Ultra-processed foods (UPF) have been associated with cardiometabolic outcomes, but the literature has still not reported their association with the incidence of dyslipidaemias, one of the most important risk factors for the occurrence of CVD. The objective of this study was to verify the association between consumption of UPF and incidence of dyslipidaemia in Brazilian civil servants at a 4-year follow-up. The study used data from 5275 participants at baseline and on the first follow-up visit in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We applied a FFQ at baseline and identified UPF from NOVA classification of foods as to the extent and purpose of processing. The proportion (weight) of UPF in the total diet was calculated for each participant and categorised in tertiles, corresponding to low (first tertile), medium (second tertile) and high (third tertile) consumption. A mixed-effects logistic model was used to obtain the incidence of dyslipidaemia associated with the consumption of UPF. Individuals with medium and high consumption of UPF showed increases in the risks of development of isolated hypercholesterolaemia by 12 % (OR = 1·12, CI 1·00, 1·27) and 28 % (OR = 1·28, CI 1·12, 1·47), of isolated hypertriacylglycerolaemia by 14 % (OR = 1·14, CI 1·03, 1·26) and 30 % (OR = 1·30, CI 1·17–1·45), of mixed hyperlipidaemia by 21 % (OR = 1·21, CI 1·05, 1·39) and 38 % (OR = 1·38, CI 1·18, 1·62), and of low-HDL by 12 % (OR = 1·12, CI 1·00–1·24) and 18 % (OR = 1·18, CI 1·05, 1·32), respectively, compared with participants who consumed less UPF. Our findings showed important cardiovascular risk associated with the consumption of UPF and a gradient in the consumption’s effect, so these products should be discouraged.