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The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e. linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e. log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage–response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42 478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI (1·04, 1·26)), 1·40 (95 % CI (1·27, 1·54)) and 1·54 (95 % CI (1·40, 1·69)), respectively (P-for-trend < 0·001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate v. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤13 GW v. >13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
Mechanistic studies have suggested that antioxidants have beneficial effects on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to investigate the association between the types and sources of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes and AMD risk in China. A matched case-control study of 260 patients who were clinically diagnosed with AMD and 260 matched controls was performed. The participants were interviewed for dietary information and potential confounders, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) across the categories of specific vitamins and carotenoids and their main sources. When comparing the extreme quartiles, the ORs(95% CI) were 0.30 (0.10, 0.88) for lutein and 0.28 (0.11, 0.74) for β-cryptoxanthin. The associations between AMD and other dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes were generally weaker and non-significant. Higher intakes of spinach and egg, which are important sources of lutein, were associated with a reduced odds of AMD, with an OR comparing the highest and lowest categories of spinach being 0.42 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.88) and that comparing the highest and lowest categories of the egg being 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.98). Participants who were in the highest category of both egg intake and spinach intake had a much greater reduced odds of having AMD (OR: 0.23; 95%CI: 0.08, 0.71) than those in the lowest category of egg intake and spinach intake. In conclusion, a higher intake of lutein and lutein-rich foods was associated with a significantly decreased odds of AMD. These findings provide further evidence of the benefits of lutein and lutein-rich foods in the prevention of AMD.
Having enterprises engaged in environmentally friendly behavior is an important part of reducing negative environmental impacts. This study makes a quantitative analysis against the backdrop of China's transitional economic system. The results show that politically-connected enterprises significantly reduce environmental expenditure, but this only holds for state-owned enterprises; private enterprises with political connections spend significantly more. Analysis of the efficiency of environmental expenditure indicates that, for private enterprises, environmental spending is used as a way to maintain political connections, with rent-seeking as the likely motivation. Politically-connected private enterprises have not reduced their emissions to the same extent as state-owned enterprises, despite increased expenditure. Given the scale of environmental degradation in China during a period of massive economic and social upheaval, the results of this analysis provide a quantitative case for policy change: governments should shift focus to the results that environmental spending produces.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12 017 subjects aged 20–70 years. Socio-demographic and general information was collected by a standardised questionnaire. A standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and to obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10 825 participants were included and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted OR for newly diagnosed diabetes were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·97), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·09) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·11) for daily tea drinkers, occasional tea drinkers and seldom tea drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in females by 32 %, elderly (>45 years) by 24 % and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) by 34 %. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45 % (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72; P < 0·01). The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Surface molecularly imprinted polymer of solanesol (SA-SMIP) was prepared by reversed phase suspension polymerization using modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) as carrier, and operation conditions were investigated and optimized. Structures of modified TiO2 and SA-SMIP obtained at optimal conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer adopting original TiO2 and non-surface molecularly imprinted polymer as reference. The SA-SMIP synthesized under optimal conditions displayed an excellent recognition of SA from the mixture of SA and triacontanol. The maximum separation degree of SA was 2.90. Finally, the adsorption kinetics and isotherm were investigated and analyzed. Adsorption kinetics results indicated that the adsorption of SA-SMIP to SA was a pseudo-second order process, and the adsorption of beginning and later stages was controlled by homogeneous particle diffusion and adsorption reaction process, respectively. Adsorption isotherm results documented hereby were two sorts of bonding sites, complete imprinted cavities and defective imprinted cavities. The adsorption for two bonding sites could be well lined up with the Langmuir model.
In this work, flavonoids in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. were extracted by ultrasound-assisted methodology and determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. After that, extraction conditions were optimized by the single fact investigation, the central composite design, and response surface methodology (RSM) in turn. The results showed the optimal values of ethanol concentration, solid–liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, ultrasonic power, and number of extraction times were 60%, 1:20 (g/mL), 45 °C, 34 min; 80 W, and 5, respectively. The extraction ratio of flavonoids could be as high as 94.50%. The influence order of each factor was ultrasonic power > extraction time > extraction temperature > ethanol concentration. The results also showed that the experimental value was close to the predicted value (94.49%) of the established model by RSM, which proved that the established model was reasonable. The thermodynamic results showed that the extraction process was endothermic and could proceed spontaneously.
A field study to optimize the nitrogen (N) top-dressing mode of panicle fertilization and improve rice yields was conducted in mid-eastern China. Japonica cultivar Yunongjing-6 was grown and panicle N fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the inverted fourth leaf stage using three different modes: manual broadcast application (BA) on the soil surface as a control treatment, deep application during ditching at a depth of 15 cm (DD) and manual BA on the soil surface during deep ditching (BAD). The activity of soil enzymes, including invertase, urease, phosphatase and catalase, was increased significantly at the jointing, booting and grain-filling stages with the DD and BAD treatments compared with the traditional BA mode. The DD and BAD treatments also increased basal internode and neck-panicle internode bleeding intensity. The DD treatment gave the highest crop yield, increasing the yield by 0.63 and 0.31 t/hm2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, compared with BA. The results suggest that ditching during panicle N fertilizer application after sun-drying of the fields increases rice yields, most likely by improving the activity of soil enzymes and enhancing the physiological activity of roots and grain weight.
In the design process, different problem statements result in different problem-solving strategies. A proper problem statement is the key to effective problem-solving. Based on the characteristics of the product design process, we divided design problem statements into open-ended (OE), decision-making (DM), and constrained (CO) statements and attempted to investigate the influences of different problem statements on designers’ cognitive behaviors from three perspectives, namely divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and mental workload. Then we provided quantification description to these influences based on electroencephalography (EEG) technology. We conducted experiments on 19 participants and used the BrainProduct™ actiChamp-32 to record the EEG data. Results are as follows: (1) The higher task-related α power was found in the temporal and occipital regions in the OE task compared with that in the DM and CO tasks. The OE statement also would help designers get novel ideas by strengthening their divergent thinking. (2) In the DM and CO tasks, there was no significant difference in the impact of the brain region on convergent thinking, but activities in the left hemisphere were stronger than that in the right hemisphere. The DM and CO tasks have better performance in convergent thinking than the OE task. (3) In the CO task, the designer's mental workload is the highest and mainly related to the activation of the centroparietal and occipital regions. These findings help designers understand the design problem-solving process from the perspective of cognitive science and monitor their thinking modes in the design process so as to improve their design performance.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species.
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 and secreted phospholipase A2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.
The distribution for eigenvalues of Schur complement of matrices plays an important role in many mathematical problems. In this paper, we firstly present some criteria for H-matrix. Then as application, for two class matrices whose submatrices are γ-diagonally dominant and product γ-diagonally dominant, we show that the eigenvalues of the Schur complement are located in the Geršgorin discs and the Ostrowski discs of the original matrices under certain conditions.
The refinement mechanism of alternating current pulse (ACP) on the solidification macrostructures of pure Al and the characterization of refining efficiency were investigated by embedding the wire mesh in the mold. The experiment results showed that ACP treatment during solidification led to the formation of fine equiaxed grain. There were remarkably differences with respect to the area of fine equiaxed zone inside and outside the tube. Lorentz force, induced melt flow and the rest of intrinsic effects of ACP inside and outside the tube were discussed in the present study. It demonstrated that the forced melt flow could lead to the columnar fragmentation and make the crystal nucleus on the mold wall fall off and drift in the liquid, leading to grain refinement. In addition, Reynolds number was suitable to characterize the refining efficiency of pure Al under ACP.
In this paper, the hole carrier mobility of organic semiconductor N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′bis(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD) was researched by negative differential susceptance spectra (−ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f). Under the condition of space charge limited current (SCLC), through solving the drift current equation and Poisson equation and simulating the spectra −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f, the relationship between the peak of −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f spectra (1/ƒp = τp) and the transfer time of carrier (τdc) could be achieved to be τdc = k × τp. So the hole-only device of ITO/NPD/Ag was fabricated to determine the capacitance spectra, and through which its −ΔB = −w(C − Cgeo) ~ f could be plotted. According to the relationship of τdc = k × τp, where k was determined to be 0.56, the transfer time and further the carrier mobility could be obtained. The carrier mobility depended on the electric field according to Poole-Frenkel model was further investigated in this report.
Previous studies have reported that the first polar body (PB1) morphology reflects embryo development competence, but the effects of PB1 on porcine embryo development remain unknown. This study aims to determine whether the ability of porcine embryo development is related to oocytes’ PB1 in vitro. The distribution of type II cortical granules (CGs) of porcine matured oocytes in grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in grades A and C PB1 (71.43% versus 52.46% and 50%; P < 0.05). The ratio of porcine parthenogenetic blastocysts and the mean cell number in each blastocyst in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater than that with grades A and C PB1 (30.81% vs. 19.02% and 15.15%; P < 0.05) and (36.67 versus 24.67, 28.67; P < 0.05), and no significant differences are found in the embryo cleavage for all groups (79.75%, 84.30%, and 78.18% in grades A, B, and C PB1; P > 0.05). The acetylation level of porcine embryos in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in the other groups (P < 0.05), and is almost 2.5 times higher than that in grade A. Therefore, porcine oocytes with PB1 in grade B are more competitive in cytoplasmic maturation and further embryo development in vitro.
The effects of cytoplasmic volumes on development and developmental kinetics of in vitro produced porcine embryos were investigated. During hand-made cloning (HMC), selected cytoplasts were separated into two groups according to their size in relation to the initial oocyte: ~75% or ~50%. Following two fusion steps and activation (day 0), reconstructed embryos were cultured in vitro for 6 days. Cleavage rates on day 2 as well as blastocyst rates and cell numbers on day 6 were recorded. Results showed that embryo development was no different for ~50% versus ~75% cytoplasm at first fusion. This result was used in the following experiments, where the effect of varying cytoplasm volume in second fusion to obtain a final cytoplasm volume of ~75% to ~200% was tested. The results showed that the lowest quality was obtained when the final cytoplasm volume was ~75% and the highest quality at ~200% of the original oocyte. Similar results were observed in parthenogenetic (PA) embryos activated with different cytoplasmic volumes. A common pattern for the developmental kinetics of HMC and PA embryos was observed: the smaller group tended to have a longer time for the first two cell cycles, but subsequently a shorter time to form morula and blastocyst. In conclusion, the developmental kinetics of in vitro produced embryos was affected by the cytoplasm volume of the initial oocyte, and this further accounted for the developmental ability of the reconstructed embryos.
Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenol that is abundant in many medicinal plants and is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, exhibits multiple biological activities. In the present study, we determined whether Res prevents oestrogen deficiency-induced osteopenia and whether Res administration decreases pathological changes in the endometrium and lumen of the uterus compared with oestradiol replacement therapy (ERT). A total of sixty 3–4-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into a sham-operated group (Sham) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, i.e. OVX rats as a control group (OVX); OVX rats receiving oestradiol valerate (ERT, 0·8 mg/kg); and OVX rats receiving Res 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. Daily oral administration was initiated at week 2 after OVX for 12 weeks. A dose–response difference was observed in the effects of Res on bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microarchitecture. Only at the highest dose, bone loss was almost equivalent to that observed in the ERT group. The dose–response effects of Res on the biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase, IL-6, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 concentrations in the serum as well as urinary Ca and P excretion) and the expressions of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL:osteoprotegerin protein ratio in the femur were also observed. Furthermore, the thickening of the endometrium and the infiltration of lymphocytes were prevented in all the three Res-treated groups compared with the ERT group. In conclusion, Res treatment not only improves BMD and trabecular microarchitecture but also does not affect the uterus and Res might be a potential remedy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
In this study, the developmental ability of cloned embryos using gilt versus sow oocytes was evaluated under the hypothesis that the efficiency of nuclear transfer using gilt oocytes was lower than that of sow oocytes, but that it could be optimized. Five experiments were performed with routine production of cloned embryos with sow oocytes serving as the control. Results showed that: Experiment 1: Blastocyst rates of cloned embryos with gilt oocytes was about half compared with control. Experiment 2: An extended maturation time of 48 h used for gilt oocytes resulted in lower blastocyst rates after cloning. Experiment 3: Development of cloned embryos with gilt oocytes was improved by co-culture with sow oocytes. Experiment 4: After maturation of gilt oocytes using follicular fluid from gilt instead of sow, the oocytes were sorted into large and small oocytes, and after cloning, blastocyst rates were higher using large gilt oocytes compared with small oocytes; however, the rate remained lower compared with control. Experiment 5: Six sow recipients received a total of 503 morulae and blastocysts cloned from gilt oocytes (four recipients) and 190 cloned from sow oocytes (two recipients). All recipients became pregnant and went to term, resulting in 26 (gilt oocytes) and six (sow oocytes) piglets. In conclusion, results confirmed that nuclear transfer efficiency was higher using sow versus gilt oocytes, but the use of gilt oocytes can be optimized by sorting after ooplasm size following maturation and by maturing gilt and sow oocytes together.