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Smoking rates in schizotypic individuals are shown to be elevated, as in patients with schizophrenia, although findings on the association of smoking with different symptomatology of schizotypy have been mixed. Moreover, possible moderating effects of schizotypy on the relationship between smoking and cognition have not been well documented.
Subjects and methods
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the full version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were administered to 501 healthy adults. Subjects were divided into smokers (n = 85) and non-smokers (n = 416) based on the presence/absence of current smoking.
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the three factor scores as well as the total score of the SPQ, controlling for age and gender, revealed that cognitive-perceptual factor was significantly associated with an increased rate of smoking (P = 0.048). The ANCOVA on the WMS-R indices, with smoking group as a fixed factor and age, gender and total SPQ score as covariates, revealed that the schizotypy-by-smoking interaction was significant for attention/working memory (P = 0.029).
Discussion and conclusion
Positive schizotypy may be associated with more smoking. Schizotypy and smoking could interact with each other to negatively affect attention/working memory.
Altered levels of phenylalanine and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have previously been reported in schizophrenia. This study attempted to examine whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using the 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PBT).
Subjects were 20 patients with schizophrenia and the same number of controls. 13C-phenylalanine was administered and then 13CO2 concentration in breath was monitored for 120 minutes. The Δ 13CO2 at each collecting time, the maximal Δ 13CO2 (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (Tmax), the area under the curve of time course of Δ13CO2 (AUC), the cumulative recovery rate (CRR) at each collecting time of the 13C-PBT were calculated for each subject.
Body weight (BW) and diagnostic status were significant predictors for Cmax. BW, age and diagnostic status were significant predictors for AUC and CRR at 120 minutes (CRR0-120). A repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for age and BW revealed a different pattern of change in CRR over time between the patients and controls and that Δ13CO2 in schizophrenia were lower than that in healthy control at all sampling point during 120 min, with an overall significant differences between healthy control and schizophrenia. The ANCOVA controlling for age and BW, showed that Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 were significantly lower in schizophrenics than in controls.
Our data indicate the different change of Δ13CO2 and CRR over time and the decreased Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 of 13C-PBT in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting the altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia.
It has been reported that cognitive functioning in major depressive disorder (MDD) can be affected by various factors, such as symptom severity, personality dimensions and stress hormone activity. However, the relative role of each is largely unknown.
Seventy-six non-remitted patients with MDD were recruited. Symptomatology was assessed by the 21-item version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). Personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Neurocognitive functions, including verbal and visual memory, delayed recall and attention/working memory were measured by the full version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Neuroendocrine function was determined by the reactivity of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) to the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone test. To quantify cognitive impairments in patients, age-, sex- and education- matched 187 healthy controls were also recruited and administered the same neuropsychological test.
MDD patients performed significantly worse than controls on visual memory and delayed recall. A stepwise multiple regression analysis predicting performance of each cognitive domain from five HSCL dimensions, seven TCI dimensions and hormonal variables, controlling for age, gender and education, revealed that higher cooperativeness was the only significant predictor towards better verbal memory, that less somatization symptoms and lower self-directedness were significant predictors towards better visual memory, and that lower age, less anxiety symptoms and lower DHEAS levels after dexamethasone administration were significant predictors towards better delayed recall.
Besides symptomatology, some personality dimensions and neuroendocrine function may, at least partly independently, contribute to memory impairment in MDD.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
To apply thin ZnO film to photoacoustic tomography sensors, we investigated methods to improve its piezoelectricity with high optical transmittance. ZnO film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a quartz substrate with various changes of the following conditions: RF sputtering power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature (TSUB). The preliminary optimization of sputtering conditions is to form the ZnO film with good c-axis crystalline alignment. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement and cross-sectional observations indicated that the high-TSUB condition was preferable. This was because the desorption of Zn due to high-TSUB during the deposition process induced the formation of excellent columnar grains normal to the substrate. To enhance the piezoresponse, the substitution of Zn with different crystal-radius atoms was investigated, the aim being to increase the electrically neutral dipole moment by the partial displacement of the Zn-O bond. The transition metal V, with the potential to have the various configurations and coordination numbers, was selected as the dopant. As a result, it was confirmed that the diffraction peak from the (002) plane shifted to low angles with small degradation of the diffraction intensities.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
This article describes design of fullerene-based electron-accepting materials to obtain high performance in organic thin-film photovoltaic devices. A 1,4-bis(dimethylphenylsilylmethyl)fullerene gives higher open circuit voltage than 1,2-diadduct because of smaller π-conjugated systems, and enables columnar fullerene-core array for high electron mobility and thermal crystallization for ideal phase separation with electron-donor materials. A 56π-electron fullerene derivative possessing the dihydromethano group as the smallest carbon addend does not disrupt fullerene-fullerene contact in solid state, giving high open-circuit voltage without decreasing of short-circuit current density and fill factor.
Phase equilibria among γ-Fe, ε-Fe2Nb Laves and δ-Ni3Nb phases in Fe-Ni-Nb ternary system at 1473 K and 1373 K were experimentally examined, and also assessed by calculation in order to calculate the phase equilibria among these phases at 973 K. A ternary compound with hP24 structure with its limited composition range of Fe-21.5Nb- (56.8-59.8) Ni exists between Fe2Nb and Ni3Nb phase regions at both temperatures. Including the hP24 phase, the calculated isotherms at both temperatures are in good agreement with experimental ones. By using the optimized interaction parameters among the three elements in each phase, the isothermal section calculated at 973 K revealed a γ-Fe+ Fe2Nb + Ni3Nb three-phase coexisting region extended to Fe-rich composition of 80 at. % Fe. This suggests a possibility to develop austenitic heatresistant steels strengthened by both intermetallics phases.
The creep behavior of a new type of austenitic heat-resistant steel Fe-20Cr-30Ni-2Nb (at.%), strengthened by intermetallic Fe2Nb Laves phase, has been examined. Particular attention has been given to the role of grain boundary Laves phase in the strengthening mechanism during long-term creep. The creep resistance increases with increasing area fraction (ρ) of grain boundary Laves phase according to equation ε/ε = (1−ρ), where ε0 is the creep rate at ρ = 0. In addition, the creep rupture life is also extended with increasing ρ without ductility loss, which can yield up to 77% of elongation even at ρ = 89%. Microstructure analysis revealed local deformation and well-developed subgrains formation near the grain boundary free from precipitates, while dislocation pile-ups were observed near the grain boundary Laves phase. Thus, the grain boundary Laves phase is effective in suppressing the local deformation by preventing dislocation motion, and thereby increases the long-term creep rupture strength. This novel creep strengthening mechanism was proposed as “grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism” (GBPS).
A novel synthesis route to organic-capped and colloidal ZnO quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. Specifically, zinc-di-butoxide was hydrolyzed with very dilute water (100˜600 mass ppm) dissolved in hydrophilic benzylamine and polymerized to ZnO by dehydration condensation. After formation of ZnO QDs with 2˜3 nm in diameter, growth of the QDs and exchange the surface capping ligand from hydroxyl groups and/or benzylamine to oleylamine were developed by heating the colloidal solution with oleylamine. The size of the ZnO QDs finally obtained was in the range 3˜5 nm in diameter. The QDs show high dispersibility in various organic solvents. Clear UV emission due to exciton recombination was observed; and its energy was varied according to the quantum size effect from 3.39 to 3.54 eV. By using lithium-free zinc-di-butoxide as a starting material, the defect-related VIS emission was successfully decreased and the UV emission becomes dominant. The influence of water concentration in benzylamine and oleylamine on UV emission intensity was also investigated.
We prepared fine Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) powder suitable for screen printing using a mechanochemical synthesis and wet bead milling. Particulate precursors were deposited in a layer by a screen-printing technique, and the porous precursor layer was sintered into a dense polycrystalline film by atmospheric-pressure firing in an N2 gas atmosphere. The microstructure of CIGS powder and fired CIGS film were observed in an SEM. The wet bead milling was effective for the reduction and homogenization of the average grain size of CIGS powder. The CIGS grains in the film were well sintered and the size of CIGS grains was as large as about 2 μm. The CIGS solar cell showed an efficiency of 3.1%, with Voc of 0.279 V, Jsc of 28.8 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.386.
The number of pertussis cases in Japan has decreased dramatically following the nationwide use of an acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccines) which began in 1981. However, the effectiveness of the DTaP vaccine has not been systematically evaluated using appropriate epidemiological methods during a non-epidemic period in Japan. We evaluated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the Kaketsuken DTaP vaccine which contains two-component pertussis antigens in Japanese children from 1999 to 2001 using a matched case-control design and data from the Basic Resident Registration and Maternal and Child Health Handbooks. The DTaP vaccination history of 15 children with pertussis and 59 controls was obtained. The VE of 3 or 4 pertussis vaccinations compared with non-vaccination (baseline) was 96·9% for coughing attacks that lasted ⩾7 days, 96·4% for those lasting ⩾14 days, and 95·9% for those lasting ⩾21 days. These findings suggest that DTaP vaccination effectively prevented pertussis during a non-epidemic period in Japan.
Phase equilibria among the bcc Fe(α), fcc Fe(γ) and Fe2Mo(λ)_phases in Fe-Mo-Ni ternary system, particularly paying attention to the existence of the γ+λ two-phase region, have been examined at elevated temperatures below Tc (1200 K), the peritectoid reaction temperature in Fe-Mo binary system: λ?α+Fe7Mo6 (μ). At 1173 K the α+γ+μ three-phase coexisting region exists near the Fe-Mo binary edge and no λ phase region was identified. At 1073 K the λ phase in equilibrium with α and γ phases exists, although the composition homogeneity region of the ternary λ phase was limited to its binary edge toward the equi-nickel concentration direction up to about 3at % Ni. Instead, large two-phase region of γ+μ was extended along the same direction up to 20 at% Ni. The γ+λ two-phase region appears below Tc through a transition peritectoid reaction: α+μ¨γ+λ. The γ phase in equilibrium with λ phase is stable only at elevated temperatures, and it transforms martensitically to α phase during cooling. The addition of Ni stabilizes γ and μ phases against α and λ phases, thereby decreasing the relative stability of the λ phase.
Change of the charge ordered (CO) structure by substituting Cu2+ for Fe2+ in LuFe2O4 was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscopy. The CO structure in LuFe2O4 is characterized by the modulated structure with the wave vector of q=1/3[1-13/2] and the average size of the CO domains can be estimated to be about 10-20nm. On the contrary, the Cu2+ substitution in LuFe2O4 destroyed the CO structure drastically and induced characteristic local lattice distortion, which gives rise to characteristic diffuse scattering in the reciprocal space. High-resolution lattice images revealed that there exist nano-scale clusters, which are characterized as the short-range ordering of the Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions on the triangular lattice. In addition, the magnetic measurement revealed that LuFeCuO4 exhibits an antiferromagnetic transition around 50K, which is lower than the Neel temperature of 250K in LuFe2O4.