct paleobiogeographic province in east Gondwana. The Indian data affirm the stratigraphic significance of acanthomorphs and δ13C, clarify key issues of lower Ediacaran bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation, and strengthen the basis for the study of Ediacaran eukaryote evolution and paleobiogeography.
Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor unplanned school closure (USC) reports through online systematic searches (OSS) to assist public health emergency responses. We counted the additional reports identified through social media along with OSS to improve USC monitoring.
Facebook and Twitter data of public-school districts and private schools in counties affected by California wildfires in October and December of 2017 and January of 2018 were retrieved. We computed descriptive statistics and performed multivariable logistic regression for both OSS and social media data.
Among the 362 public-school districts in wildfire-affected counties, USCs were identified for 115 (32%) districts, of which OSS identified 104 (90%), Facebook, 59 (52%), and Twitter, 37 (32%). These data correspond to 4622 public schools, among which USCs were identified for 888 (19.2%) schools, of which OSS identified 722 (81.3%), Facebook, 496 (55.9%), and Twitter, 312 (35.1%). Among 1289 private schools, USCs were identified for 104 schools, of which OSS identified 47 (45.2%), Facebook, 67 (64.4%), and Twitter, 29 (27.9%). USC announcements identified via social media, in addition to those via OSS, were 11 public school districts, 166 public schools, and 57 private schools.
Social media complements OSS as additional resources for USC monitoring during disasters.
Do language skills affect investment decisions? This article addresses this question by identifying the effect of English proficiency on the stock market participation of immigrants in the United States and Australia. To establish causality, we construct an instrumental variable for English proficiency by exploiting the phenomenon that younger children acquire languages more easily than older children. We find that English proficiency has a significant positive effect on stock ownership among immigrants in both countries. Moreover, we provide evidence that a reduction in information costs and an increase in trust may serve as the mechanisms underlying the language ability effect.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare Parkinson-plus syndrome with rapid progression and a high symptom burden. The experience of caregivers of people with MSA has not been closely examined. We therefore sought to document the impact of MSA on caregivers using a mixed methods approach.
Patients and caregivers were recruited from a movement disorders program in Edmonton, Canada. Participants completed the following survey instruments based on their own or their loved one’s symptoms: 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Multiple System Atrophy health-related Quality of Life scale (MSA-QoL), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Caregivers also completed the Zarit Burden Interview and HADS based on their own experience. Qualitative data were obtained through semi-structured interviews.
Nine people with MSA (PwMSA) (age range: 48–78 years) and 11 caregivers (49–76 years) participated. All completed surveys; 7 PwMSA and 10 caregivers were interviewed. Eight PwMSA had the parkinsonian type of MSA (MSA-P) and one a mixed type. Caregivers had on average mild-moderate caregiver burden and mild anxiety. Caregiver burden and anxiety were correlated. Qualitative subthemes under the caregiving theme included keeping the patient safe, caregivers’ own health, and communication symptoms cause frustration. The rapid progression of illness was bewildering to caregivers and increased their workload. Public home care services were invaluable to caregivers’ maintaining their loved ones at home. Caregivers were inventive in finding sources of hope and quality of life for their loved ones.
Publicly funded home care was essential for caregivers of PwMSA in this study. Caregiver support is needed to provide this unrecognized workforce with information and resources to face this challenging condition.
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
Background: Phase 3 COMET trial (NCT02782741) compares avalglucosidase alfa (n=51) with alglucosidase alfa (n=49) in treatment-naïve LOPD. Methods: Primary objective: determine avalglucosidase alfa effect on respiratory muscle function. Secondary/other objectives include: avalglucosidase alfa effect on functional endurance, inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength, lower/upper extremity muscle strength, motor function, health-related quality of life, safety. Results: At Week 49, change (LSmean±SE) from baseline in upright forced vital capacity %predicted was greater with avalglucosidase alfa (2.89%±0.88%) versus alglucosidase alfa (0.46%±0.93%)(absolute difference+2.43%). The primary objective, achieving statistical non-inferiority (p=0.0074), was met. Superiority testing was borderline significant (p=0.0626). Week 49 change from baseline in 6-minute walk test was 30.01-meters greater for avalglucosidase alfa (32.21±9.93m) versus alglucosidase alfa (2.19±10.40m). Positive results for avalglucosidase alfa were seen for all secondary/other efficacy endpoints. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 86.3% of avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 91.8% of alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. Five participants withdrew, 4 for AEs, all on alglucosidase alfa. Serious AEs occurred in 8 avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 12 alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. IgG antidrug antibody responses were similar in both. High titers and neutralizing antibodies were more common for alglucosidase alfa. Conclusions: Results demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful outcome measures and a more favorable safety profile with avalglucosidase alfa versus alglucosidase alfa. Funding: Sanofi Genzyme
This paper first uses a low-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system to measure the convergent statistical quantities of the flow field and then simultaneously measure the time-resolved flow field and the wall mass transfer rate by a high-speed SPIV system and an electrochemical system, respectively. We measure the flow field and wall mass transfer rate under upstream pipe Reynolds numbers between 25 000 and 55 000 at three specific locations behind the orifice plate. Moreover, we apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), stochastic estimation and spectral analysis to study the properties of the flow field and the wall mass transfer rate. More importantly, we investigate the large-scale coherent structures’ effects on the wall mass transfer rate. The collapse of the wall mass transfer rates’ spectra by the corresponding time scales at the three specific positions of orifice flow suggest that the physics of low-frequency wall mass transfer rates are probably the same, although the flow fields away from the wall are quite different. Furthermore, the spectra of the velocity reconstructed by the most energetic eigenmodes agree well with the wall mass transfer rate in the low-frequency region, suggesting that the first several energetic eigenmodes capture the flow dynamics relevant to the low-frequency variation of the wall mass transfer. Stochastic estimation results of the velocity field associated with large wall mass transfer rate at all three specific locations further reveal that the most energetic coherent structures are correlated with the wall mass transfer rate.
This study investigated the characteristics and prognosis of the feeling of ear fullness in patients with unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Our study included 56 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a feeling of ear fullness and 48 patients without a feeling of ear fullness. The condition of these patients was prospectively observed.
Positive correlations were observed between grading of feeling of ear fullness and hearing loss in patients with a feeling of ear fullness (r = 0.599, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the total effective rate of hearing recovery between patients with and without a feeling of ear fullness after one month of treatment (Z = −0.641, p = 0.521). Eighty-six per cent of patients (48 out of 56) showed complete recovery from the feeling of ear fullness. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery (r = 0.040, p = 0.769).
The prognosis of feeling of ear fullness is good. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery for all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
To examine whether usual beverage intake was associated with sleep timing, duration and fragmentation among adolescents.
Usual beverage intake was assessed with a FFQ. Outcomes included sleep duration, midpoint (median of bed and wake times) and fragmentation, assessed with 7-d actigraphy. Sex-stratified linear regression was conducted with sleep characteristics as separate outcomes and quantiles of energy-adjusted beverage intake as exposures, accounting for age, maternal education, physical activity and smoking.
528 adolescents residing in Mexico City enrolled in a longitudinal cohort.
The mean age (sd) was 14·4 (2·1) years; 48 % were male. Among males, milk and water consumption were associated with longer weekday sleep duration (25 (95 % CI 1, 48) and 26 (95 % CI 4, 47) more minutes, in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile); and higher 100 % fruit juice consumption was related to earlier weekday sleep timing (−22 (95 % CI −28, 1) minutes in the 1st compared to the last quantile; P = 0·03). Among females, soda was associated with higher sleep fragmentation (1·6 (95 % CI 0·4, 2·8) % in the 4th compared to the 1st), and coffee/tea consumption was related to shorter weekend sleep duration (−23 (95 % CI −44, 2) minutes in the 4th compared to the 1st).
Among females, adverse associations with sleep were observed for caffeinated drinks, while males with higher consumption of healthier beverage options (water, milk and 100 % juice) had evidence of longer and earlier-timed sleep. Potential mechanisms involving melatonin and tryptophan should be further investigated.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders.
We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific.
We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.
Active skin-friction reduction in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is experimentally studied based on time-periodic blowing through one array of streamwise slits. The control parameters investigated include the blowing amplitude A+ and frequency f+, which, expressed in wall units, range from 0 to 2 and from 0.007 to 0.56, respectively. The maximum local friction reduction downstream of the slits reaches more than 70 %; friction does not fully recover to the state of the natural TBL until 500 wall units behind the slits. A positive net power saving is possible, and 4.01 % is measured with a local friction drag reduction (DR) of 49 %. A detailed analysis based on hot-wire, particle image velocimetry and smoke-wire flow visualization data is performed to understand the physical mechanisms involved. Spectral analysis indicates weakened near-wall large-scale structures. Flow visualizations show stabilized streaky structures and a locally relaminarized flow. Two factors are identified to contribute to the DR. Firstly, the jets from the slits create streamwise vortices in the near-wall region, preventing the formation of near-wall streaks and interrupting the turbulence generation cycle. Secondly, the zero-streamwise-momentum fluid associated with the jets also accounts for the DR. A closed-loop opposing control system is developed, along with an open-loop desynchronized control scheme, to quantify the two contributions. The latter is found to account for 77 % of the DR, whereas the former is responsible for 23 %. An empirical scaling of the DR is also proposed, which provides valuable insight into the TBL control physics.
Pigeonpea is an important grain legume. It contributes to the improvement of soil fertility through biological nitrogen (N) fixation. However, the symbiotic efficiency of pigeonpea with native soil rhizobia has not been determined adequately. This study was designed to determine the variation in the N fixation ability of pigeonpea inoculated with the native rhizobia. Forty soil samples were collected from diverse locations across South Africa and used for inoculating pigeonpea seed. Each pigeonpea genotype was inoculated separately with each soil sample and raised in a nitrogen-depleted growth medium in the greenhouse. A split-plot experimental design was used in the study. Several N fixation variables of pigeonpea were measured. There was >40.0% difference in the number of nodules between genotypes ‘Ex-PP-MD-321’ and ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’ but the nodule dry weight between the two genotypes was >80.0%. In contrast, the heaviest dry shoots (0.4513 g), weighed 52.0% heavier than those that were observed for ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’. Pigeonpea showed differential N fixation ability with the nodules, suggesting that there was potential to select for optimum host × rhizobial isolate combinations for the process and to expand the production area of the crop.
This paper describes a computational investigation of multimode instability growth and multimaterial mixing induced by multiple shock waves in a high-energy-density (HED) environment, where pressures exceed 1 Mbar. The simulations are based on a series of experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and designed as an HED analogue of non-HED shock-tube studies of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability and turbulent mixing. A three-dimensional computational modelling framework is presented. It treats many complications absent from canonical non-HED shock-tube flows, including distinct ion and free-electron internal energies, non-ideal equations of state, radiation transport and plasma-state mass diffusivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities. The simulations are tuned to the available NIF data, and traditional statistical quantities of turbulence are analysed. Integrated measures of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy both increase by over an order of magnitude due to reshock. Large contributions to enstrophy production during reshock are seen from both the baroclinic source and enstrophy–dilatation terms, highlighting the significance of fluid compressibility in the HED regime. Dimensional analysis reveals that Reynolds numbers and diffusive Péclet numbers in the HED flow are similar to those in a canonical non-HED analogue, but conductive Péclet numbers are much smaller in the HED flow due to efficient thermal conduction by free electrons. It is shown that the mechanism of electron thermal conduction significantly softens local spanwise gradients of both temperature and density, which causes a minor but non-negligible decrease in enstrophy production and small-scale mixing relative to a flow without this mechanism.
Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor that results in a positive inotropic effect in the heart through an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate and milrinone concentrations in milrinone treated paediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Single-centre prospective observational pilot study from January 2015 to December 2017 including children aged birth to 18 years. Milrinone and circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations were measured at four time points through the first post-operative day and compared between patients with and without low cardiac output syndrome, defined using clinical and laboratory criteria.
Fifty patients were included. Nine (18%) developed low cardiac output syndrome. For all patients, 22% had single ventricle heart disease. The density and distribution of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations varied between those with and without low cardiac output syndrome but were not significantly different. Milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Paired t-tests demonstrated an increase in circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations during the post-operative period among patients without low cardiac output syndrome.
In this prospective observational study, circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations increased in those without low cardiac output syndrome during the first 24 post-operative hours and milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Further study of the utility of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations in milrinone treated patients is necessary.
Winter half-year precipitation dominates variations in hydroclimatic conditions in North Xinjiang, but few researchers have focused on this very important aspect of the Holocene climate. Here we report multiproxy evidence of Holocene hydroclimate changes from the sediments of Wulungu Lake in North Xinjiang. The site is a closed terminal lake fed mainly by meltwater from snow and ice, and today the area is climatically dominated by the westerlies. Grain-size end-member analysis implies an important mode of variation that indicates a gradually increasing moisture trend, with superimposed centennial-scale variations, since 8000 cal yr BP. From 8000 to 5350 cal yr BP, a permanent lake developed, and the lake level gradually rose. Between 5350 and 500 cal yr BP, the moisture status increased rapidly, with the wettest climate occurring between 3200 and 500 cal yr BP. After 500 cal yr BP, the lake level fell. The trend of increasing Holocene wetness indicates a rising winter precipitation in North Xinjiang during the Holocene. This was due to an increase in upwind vapor concentrations caused by increased evaporation and strength of the westerlies, which were determined by the increasing boreal winter insolation and its latitudinal gradient.