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The main question of this Element is how the existence, supremacy, and uniqueness of an almighty and immaterial God bear on our own nature. It aims to uncover lessons about what we are by thinking about what God might be. A dominant theme is that Abrahamic monotheism is a surprisingly hospitable framework within which to defend and develop the view that we are wholly material beings. But the resulting materialism cannot be of any standard variety. It demands revisions and twists on the usual views. We can indeed learn about ourselves by learning about God. One thing we learn is that, though we are indeed wholly material beings, we're not nearly as ordinary as we might seem.
In 2017, the American Political Science Association (APSA) Committee on the Status of Graduate Students in the Profession launched an initiative to lower the cost of Division (i.e., organized section) membership for students to promote graduate students’ professional development and to advance Division interests. This article assesses the effect of this intervention on Division membership. Using APSA membership data, we find that almost two thirds of Divisions that charged fees in 2017 reduced or eliminated student fees between 2017 and 2019, nearly halving the average student dues (i.e., from $11.57 in 2017 to $5.84 in 2019). As a result, average student membership increased by more than 300% in Divisions that reduced fees (i.e., from 79.5 in 2017 to 248.7 in 2019), compared to a marginal 30% increase in those that did not reduce fees. These outcomes of the initiative support additional efforts to reduce the costs of APSA participation for graduate students.
Delineating the proximal urethra can be critical for radiotherapy planning but is challenging on computerised tomography (CT) imaging.
Materials and methods:
We trialed a novel non-invasive technique to allow visualisation of the proximal urethra using a rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to visualise the urinary flow in patients voiding during the simulation scan.
Of the seven patients enrolled, four were able to void during the MRI scan. For these four patients, direct visualisation of urinary flow through the proximal urethra was achieved. The average volume of the proximal urethra contoured on voiding MRI was significantly higher than the proximal urethra contoured on CT, 4·07 and 1·60 cc, respectively (p = 0·02). The proximal urethra location also differed; the Dice coefficient average was 0·28 (range 0–0·62).
In this small, proof-of-concept prospective clinical trial, the volume and location of the proximal urethra differed significantly when contoured on a voiding MRI scan compared to that determined by a conventional CT simulation. The shape of the proximal urethra on voiding MRI may be more anatomically correct compared to the proximal urethra shape determined with a semi-rigid catheter in place.
Patient preferences in schizophrenia (SCZ), including identification of key goals and outcomes for treatment and relative importance of certain treatment goals to patients, have been assessed by several studies. However, there continues to be a lack of sufficient evidence on US patient attitudes and perceptions towards treatment goals and pharmacotherapy options in SCZ, especially taking into context long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in this disease area. This lack of evidence is further pronounced in caregivers of individuals with SCZ. The objective of this analysis was to characterize patients with SCZ on LAIs vs patients on oral antipsychotics (OAPs) and evaluate the treatment goals of patients in each group.
This was a real-world, cross-sectional survey of US psychiatrists, patients =18 years old with a diagnosis of SCZ, and caregivers. Data was collected using the Disease Specific Programme (DSP) methodology, which has been previously published. Psychiatrists (n=120) completed detailed record forms for next 8 consecutive outpatients and 2 inpatients matching inclusion criteria, including non-interventional clinical and subjective assessments. The same patients and their caregivers, if present, were invited by their psychiatrist to voluntarily complete a separate survey.
Of 1135 patients on treatment where the physician provided survey data; 251 were on an LAI, and 884 were on an OAP. Mean (SD) time to SCZ diagnosis for those on an LAI was 10.3 (12.0) years vs 7.8 (10.5) years for those on OAPs. More patients in the LAI vs OAP group were being treated as an inpatient (27.1% vs 15.7%, respectively; p<0.0001). Patients on an LAI reported being on their current medication regimen for less time (mean 1.7 years) vs those on OAPs (mean 2.5 years) (p=0.0093). More patients on LAIs were unemployed due to disability vs those on OAPs (56.1% vs 39.5%, respectively), and less patients on LAIs were able to work part-time or full-time (21.1% or 4.1%) vs those on OAPs (23.2% or 11.4%). More patients on an LAI had a caregiver vs those on OAPs (37.3% vs 26.1%, respectively; p=0.0011). Regarding the most important treatment goals reported by patients, both groups reported similar preferences for decrease in disease symptoms (62% on LAI vs 65% on OAPs) and thinking more clearly (53% on LAI vs 46% on OAPs); however, a numerically higher proportion of LAI patients reported that the current medication helped decrease hospitalizations due to relapse vs those on OAPs (38% vs 32%, respectively).
Given the characteristics of patients participating in this real-world survey, those on LAIs exhibited qualities which indicate a higher severity of illness vs those on OAPs. Results suggest that treatment with LAIs is still mainly being provided to patients later in the disease course and/or who have adherence problems, despite a growing body of evidence of utility in younger patients earlier in the course of illness.
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. and Lundbeck LLC
Objectives for this survey are to determine similarities or differences in treatment goals reported by psychiatrists, patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and caregivers in the US, as well as whether goals differed by patients currently on an oral antipsychotic (OAP) or long-acting injectable (LAI), and whether goals differed by age.
This was a real-world, cross-sectional survey of US psychiatrists, patients =18 years old diagnosed with SCZ, and caregivers. Data was collected using the Disease Specific Programme (DSP) methodology. Psychiatrists (n=120) completed detailed record forms for next 8 outpatients and 2 inpatients matching inclusion criteria. The same patients and their caregivers, if present, were invited by their psychiatrist to voluntarily complete a separate survey.
Responses on treatment goals were collected from psychiatrists for all patients included in the analysis (n=1161), patients (n= 542) and caregivers (n=130). Among 3 top goals, psychiatrists, patients and caregivers concurred that “decrease in disease symptoms” is most important (63%, 64%, 68% respectively). For psychiatrists and caregivers, second was “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” (41%, and 38% respectively), whereas for patients, it was “thinking clearly” (47%). Of the 3 least important goals, psychiatrists, patients and caregivers agreed with “sexual problems” (59%, 43%, 44%, respectively) and “weight gain” (38%, 44%, 38%, respectively).
When asked which goals were met by current medication, patients responded “decrease in disease symptoms” (68%) and “thinking clearly” (39%). However, caregivers responded “thinking clearly” (30%) was not met by current medication. Caregivers most important goals, “decrease in disease symptom” (70%) and “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” (41%), were met. Additional analyses of patients on OAPs and LAIs, did not show differences in goals. However, “decrease in disease symptoms” was numerically more important for patients on LAIs vs OAPs according to psychiatrists (68% vs 62%) and caregivers (77% vs 70% respectively). Caregivers responded “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” was met for 63% patients currently on an LAI and 35% OAP. No major differences in treatment goals were observed by patient age (18–35 vs 36–65 vs >65 years).
There is consensus among US psychiatrists, patients and caregivers on the most important treatment goal “decrease in disease symptoms”, regardless of patients’ current medication or age. For patients, “thinking more clearly” was second, compared with “decrease in hospitalization due to relapse”, for psychiatrists and caregivers. All agreed that least important treatment goals, related to AEs, were “weight gain” and “sexual problems”. More caregivers agreed “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” was met by patients on LAIs vs OAPs. These findings may help with discussions between psychiatrists, patients and caregivers.
Lundbeck LLC and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.
To develop and test–retest the reproducibility of an ethnic-specific FFQ to estimate nutrient intakes for South Asians (SA) in New Zealand (NZ).
Using culturally appropriate methods, the NZFFQ, a validated dietary assessment tool for NZ adults, was modified to include SA food items by analysing foods consumed by SA participants of the Adult Nutrition Survey, in-person audit of ethnic food stores and a web scan of ethnic food store websites in NZ. This was further refined via three focus group discussions, and the resulting New Zealand South Asian Food Frequency Questionnaire (NZSAFFQ) was tested for reproducibility.
Auckland and Dunedin, NZ.
Twenty-nine and 110 males and females aged 25–59 years of SA ethnicity participated in the focus group discussions and the test–retest, respectively.
The development phase resulted in a SA-specific FFQ comprising of 11 food groups and 180 food items. Test–retest of the NZSAFFQ showed good reproducibility between the two FFQ administrations, 6 months apart. Most reproducibility coefficients were within or higher than the acceptable range of 0·5–0·7. The lowest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were observed for β-carotene (0·47), vitamin B12 (0·50), fructose (0·55), vitamin C (0·57) and selenium (0·58), and the highest ICC were observed for alcohol (0·81), iodine (0·79) and folate (0·77). The ICC for fat ranged from 0·70 for saturated fats to 0·77 for polyunsaturated fats. The ICC for protein and energy were 0·68 and 0·72, respectively.
The developed FFQ showed good reproducibility to estimate nutrient intakes and warrants the need for validation of the instrument.
Food insecurity is associated with a greater risk of depression among low-income adults in the USA. Members of food-insecure households have lower diet diversity than their food-secure counterparts. This study examined whether diet diversity moderates the association between food insecurity and depression.
Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine independent associations between food insecurity and depression, between diet diversity and depression, and the moderating effect of diet diversity in the food insecurity–depression link.
Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2014).
2636 low-income adults aged 18 years and older.
There was a positive association between food insecurity and depression among low-income adults. Diet diversity was not associated with depression. Diet diversity had a moderating effect on the association between food insecurity and depression among low-income adults.
Food insecurity is independently associated with depression among low-income adults in the USA. However, this association differs across levels of diet diversity. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the role diet diversity may play in the pathway between food insecurity and depression.
Many say that ontological disputes are defective because they are unimportant or without substance. In this paper, we defend ontological disputes from the charge, with a special focus on disputes over the existence of composite objects. Disputes over the existence of composite objects, we argue, have a number of substantive implications across a variety of topics in metaphysics, science, philosophical theology, philosophy of mind, and ethics. Since the disputes over the existence of composite objects have these substantive implications, they are themselves substantive.
Dispersal is a key ecological process affecting community dynamics and the maintenance of populations. There is increasing awareness of the need to understand individual dispersal potential to better inform population-level dispersal, allowing more accurate models of the spread of invasive and beneficial insects, aiding crop and pest management strategies. Here, fine-scale movements of Poecilus cupreus, an important agricultural carabid predator, were recorded using a locomotion compensator and key movement characteristics were quantified. Net displacement increased more rapidly than predicted by a simple correlated random walk model with near ballistic behaviour observed. Individuals displayed a latent ability to head on a constant bearing for protracted time periods, despite no clear evidence of a population level global orientation bias. Intermittent bouts of movement and non-movement were observed, with both the frequency and duration of bouts of movement varying at the inter- and intra-individual level. Variation in movement behaviour was observed at both the inter- and intra- individual level. Analysis suggests that individuals have the potential to rapidly disperse over a wider area than predicted by simple movement models parametrised at the population level. This highlights the importance of considering the role of individual variation when analysing movement and attempting to predict dispersal distances.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.
Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.
Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.
A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.
Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
Nanosized, well-dispersed titania particles were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as structural modifiers during the nucleation process to decrease aggregation. Synthesized TiO2/MWCNT composites containing different amounts of MWCNTs were characterized using N2 physisorption, XRD, spectroscopic techniques (Raman, UV-visible, and X-ray photoelectron), and electron microscopy to illuminate the morphology, crystal structure, and surface chemistry of the composites. Photocatalytic performance was evaluated by measuring the degradation of acetaldehyde in a batch reactor under UV illumination. Average rate constants decrease in the following order: TiO2/MWCNT-1% > TiO2 > TiO2/MWCNT-5%. Addition of MWCNTs beyond the optimum loading ratio of 1:100 (MWCNT:TiO2) diminishes the effectiveness of the photocatalyst and the synergistic effect between MWCNTs and TiO2. The primary mechanism for photocatalytic activity enhancement in TiO2/MWCNT-1% is thought to be due to increased porosity, hydroxyl enrichment on the surface, and high dispersion of TiO2 particles.
Introduction: Lacerations are common in children presenting to the emergency department (ED). They are often uncooperative when sutures are needed and may require procedural sedation. Few studies have evaluated intranasal (IN) ketamine for procedural sedation in children, with doses from 3 to 9 mg/kg used mostly for dental procedures. In a previous dose escalation trial, DosINK-1, 6 mg/kg was found to be the optimal IN ketamine dose for procedural sedation for sutures in children. In this trial, we aim to further evaluate the efficacy of this dose. Methods: We conducted a multicentre single-arm clinical trial. A convenience sample of 30 uncooperative children between 1 and 12 years (10 to 30 kg) with no cardiac or kidney disease, active respiratory infection, prior administration of opioid or sedative agents received 6 mg/kg of IN ketamine using an atomizer for their laceration repair with sutures in the ED. The primary outcome was defined as the proportion (95% CI) of patients who achieved an adequate procedural sedation evaluated with the PERC/PECARN consensus criteria. Results: Thirty patients were recruited from April 2018 to November 2019 in 2 pediatric ED. The median age was 3.2 (interquartile range(IQR), 1.9 to 4.7) years-old with laceration of more than 2 cm in 20 (67%) patients and in the face in 21 (70%) cases. Sedation was effective in 18 out of 30 children 60% (95%CI, 45 to 80), was suboptimal in 6 patients (20%) with a procedure completed with minimal difficulties, and unsuccessful in the remaining 6 (20%), all without serious adverse event. Similarly, 21/30 (70%) physicians were willing to reuse IN ketamine at the same doses and 25 parents (83%) would agree to the same sedation in the future. Median time to return to baseline status was 58 min (IQR, 33 to 73). One patient desaturated during the procedure and required transitory oxygen and repositioning. After the procedure, 1 (3%) patient had headache, 1 (3%) patient had nausea, and 2 (7%) patients vomited. Conclusion: A single dose of 6 mg/kg of IN Ketamine for laceration repair with sutures in uncooperative children is safe and facilitated the procedure in 60% (95%CI, 45 to 80) of patients, was suboptimal in 20% and unsuccessful in 20% of patients. As seen with IV ketamine, an available additional dose of IN ketamine for some children if needed could potentially increase proportion of successful sedation. However, the safety and efficacy of repeated doses needs to be addressed.
Introduction: Venipuncture is a frequent cause of pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Distraction, which can improve patient experience, remains the most studied psychological intervention. Virtual reality (VR) is a method of immersive distraction that can contribute to the multi-modal management of procedural pain and distress. Methods: The main objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality (VR) distraction for pain management associated with venipunctures and to examine its preliminary effects on pain and distress in the pediatric ED. Children 7-17 years requiring a venipuncture in the pediatric ED were recruited. Participants were randomized to either a control group (standard care) or intervention group (standard of care + VR). Principal clinical outcome was the mean level of procedural pain, measured by the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS). Distress was also measured using the Child Fear Scale (CFS) and the Procedure Behavior Check List (PBCL) and memory of pain using the VNRS. Side effects were documented. Results: A total of 63 patients were recruited. Results showed feasibility and acceptability of VR in the PED and overall high satisfaction levels (79% recruitment rate of eligible families, 90% rate of VR game completion, and overall high mean satisfaction levels). There was a significantly higher level of satisfaction among healthcare providers in the intervention group, and 93% of those were willing to use this technology again for the same procedure. Regarding clinical outcomes, no significant difference was observed between groups on procedural pain. Distress evaluated by proxy (10/40 vs 13.2/40, p = 0.007) and memory of pain at 24 hours (2.4 vs 4.2, p = 0.027) were significantly lower in the VR group. Venipuncture was successful on first attempt in 23/31 patients (74%) in the VR group and 15/30 (50%) patients in the control group (p = 0.039). Five of the 31 patients (16%) in the VR group reported side effects Conclusion: The addition of VR to standard care is feasible and acceptable for pain and distress management during venipunctures in the pediatric ED. There was no difference in self-reported procedural pain between groups. Levels of procedural distress and memory of pain at 24 hours were lower in the VR group.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) buprenorphine/naloxone inductions for opioid use disorder are an effective and safe way to initiate addictions care in the ED. Kelowna General Hospital's ED buprenorphine/naloxone (KEDSS) program was implemented in September 2018 in order to respond to a community need for accessible and evidence-based addictions care. The objective of our program evaluation study was to examine the implementation of the first five months of the KEDSS program through evaluating patient characteristics and service outcomes. Methods: The KEDSS treatment pathway consists of a standardized protocol (pre-printed order set) to facilitate buprenorphine/naloxone induction and stabilization in the acute care setting (ED and inpatient wards) at Kelowna General Hospital, a community academic hospital. All patients referred to the outpatient addictions clinic via the order set during September 2018-January 2019 (the first 5 months) were included in the study population. A retrospective descriptive chart review was completed. Outcome measures included population characteristics (sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics) and service outcomes (number of patients initiated, patient follow-up). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses using t-tests or Pearson's χ2 statistic, as appropriate, were conducted to compare the ED-initiated group with the inpatient-initiated group. Results: During the first five months of the KEDSS program, a total of 35 patients (26% female, mean age 36.6 years, 54% homeless) were started on the treatment pathway, 16 (46%) in the ED. Compared to the inpatient-initiated group, the ED-initiated group were less likely to have psychiatric comorbidities (ED 1.0 vs. inpatient 1.5, p = 0.002), require methadone or sustained-release oral morphine (ED 13% vs. inpatient 37%, p = 0.048), and have attended follow-up (ED 56% vs. inpatient 84%, p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides a preliminary look at a new opioid agonist therapy (OAT) treatment pathway (KEDSS) at Kelowna General Hospital, and provides insight into the population that is accessing the program. We found that the majority of patients who are started on buprenorphine/naloxone in the ED are seen in follow-up at the addictions clinic. Future work will examine ongoing follow-up and OAT adherence rates in the study population to quantify the program's impact on improving access to addictions treatment within this community hospital setting.
In the UK, blood investigations ordered by the Mental Health Trust are usually carried out by Acute hospitals. The results are not immediately accessible by the staff of Mental Health Trusts on the computer due to confidentiality and lack of shared software access between trusts. This has a significant impact on care management of psychiatric patients often resulting in delay in clinical decisions.
We encountered similar problem where the results of the tests ordered by the staff were not immediately accessible to them, as these investigations are carried out by the local acute hospital. To address this issue a project was chartered.
Of the project was to develop a protocol between the trusts so that the staff of Mental Health Trust could access the results of investigation on local computers as soon as they become available and to evaluate its impact on service.
A steering committee including Specialty Registrar, Pharmacist and Matron was constituted. The committee met regularly and evolved strategy with representatives of the Acute Trust. The main concern of the Acute Trust was patient confidentiality and software access. Following regular meetings and correspondence shared-protocol was developed.
It was agreed that the acute trust would install the software on all mental health trust computers. The staff would be trained to use the software and access results. To address the issue of confidentiality, flowchart of sponsorships of the shared-protocol was developed. Accordingly, all the medics would be sponsored for access by Medical Director, Nursing Staff by Matron and Pharmacists by Chief Pharmacist. This protocol ensured that all the staff trained are accounted and IT department could monitor any unauthorised access of data.
We have noticed a big improvement in the quality of clinical practice as a result. Unnecessary delays in clinical decisions have been avoided. We feel such a shared-protocol could be developed in other hospitals that are faced with similar access issues.
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for human health. However, our knowledge of the prevalence of Se deficiency is less than for other micronutrients of public health concern such as iodine, iron and zinc, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Studies of food systems in SSA, in particular in Malawi, have revealed that human Se deficiency risks are widespread and influenced strongly by geography. Direct evidence of Se deficiency risks includes nationally representative data of Se concentrations in blood plasma and urine as population biomarkers of Se status. Long-range geospatial variation in Se deficiency risks has been linked to soil characteristics and their effects on the Se concentration of food crops. Selenium deficiency risks are also linked to socio-economic status including access to animal source foods. This review highlights the need for geospatially-resolved data on the movement of Se and other micronutrients in food systems which span agriculture–nutrition–health disciplinary domains (defined as a GeoNutrition approach). Given that similar drivers of deficiency risks for Se, and other micronutrients, are likely to occur in other countries in SSA and elsewhere, micronutrient surveillance programmes should be designed accordingly.
To examine public commitments for encouraging United States consumers to make healthy dietary purchases with their Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits among of prevalent SNAP-authorised retailers.
National SNAP-authorised retail landscape in addition to stores located in California and Virginia, two states targetted for a Partnership for a Healthier America pilot social marketing campaign.
SNAP-authorised retailers with the most store locations in selected settings.
A review of retailers’ publicly available business information was conducted (November 2016–February 2017). Webpages and grey literature sources were accessed to identify corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and commitments describing strategies to encourage healthy consumer purchases aligned with the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Evidence was organised using a marketing-mix and choice-architecture (MMCA) framework to characterise strategies used among eight possible types (i.e. place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, priming, prompting and proximity).
Of the SNAP-authorised retailers (n 38) reviewed, more than half (n 20; 52·6 %) provided no information in the public domain relevant to the research objective. Few retailers (n 8; 21·1 %) had relevant CSR information; grey literature sources (n 52 articles across seventeen retailers) were more commonly identified. SNAP-authorised retailers in majority committed to increasing the number of healthy products available for purchase (profile).
Substantial improvements are needed to enhance the capacity and commitments of SNAP-authorised retailers to use diverse strategies to promote healthy purchases among SNAP recipients. Future research could explore feasible approaches to improve dietary behaviours through sector changes via public–private partnerships, policy changes, or a combination of government regulatory and voluntary business actions.