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This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
We have grown intermetallic ErPd2Si2 single crystals employing laser diodes with the floating-zone method. The temperature dependence of the unit-cell parameters was determined using synchrotron and in-house X-ray powder diffraction measurements from 20 to 500 K. The diffraction patterns fit well with the tetragonal I4/mmm space group (No. 139) with two chemical formulae within the unit cell. The synchrotron powder diffraction study shows that the refined unit-cell parameters are a = 4.10320(2) Å, c = 9.88393(5) Å at 298 K and a = 4.11737(2) Å, c = 9.88143(5) Å at 500 K, resulting in the unit-cell volume V = 166.408(1) Å3 (298 K) and 167.517(2) Å3 (500 K). In the whole studied temperature range, no structural phase transition was observed. Upon cooling, the unit-cell parameters a and c are shortened and elongated, respectively.
Dietary l-carnitine (LC) is a nutritional factor that reduces liver lipid content. However, whether dietary LC can improve lipid metabolism via simultaneous activation of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation and suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is still unknown. Large yellow croaker were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with dietary LC at 0, 1·2 or 2·4 ‰ for 10 weeks. The results indicated that a HFD supplemented with LC reduced the liver total lipid and TAG content and improved serum lipid profiles. LC supplementation administered to this fish increased the liver antioxidant capacity by decreasing serum and liver malondialdehyde levels and enhancing the liver antioxidant capacity, which then relieved the liver damage. Dietary LC increased the ATP dynamic process and mitochondrial number, decreased mitochondrial DNA damage and enhanced the protein expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation, biogenesis and mitophagy. Furthermore, dietary LC supplementation increased the expression of genes and proteins related to peroxisomal β-oxidation and biogenesis. Interestingly, feeding fish with LC-enriched diets decreased the protein levels indicative of ER stress, such as glucose-regulated protein 78, p-eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2a and activating transcription factor 6. Dietary LC supplementation downregulated mRNA expression relative to FA synthesis, reduced liver lipid and relieved liver damage through regulating β-oxidation and biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as the ER stress pathway in fish fed with HFD. The present study provides the first evidence that dietary LC can improve lipid metabolism via simultaneously promoting FA β-oxidation capability and suppressing the ER stress pathway in fish.
This study presents preliminary discoveries from Sding Chung cave, an early multi-burial cave site in the Himalayan highlands dating from 300BC–AD 300. Multiple human and animal bones within the cave provide unique evidence for understanding the diverse mortuary rituals and biocultural adaptations in this region.
Maternal overnutrition-induced fetal programming predisposes offspring to cardiovascular health issues throughout life. Understanding how these adverse cardiovascular effects are regulated at the maternal–fetal crosstalk will provide insight into the mechanisms of these cardiovascular diseases, which will help in further identifying potential targets for intervention. Here, we uncover a role of oxidative stress caused by prenatal overnutrition in governing cardiac damage. Mice exposed to maternal obesity showed remarkable pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (pmale < 0.001, Cohen’s dmale = 1.77; pfemale < 0.001, Cohen’s dfemale = 1.94), increased collagen content (pmale < 0.001, Cohen’s dmale = 2.13; pfemale < 0.001, Cohen’s dfemale = 2.71), and increased levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) (pmale < 0.001, Cohen’s dmale = 3.02; pfemale < 0.001, Cohen’s dfemale = 4.52), as well as left ventricular dysfunction in adulthood. To cope with increased oxidative stress in the myocardial tissue of offspring from obese mothers, we sought to decrease the effect of oxidative stress and prevent the development of these cardiovascular conditions with use of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine during pregnancy. As predicted, after treatment with the antioxidant, there was greatly mitigated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (pmale < 0.001, Cohen’s dmale = 1.31; pfemale < 0.001, Cohen’s dfemale = 0.82) and cardiac fibrosis, including decreased composition of collagen fibers (pmale < 0.01, Cohen’s dmale = 1.45; pfemale < 0.05, Cohen’s dfemale = 1.23) and reduced levels of TGF-β (pmale < 0.05, Cohen’s dmale = 1.83; pfemale < 0.01, Cohen’s dfemale = 3.81). We also observed improved left ventricle contractile function together with the alleviation of enhanced oxidative stress in the myocardial tissue of offspring. Collectively, these results established a crucial role of oxidative stress in prenatal overnutrition-associated ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Our findings provided an important target for intervention of cardiovascular disease in overnutrition-related fetal programming.
Extracts of mulberry have been shown to reduce post-prandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses, but reliability of these effects and required doses and specifications are unclear. We previously found that 1.5 g of a specified mulberry fruit extract (MFE) significantly reduced PPG and PPI responses to 50 g carbohydrate as rice porridge, with no indications of intolerance. The trials reported here aimed to replicate that work and assess the efficacy of lower MFE doses, using boiled rice as the carbohydrate source. Two separate randomized controlled intervention studies were carried out with healthy Indian males and females age 20-50 (N=84 per trial), with PPG area under the curve over 2 hr as the primary outcome. Trial 1 used doses of 0, 0.37, 0.75, 1.12 and 1.5 g MFE in boiled rice, and 0 or 1.5 g MFE in rice porridge. Trial 2 used doses of 0, 0.04, 0.12, 0.37 g MFE in boiled rice. In trial 1, relative to control, all MFE doses significantly decreased PPG (−27.2 to −22.9%; all p ≤ 0.02) and PPI (−34.6 to −14.0%, all p < 0.01). Breath hydrogen was significantly increased only at 1.5 g MFE (in rice porridge), and self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms were uniformly low. In trial 2, only 0.37 g MFE significantly affected PPG (−20.4%, p = 0.002) and PPI (−17.0%, p <0.001). Together, these trials show that MFE in doses as low as 0.37 g can reliably reduce PPG and PPI responses to a carbohydrate-rich meal, with no apparent adverse effects.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15,568 adults who were free of liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4.2 years of follow-up, we identified 3,604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood, and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) for tertile 1, 1.08 (0.99, 1.19) for tertile 2, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) for tertile 3, respectively (P for trend <0.05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
A latest Paleocene charophyte flora collected from the South Gobi area in the Junggar Basin, western China, includes the geographically widespread taxa Peckichara torulosa var. varians (Dollfus and Fritel, 1919) Sanjuan, Vicente, and Eaton, 2020, Lychnothmanus vectensis (Groves, 1926) Soulié-Märsche, 1989, and Gyrogona lemani capitata Grambast and Grambast-Fessard, 1981. Lychnothmanus vectensis (as Lychnothmanus aff. L. vectensis) is known from the Cretaceous–Paleocene transition in eastern China and the latest Paleocene in western China, with likely additional records from the United States (Utah). The earliest European records of L. vectensis are from the late Eocene to early Oligocene in Spain, France, and England. Similarly, the oldest record of G. lemani capitata is from the latest Paleocene in the South Gobi area, with younger records from the middle Eocene of France. These latest Paleocene gyrogonite assemblages demonstrate the origin of these charophyte lineages in Asia. The dispersal of these charophytes from Asia to Europe in the middle to late Eocene appears to have occurred before the retreat of the Turgai Strait in both the Tarim area and the Siberian Basin by the end of the late Eocene and before the “Grande Coupure” in Europe and the Mongolian Remodelling in Asia during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. We hypothesize that waterbirds may have facilitated this intercontinental dispersal, and that idea is supported by the shared occurrence of avian groups in Central Asia and Europe in the middle and late Eocene.
This study explored the effects of condition notification based on virtual reality technology on the anxiety levels of parents of children with simple CHD.
The subjects of the study were the parents of 60 children with simple CHD who were treated in our centre. The state anxiety scale was used to assess the anxiety status of the parents of the children before and after the condition notification in different ways (based on virtual reality explanations and written explanations).
In this study, a total of 55 parents of children with CHD successfully completed the survey. At the time of admission, there was no significant difference in the state anxiety scale scores of the parents between the two groups. The anxiety status of the virtual reality group was relieved after the condition notification assisted by virtual reality technology, and there was a significant difference compared with the control group.
Condition notification based on virtual reality technology can effectively alleviate the anxiety of parents of children with simple CHD, which is worthy of clinical application.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant tumours with a poor prognosis. In recent years, the incidence of pancreatic cancer is on the rise. Traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer have been improved, first-line and second-line palliative treatments have been developed, and adjuvant treatments have also been used in clinical. However, the 5-year survival rate is still less than 10% and new treatment methods such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy need to be investigated. In the past decades, many clinical trials of targeted therapies and immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer were launched and some of them showed an ideal prospect in a subgroup of pancreatic cancer patients. The experience of both success and failure of these clinical trials will be helpful to improve these therapies in the future. Therefore, the current research progress and challenges of selected targeted therapies and immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer are reviewed.
Smoke-derived seed germination is an important trait for plants to colonize postfire habitats. The well-characterized smoke-derived chemicals of karrikins germinate seeds of species not known to occur after fires in nature. Hence, the ecologically relevant germination cues in smoke remain to be explored for native postfire plants. With the fire-chaser, Nicotiana attenuata, we revisit a bioassay-driven fractionation of liquid smoke to identify ecologically relevant germination cues. By combining bioassay-guided fractionation and comparative unbiased metabolomics, we developed a robust and efficient method to identify germination cues in smoke. Syringaldehyde (SAL) was re-identified as a germination cue in fractions of liquid smoke that promote seed germination. SAL was found to be produced during wildfires in the plant's native habitat, efficiently adsorbed to N. attenuata seeds from aqueous solutions and not readily leached from soil and accurately predicted the boundaries of natural fire events that reflect the occurrence of native postfire N. attenuata populations. We propose that SAL is an ecologically relevant germination cue in smoke for this species.
Background: Antithrombotic medications are used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Previous studies have identified that up to 5.2% of ischemic strokes are associated with antithrombotic interruption, leading to significant mortality and healthcare burden. Our study aims to identify the prevalence of ischemic strokes presenting to a regional stroke centre associated with antithrombotic interruption, and to understand common reasons for medication interruption. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed, which included 193 patients with ischemic stroke presenting to Greater Niagara General Hospital from January 2018-December 2019. Baseline demographics were recorded and patient medical records were reviewed for evidence of antithrombotic interruptions. Results: Table 1. Conclusions: Our cohort identified a significant proportion (8.3%) of ischemic strokes with documented antithrombotic interruption. Most common reasons for interruption were non-adherence and discontinuation due to previous adverse event. The results identify possible areas for improvement within patient education and safe re-initiation of antithrombotics following adverse events.
South-east Asia's diverse coastal wetlands, which span natural mudflats and mangroves to man-made salt pans, offer critical habitat for many migratory waterbird species in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Species dependent on these wetlands include nearly the entire population of the Critically Endangered spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and the Endangered spotted greenshank Tringa guttifer, and significant populations of several other globally threatened and declining species. Presently, more than 50 coastal Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in the region (7.4% of all South-east Asian IBAs) support at least one threatened migratory species. However, recent studies continue to reveal major knowledge gaps on the distribution of migratory waterbirds and important wetland sites along South-east Asia's vast coastline, including undiscovered and potential IBAs. Alongside this, there are critical gaps in the representation of coastal wetlands across the protected area networks of many countries in this region (e.g. Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia), hindering effective conservation. Although a better understanding of the value of coastal wetlands to people and their importance to migratory species is necessary, governments and other stakeholders need to do more to strengthen the conservation of these ecosystems by improving protected area coverage, habitat restoration, and coastal governance and management. This must be underpinned by the judicious use of evidence-based approaches, including satellite-tracking of migratory birds, ecological research and ground surveys.
Across Eurasia, horse transport transformed ancient societies. Although evidence for chariotry is well dated, the origins of horse riding are less clear. Techniques to distinguish chariotry from riding in archaeological samples rely on elements not typically recovered from many steppe contexts. Here, the authors examine horse remains of Mongolia's Deer Stone-Khirigsuur (DSK) Complex, comparing them with ancient and modern East Asian horses used for both types of transport. DSK horses demonstrate unique dentition damage that could result from steppe chariotry, but may also indicate riding with a shallow rein angle at a fast gait. A key role for chariots in Late Bronze Age Mongolia helps explain the trajectory of horse use in early East Asia.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
This study investigates how venture capital firms (VCs) choose syndication partners. Exponential random graph models of Chinese VC syndication networks from 2006 to 2013 show that the homophily mechanism does not always determine VCs’ partner selection. In selecting partners, VCs have to strike a balance between reducing uncertainty and mobilizing heterogeneous resources. Therefore, decisions about partners depend on institutional uncertainty and VCs’ investment preferences. While VCs that focus on traditional business in an immature market are more likely to form homogeneous syndications, their peers that prefer to invest in innovative companies and that can rely on a stable market tend to syndicate with heterogeneous partners.
To enhance the developmental competency of murine ovarian follicles cultured in vitro, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) was supplemented in the culture system. Although the mechanism is not fully elucidated, it was reported that the effect of CNP supplementation was mediated by increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In the present study, cGMP levels in media for murine preantral follicle culture were compared both between a control group without CNP supplementation and an experimental group with CNP supplementation and between days in each group. In addition, follicle growth patterns and oocyte maturity were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results demonstrated that along with in vitro culture, cGMP levels increased (P < 0.05) both in the control group and the experimental group, whereas cGMP levels were not significantly different between the two groups on the same day of in vitro culture (P > 0.05). The oocyte’s maturity was superior in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). As ovarian follicles grew three-dimensionally in the experimental group but were flattened in the control group, CNP might improve oocyte maturity through maintaining the three-dimensional architecture of the ovarian follicle because of increased transzonal projections (TZP) and functional gap junctions between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells.
This study reports on the changes in stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms of subscribers after 3 months using Text4Hope, a supportive text messaging program designed to provide support during the pandemic.
Standardized self-report measures were used to evaluate perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10 [PSS-10]), anxiety (measured with the General Anxiety Disorder Scale 7 [GAD-7]), and depressive symptoms (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), at baseline and 3rd month (n = 373).
After 3 months of using Text4Hope, subscribers’ self-reports revealed significant (p< 0.001) mean score reductions compared with baseline on: the GAD-7 by 22.7%, PHQ-9 by 10.3%, and PSS-10 scores by 5.7%. Reductions in inferred prevalence rates for moderate to high symptoms were also observed, with anxiety demonstrating the largest reduction (15.7%).
Observed Text4Hope-related reductions in psychological distress during COVID-19 indicate that Text4Hope is an effective, convenient, and accessible means of implementing a population-level psychological intervention.