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This case report highlights the risk of development of Neuroleptic Malignant-Like Syndrome secondary to withdrawal of procyclidine with brief withdrawal of L-dopa and long-term typical antipsychotic depot. The patient responded to reintroduction of procyclidine, sedation and supportive treatment. The mechanism and management of NMS and NMLS is also reviewed. This case emphasises that any changes in antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian medications should be undertaken with extreme caution and patient should be closely monitored for development of NMLS after alteration in these medications.
Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity. We explore opportunities for prevention using asset based-approaches to nutritional health and well-being, with a particular focus on adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds living in London. We focus on the important role that community engagement and multi-sectoral partnership play in improving the nutritional outcomes of London's children. London's children and adolescents grow up in the rich cultural mix of a global city where local streets are characterised by diversity in ethnicities, languages, religions, foods, and customs, creating complex and fluid identities. Growing up with such everyday diversity we argue can enhance the quality of life for London's children and strengthen their social capital. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study of about 6500 of London's young people demonstrated the positive impact of cultural diversity. Born to parents from over a hundred countries and exposed to multi-lingual households and religious practices, they demonstrated strong psychological resilience and sense of pride from cultural straddling, despite material disadvantage and discrimination. Supporting the potential contribution of such socio-cultural assets is in keeping with the values of social justice and equitable and sustainable development. Our work signals the importance of community engagement and multisectoral partnerships, involving, for example, schools and faith-based organisations, to improve the nutrition of London's children.
This study examined the response of forage crops to composted dairy waste (compost) applied at low rates and investigated effects on soil health. The evenness of spreading compost by commercial machinery was also assessed. An experiment was established on a commercial dairy farm with target rates of compost up to 5 t ha−1 applied to a field containing millet [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz] and Pasja leafy turnip (Brassica hybrid). A pot experiment was also conducted to monitor the response of a legume forage crop (vetch; Vicia sativa L.) on three soils with equivalent rates of compost up to 20 t ha−1 with and without ‘additive blends’ comprising gypsum, lime or other soil treatments. Few significant increases in forage biomass were observed with the application of low rates of compost in either the field or pot experiment. In the field experiment, compost had little impact on crop herbage mineral composition, soil chemical attributes or soil fungal and bacterial biomass. However, small but significant increases were observed in gravimetric water content resulting in up to 22.4 mm of additional plant available water calculated in the surface 0.45 m of soil, 2 years after compost was applied in the field at 6 t ha−1 dried (7.2 t ha−1 undried), compared with the nil control. In the pot experiment, where the soil was homogenized and compost incorporated into the soil prior to sowing, there were significant differences in mineral composition in herbage and in soil. A response in biomass yield to compost was only observed on the sandier and lower fertility soil type, and yields only exceeded that of the conventional fertilizer treatment where rates equivalent to 20 t ha−1 were applied. With few yield responses observed, the justification for applying low rates of compost to forage crops and pastures seems uncertain. Our collective experience from the field and the glasshouse suggests that farmers might increase the response to compost by: (i) increasing compost application rates; (ii) applying it prior to sowing a crop; (iii) incorporating the compost into the soil; (iv) applying only to responsive soil types; (v) growing only responsive crops; and (vi) reducing weed burdens in crops following application. Commercial machinery incorporating a centrifugal twin disc mechanism was shown to deliver double the quantity of compost in the area immediately behind the spreader compared with the edges of the spreading swathe. Spatial variability in the delivery of compost could be reduced but not eliminated by increased overlapping, but this might represent a potential 20% increase in spreading costs.
Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) is a cross-diagnostic, patient-centred, self-management intervention for psychiatric illness. WRAP utilises an individualised Wellness Toolbox, a six part structured monitoring and response system, and a crisis and post-crisis plan to promote recovery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of WRAP on personal recovery, quality of life, and self-reported psychiatric symptoms.
A prospective randomised controlled trial, based on the CONSORT principles was conducted using a sample of 36 inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Participants were randomly allocated to Experimental Group or Waiting List Control Group conditions in a 1:1 ratio. Measures of personal recovery, personal recovery life areas, quality of life, anxiety, and depression were administered at three time points: (i) pre-intervention, (ii) post-Experimental Group intervention delivery, and (iii) 6-month follow-up. Data was analysed by available case analysis using univariate and bivariate methodologies.
WRAP had a significant effect on two personal recovery life areas measured by the Mental Health Recovery Star: (i) addictive behaviour and (ii) identity and self-esteem. WRAP did not have a significant effect on personal recovery (measured by the Mental Health Recovery Measure), quality of life, or psychiatric symptoms.
Findings indicate that WRAP improves personal recovery in the areas of (i) addictive behaviour and (ii) identity and self-esteem. Further research is required to confirm WRAP efficacy in other outcome domains. Efforts to integrate WRAP into recovery-orientated mental health services should be encouraged and evaluated.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which causes motor impairments. Current treatments involve dopamine replacement to address the disease symptoms rather than its cause. Factors that promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons have been proposed as novel therapies for PD. Several dopaminergic neurotrophic factors (NTFs) have been examined for their ability to protect and/or restore degenerating dopaminergic neurons, both in animal models and in clinical trials. These include glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor and growth/differentiation factor 5. Delivery of these NTFs via injection or infusion to the brain raises several practical problems. A new delivery approach for NTFs involves the use of recombinant viral vectors to enable long-term expression of these factors in brain cells. Vectors used include those based on adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses. Here we review progress to date on the potential of each of these four NTFs as novel therapeutic strategies for PD, as well as the challenges that have arisen, from pre-clinical analysis to clinical trials. We conclude by discussing recently-developed approaches to optimise the delivery of NTF-carrying viral vectors to the brain.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in ∼2/3 of patients, yet services for adults are lacking in Ireland. This may involve negative attitudes and beliefs as to the validity of ADHD or lack of knowledge and training in its treatment. The objectives of this study are to explore the views of Adult Psychiatrists regarding ADHD knowledge and the treatment options available and pursued in Ireland.
A questionnaire was constructed based on the stated aims of the study, and was either posted, emailed or handed to 400 Consultants and Senior Registrars throughout the Republic of Ireland between February and December 2011. A total of 92 questionnaires were returned (23%); one was excluded from analysis due to insufficient information entered by the respondent.
Seventy-five per cent of respondents correctly estimated the prevalence rates of adult ADHD to be under 3%, but stated it is currently under-diagnosed (77%). Seventy-four per cent indicated that Adult ADHD should be a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM V). Sixty-six per cent of respondents were willing to accept referrals of childhood ADHD for ongoing care and a similar number for new ADHD assessments (61%). Less than half (42%) surveyed had actually diagnosed ADHD and of these, only 33% felt confident in managing ADHD in their patients.
Although there is a general willingness to offer services for new and existing ADHD cases and a recognition that Adult ADHD is valid and under-diagnosed, the low confidence levels when treating ADHD and the perception of under-diagnosis suggests a role for further training and links between child and adult services.
Coeliac disease (CD) results from immunologically mediated inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa precipitated by ingestion of gluten in wheat and other cereals in genetically susceptible people. There is a broad spectrum of clinical and histological features associated with gluten sensitivity. Overt clinical malabsorption is uncommon, and clinical symptoms are often non-specific. This is particularly true of older people and the diagnosis of CD may be delayed or missed as a result. The incidence of metabolic bone disease, neurological symptoms and nutritional deficiencies are high in older people with CD and respond well to treatment. Sensitive and specific serological tests are now available and these have improved ease of detection of CD in patients without classical symptoms. Hence, a high index of suspicion is warranted in older people with potential symptoms of CD.
For food intakes to be converted into nutrient intakes a measure or estimate of the amount of food consumed is required. A number of methods have been developed to assist subjects in providing an estimate of portion size. Children's ability to use perception, conceptualisation and memory skills to estimate food portion size has not been investigated systematically. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of the timing of a dietary interview on the accuracy of estimates of food portion sizes made by children, using food photographs, food models and an interactive portion size assessment system, developed for use with children and based on portion sizes of foods consumed by children. Children (n 108) aged 4–14 years were supplied with known quantities of foods and asked to estimate the portion size of each food using each of the three portion size assessment tools. Interviews took place (a) with the food in view, (b) just after the child had eaten the food or (c) 24 h after the child had eaten the food. There were no significant differences in children's ability to estimate food portion size (either as served or as eaten) with timing of interview. That is, children were as accurate in their estimates of portion size 24 h after consuming the food as when the food was in view. Under these conditions many children were able to estimate food portion size utilising perception, conceptualisation and memory skills.
To assess the risk of environmental and healthcare worker (HCW) contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) during outpatient procedures performed on fecally continent patients currently colonized with VRE (cVRE) or previously colonized with VRE (pVRE).
Outpatient consultation and radiology rooms and the hemodialysis unit in a university teaching hospital.
Fecally continent cVRE and pVRE patients.
Both cVRE and pVRE patients attended standardized mock outpatient consultations and routine hemodialysis sessions in an area that had been thoroughly cleaned and microbiologically confirmed to be free of VRE contamination. After each session, the patient, environment, and participating HCW were tested for VRE contamination.
Fourteen cVRE patients participated in 49 mock outpatient consultation sessions and radiology sessions or 26 actual hemodialysis sessions, and 7 pVRE patients participated in 28 outpatient consultation sessions. Sessions with cVRE patients had higher rates of contamination of the environment (chair cultures were positive for VRE in 36% of outpatient consultation sessions, 58% of hemodialysis sessions; couch cultures were positive in 48% of outpatient consultation sessions, 42% of radiology sessions, and 45% of hemodialysis sessions), contamination of HCW gowns (gown cultures were positive in 20% of outpatient consultation sessions, 4% of radiology sessions, and 30% of hemodialysis sessions), and contamination of patients' own hands (hand cultures were positive in 36% of outpatient consultation sessions, 25% of radiology sessions, and 54% of hemodialysis sessions). Overall, contamination rates associated with pVRE patients attendance at outpatient consultations were 12% of those noted for cVRE patients (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.42; P = .001).
Given the nature of the contamination risk posed by fecally continent cVRE patients undergoing outpatient procedures, infection control measures should focus on effective HCW and patient hand hygiene and chair and couch cleaning, to minimize transmission of VRE.
This paper reviews the developments in reporting of traditional embedded value and summarises some of the reasons why this is now undergoing change. It considers the purpose of an embedded value calculation and the effect of differing attitudes to risk. It comments on the recently developed European Embedded Value Principles and sets out the main areas where scope remains to apply judgement.
The paper proposes the market-consistent embedded value framework as a way forward to help provide guidance in some of these areas, in particular on the choice of discount rate and on calibration of stochastic techniques used to value embedded options and guarantees. The paper recognises that market-consistent embedded values are in relative infancy and sets out areas for possible future development.
Submucosal diathermy to the inferior turbinates is a common surgical procedure performed to improve the nasal airway. We present the case of a previously well six-year-old boy who underwent submucosal diathermy and developed the unusual complication of a left oculomotor nerve palsy. The possible aetiology is discussed.
Two types of silicon clathrates, NaxSi136 (0≤ × ≤ 24) and Na8Si46 and a mixed clathrate (Na,Ba)Si46 were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, 23Na NMR and high resolution TEM. Systematic changes in X-ray diffraction intensities enabled the sodium content and site occupancy in the NaxSi136 series to be followed and then refined by Rietveld profile analysis. 23Na NMR spectra of Na8Si46 and NaxSi136 samples reveals two peaks with large paramagnetic shifts (1600-2000 ppm) for each phase, associated with the presence of Na atoms in two different environments. High resolution electron microscopy reveals the clathrate structures of these samples, and allows classes of defects to be characterized.