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Several recent reports have raised concern that infected coworkers may be an important source of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquisition by healthcare personnel. In a suspected outbreak among emergency department personnel, sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed transmission among coworkers. The suspected 6-person outbreak included 2 distinct transmission clusters and 1 unrelated infection.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: By identifying clear gaps in our knowledge of racial and ethnic disparities in antibiotic-resistant infections, this research is informing the design of (a) community-based interventions and (b) patient-centered research studies that we are currently leading to address these disparities and improve human health. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Antibiotic resistance (AR) is widely considered to be the next global pandemic. As with COVID-19, the potential for AR to disproportionately impact racial/ethnic minorities is a major concern. Our goal was to identify gaps in knowledge of AR disparities in order to inform the types of interventions that might be most appropriate to address this. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We reviewed the literature to examine evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in (a) infections with the most concerning drug-resistant bacteria in the United States, and (b) underlying social-economic or behavioral factors that could contribute to such infections. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify studies published in English between August 1973 - August 2020. We used keywords that included: antibiotic resistance, antibiotic-resistant infections, antibiotic-seeking behavior, prescription/non-prescription antibiotic use, antibiotic education, or health literacy AND race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. We screened all abstracts to identify US-based studies that assessed (a) or (b) above. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 11 studies investigating racial/ethnic disparities for 5 of the 17 drug-resistant bacteria flagged in the CDC’s 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report. Black, Hispanic, and lower-income individuals were found to be at higher risk of some community-acquired antibiotic-resistant infections. We identified multiple factors that may contribute to disparities in AR-related morbidity and mortality, including reported differences in antibiotic use, higher likelihood of living in crowded/multigenerational homes, more frequent employment in potentially high exposure settings (e.g. slaughterhouses), lower health literacy, and more frequent underlying comorbidities, which increases risks for hospitalization and subsequent acquisition of drug-resistant infections. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Given the small number of studies on this topic, educational interventions that aim to raise awareness of this issue must target not only the public but also researchers. Community-based interventions that seek to address disparities in ‘antibiotic resistance literacy’ among minority and underserved groups could be particularly impactful.
Breaking waves generate a distribution of bubble sizes that evolves over time. Knowledge of how this distribution evolves is of practical importance for maritime and climate studies. The analytical framework developed in Part 1 (Chan, Johnson & Moin, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 912, 2021, A42) examined how this evolution is governed by the bubble-mass flux from large- to small-bubble sizes which depends on the rate of break-up events and the distribution of child bubble sizes. These statistics are measured in Part 2 as ensemble-averaged functions of time by simulating ensembles of breaking waves, and identifying and tracking individual bubbles and their break-up events. The large-scale break-up dynamics is seen to be statistically unsteady, and two intervals with distinct characteristics were identified. In the first interval, the dissipation rate and bubble-mass flux are quasi-steady, and the theoretical analysis of Part 1 is supported by all observed statistics, including the expected $-10/3$ power-law exponent for the super-Hinze-scale size distribution. Strong locality is observed in the corresponding bubble-mass flux, supporting the presence of a super-Hinze-scale break-up cascade. In the second interval, the dissipation rate decays, and the bubble-mass flux increases as small- and intermediate-sized bubbles become more populous. This flux remains strongly local with cascade-like behaviour, but the dominant power-law exponent for the size distribution increases to $-8/3$ as small bubbles are also depleted more quickly. This suggests the emergence of different physical mechanisms during different phases of the breaking-wave evolution, although size-local break-up remains a dominant theme. Parts 1 and 2 present an analytical toolkit for population balance analysis in two-phase flows.
Breaking waves entrain gas beneath the surface. The wave-breaking process energizes turbulent fluctuations that break bubbles in quick succession to generate a wide range of bubble sizes. Understanding this generation mechanism paves the way towards the development of predictive models for large-scale maritime and climate simulations. Garrett et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 30, 2000, pp. 2163–2171) suggested that super-Hinze-scale turbulent break-up transfers entrained gas from large- to small-bubble sizes in the manner of a cascade. We provide a theoretical basis for this bubble-mass cascade by appealing to how energy is transferred from large to small scales in the energy cascade central to single-phase turbulence theories. A bubble break-up cascade requires that break-up events predominantly transfer bubble mass from a certain bubble size to a slightly smaller size on average. This property is called locality. In this paper, we analytically quantify locality by extending the population balance equation in conservative form to derive the bubble-mass-transfer rate from large to small sizes. Using our proposed measures of locality, we show that scalings relevant to turbulent bubbly flows, including those postulated by Garrett et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 30, 2000, pp. 2163–2171) and observed in breaking-wave experiments and simulations, are consistent with a strongly local transfer rate, where the influence of non-local contributions decays in a power-law fashion. These theoretical predictions are confirmed using numerical simulations in Part 2 (Chan et al., J. Fluid. Mech. vol. 912, 2021, A43), revealing key physical aspects of the bubble break-up cascade phenomenology. Locality supports the universality of turbulent small-bubble break-up, which simplifies the development of cascade-based subgrid-scale models to predict oceanic small-bubble statistics of practical importance.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages of N95 respirators. Reprocessing of used N95 respirators may provide a higher filtration crisis alternative, but whether effective sterilization can be achieved for a virus without impairing respirator function remains unknown. We evaluated the viricidal efficacy of Bioquell vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) on contaminated N95 respirators and tested the particulate particle penetration and inhalation and exhalation resistance of respirators after multiple cycles of VHP.
For this study, 3M 1870 N95 respirators were contaminated with 3 aerosolized bacteriophages: T1, T7, and Pseudomonas phage phi-6 followed by 1 cycle of VHP decontamination using a BQ-50 system. Additionally, new and unused respirators were sent to an independent laboratory for particulate filter penetration testing and inhalation and exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP.
A single VHP cycle resulted in complete eradication of bacteriophage from respirators (limit of detection 10 PFU). Respirators showed acceptable limits for inhalation/exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. Respirators demonstrated a filtration efficiency >99 % after 3 cycles, but filtration efficiency fell below 95% after 5 cycles of HPV.
Bioquell VHP demonstrated high viricidal activity for N95 respirators inoculated with aerosolized bacteriophages. Bioquell technology can be scaled for simultaneous decontamination of a large number of used but otherwise intact respirators. Reprocessing should be limited to 3 cycles due to concerns both about impact of clinical wear and tear on fit, and to decrement in filtration after 3 cycles.
Bipolar disorder is associated with premature mortality, but evidence is mostly derived from Western countries. There has been no research evaluating shortened lifespan in bipolar disorder using life-years lost (LYLs), which is a recently developed mortality metric taking into account illness onset for life expectancy estimation. The current study aimed to examine the extent of premature mortality in bipolar disorder patients relative to the general population in Hong Kong (HK) in terms of standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and excess LYLs, and changes of mortality rate over time.
This population-based cohort study investigated excess mortality in 12 556 bipolar disorder patients between 2008 and 2018, by estimating all-cause and cause-specific SMRs, and LYLs. Trends in annual SMRs over the 11-year study period were assessed. Study data were retrieved from a territory-wide medical-record database of HK public healthcare services.
Patients had higher all-cause [SMR: 2.60 (95% CI: 2.45–2.76)], natural-cause [SMR: 1.90 (95% CI: 1.76–2.05)] and unnatural-cause [SMR: 8.63 (95% CI: 7.34–10.03)] mortality rates than the general population. Respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancers accounted for the majority of deaths. Men and women with bipolar disorder had 6.78 (95% CI: 6.00–7.84) years and 7.35 (95% CI: 6.75–8.06) years of excess LYLs, respectively. The overall mortality gap remained similar over time, albeit slightly improved in men with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder is associated with increased premature mortality and substantially reduced lifespan in a predominantly Chinese population, with excess deaths mainly attributed to natural causes. Persistent mortality gap underscores an urgent need for targeted interventions to improve physical health of patients with bipolar disorder.
We examined the association of generational status and age at immigration with later life cognitive outcomes in a diverse sample of Latinos and Asian Americans.
Baseline data were obtained from the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) study, and a prospective cohort is initiated in 2017.
Older adults in Northern California.
Our cohort consisted of Asians (n = 411) and Latinos (n = 340) who were on average 76 years old (SD = 6.8).
We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations between generational status and age at immigration (collapsed into one five-level variable) with measures of verbal episodic memory, semantic memory, and executive function, adjusting for age, gender, race and ethnicity, and own- and parental education.
Generational status and age at immigration were associated with cognitive outcomes in a graded manner. Compared to third-generation or higher immigrants, first-generation immigration in adulthood was associated with lower semantic memory (β = −0.96; 95% CI: −1.12, −0.81) than immigration in adolescence (β = −0.68; 95% CI: −0.96, −0.41) or childhood (β = −0.28; 95% CI: −0.49, −0.06). Moreover, immigration in adulthood was associated with lower executive function (β = −0.63; 95% CI: −0.78, −0.48) than immigration in adolescence (β = −0.49; 95% CI: −0.75, −0.23). Similarly, compared to third-generation individuals, first-generation immigrants had lower executive functioning scores.
Our study supports the notion that sociocontextual influences in early life impact later life cognitive scores. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify how immigration characteristics affect cognitive decline.
Families facing end-stage nonmalignant chronic diseases (NMCDs) are presented with similar symptom burdens and need for psycho-social–spiritual support as their counterparts with advanced cancers. However, NMCD patients tend to face more variable disease trajectories, and thus may require different anticipatory supports, delivered in familiar environments. The Life Rainbow Programme (LRP) provides holistic, transdisciplinary, community-based end-of-life care for patients with NMCDs and their caregivers. This paper reports on the 3-month outcomes using a single-group, pre–post comparison.
Patients with end-stage NMCDs were screened for eligibility by a medical team before being referred to the LRP. Patients were assessed at baseline (T0), 1 month (T1), and 3 months (T2) using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS). Their hospital use in the previous month was also measured by presentations at accident and emergency services, admissions to intensive care units, and number of hospital bed-days. Caregivers were assessed at T0 and T2 using the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index, and self-reported health, psychological, spiritual, and overall well-being. Over-time changes in outcomes for patients, and caregivers, were tested using paired-sample t-tests, Wilcoxon-signed rank tests, and chi-square tests.
Seventy-four patients and 36 caregivers participated in this research study. Patients reported significant improvements in all IPOS domains at both 1 and 3 months [ranging from Cohen's d = 0.495 (nausea) to 1.793 (depression and information needs fulfilled)]. Average hospital bed-days in the previous month fell from 3.50 to 1.68, comparing baseline and 1 month (p < 0.05). At 3 months, caregiver strain was significantly reduced (r = 0.332), while spiritual well-being was enhanced (r = 0.333).
After receiving 3 month's LRP services, patients with end-stage NMCDs and their caregivers experienced significant improvements in the quality of life and well-being, and their hospital bed-days were reduced.
Dense, small particles suspended in turbulent smooth-wall flow are known to migrate towards the wall. It is, however, not clear if the particle migration continues in a rough-wall flow and what the responsible mechanism is, especially with changing roughness parameters. Here, we address this using direct numerical simulation of a turbulent pipe flow of a fixed friction Reynolds numbers and changing the roughness size as well as the Stokes number of the particles. The transport and deposition mechanisms of particles are segregated into three different regimes dictated by the Stokes number. Particles with small Stokes number follow the carrier fluid and are affected by the turbulent structures of the rough wall. Flow separation in the wake of the roughness and stagnant flow in the trough of the roughness causes these particles to be trapped in the roughness canopy. Particles with very large Stokes number, on the other hand, are attracted to the wall due to turbophoresis and collide with the rough wall where the frequency of wall collision increases with increasing Stokes number. These ballistic particles are unaffected by the turbulent fluctuations of the flow and their trajectory is determined by the roughness topography. At intermediate Stokes numbers, the transport of the particles is influenced by both the wall collisions and also the turbulent flow. Particles in this range of Stokes number occasionally collide with the wall and are entrained by the turbulent flow. In this regime, the particles may have a mean streamwise velocity that is larger than the bulk flow rate of the fluid. Finally, we observe that bulk particle velocity scale better with a time scale based on the roughness elements rather than the usual viscous time scale.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder that impacts more than 400,000 people in the U.S. The disease results in multiple functional impairments that are diverse and varied across individuals. Additonally, MS has a profound impact on community participation which, like other rehabilitation outcomes, cannot be explained on the basis of functional limitations alone. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a model of community participation for people living with MS using the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. The model focused on the roles that personal factors have as predictors of community participation, while also serving as mediators and moderators for the relationship between activity limitation and participation. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that demographic characteristics (i.e. MS type), personal factors (i.e. core self-evaluations (CSE), MS self-management, resilience, and social skills), and activity limitations accounted for 64% of the variance in participation. Further, mediation analysis indicated that CSE mediated the relationship between activity limitation and community participation. Finally, moderation analysis indicated an interaction effect between educational attainment and MS self-management. Implications for future research in rehabilitation and clinical application are discussed.
Background: Detection of unusual carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) in a healthcare facility may signify broader regional spread. During investigation of a VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-CRPA) outbreak in a long-term acute-care hospital in central Florida, enhanced surveillance identified VIM-CRPA from multiple facilities, denoting potential regional emergence. We evaluated infection control and performed screening for CPOs in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) across the region to identify potential CPO reservoirs and improve practices. Methods: All SNFs in 2 central Florida counties were offered a facility-wide point-prevalence survey (PPS) for CPOs and a nonregulatory infection control consultation. PPSs were conducted using a PCR-based screening method; specimens with a carbapenemase gene detected were cultured to identify the organisms. Infection control assessments focused on direct observations of hand hygiene (HH), environmental cleaning, and the sink splash zone. Thoroughness of environmental cleaning was evaluated using fluorescent markers applied to 6 standardized high-touch surfaces in at least 2 rooms per facility. Results: Overall, 21 (48%) SNFs in the 2-county region participated; 18 conducted PPS. Bed size ranged from 40 to 391, 5 (24%) facilities were ventilator-capable SNFs (vSNFs), and 12 had short-stay inpatient rehabilitation units. Of 1,338 residents approached, 649 agreed to rectal screening, and 14 (2.2%) carried CPOs. CPO-colonized residents were from the ventilator-capable units of 3 vSNFs (KPC-CRE=7; KPC-CRPA=1) and from short-stay units of 2 additional facilities (VIM-CRPA, n = 5; KPC-CRE, n = 1). Among the 5 facilities where CPO colonization was identified, the prevalence ranged from 1.1% in a short-stay unit to 16.1% in a ventilator unit. All facilities had access to soap and water in resident bathrooms; 14 (67%) had alcohol-based hand rubs accessible. Overall, mean facility HH adherence was 52% (range, 37%–66%; mean observations per facility = 106) (Fig. 1). We observed the use of non–EPA-registered disinfectants and cross contamination from dirty to clean areas during environmental cleaning; the overall surface cleaning rate was 46% (n = 178 rooms); only 1 room had all 6 markers removed. Resident supplies were frequently stored in the sink splash zone. Conclusions: A regional assessment conducted in response to emergence of VIM-CRPA identified a relatively low CPO prevalence at participating SNFs; CPOs were primarily identified in vSNFs and among short-stay residents. Across facilities, we observed low adherence to core infection control practices that could facilitate spread of CPOs and other resistant organisms. In this region, targeting ventilator and short-stay units of SNFs for surveillance and infection control efforts may have the greatest prevention impact.
Many studies demonstrate that marriage protects against risky alcohol use and moderates genetic influences on alcohol outcomes; however, previous work has not considered these effects from a developmental perspective or in high-risk individuals. These represent important gaps, as it cannot be assumed that marriage has uniform effects across development or in high-risk samples. We took a longitudinal developmental approach to examine whether marital status was associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), and whether marital status moderated polygenic influences on HED. Our sample included 937 individuals (53.25% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism who reported their HED and marital status biennially between the ages of 21 and 25. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were derived from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption. Marital status was not associated with HED; however, we observed pathogenic gene-by-environment effects that changed across young adulthood. Among those who married young (age 21), individuals with higher PRS reported more HED; however, these effects decayed over time. The same pattern was found in supplementary analyses using parental history of alcohol use disorder as the index of genetic liability. Our findings indicate that early marriage may exacerbate risk for those with higher polygenic load.
Research consistently emphasizes the importance of religious institutions for influencing political action among Asian Americans. The social capital literature offers two theoretical explanations for why churches increase political activity: bridging capital between different groups and bonding capital among similar groups. The latter argues that individuals who attend racially homogeneous churches are more participatory. This paper expands on these accounts by examining another aspect of bonding. That is, how does similarity in political views among church members affect Asian Americans' political participation? Results from the 2016 Collaborative Multi-Racial Post-Election Survey show that Asian Americans who attend politically homogeneous churches are more likely to vote and participate in conventional activities. The effects of racial homogeneity are limited once taking political homogeneity into consideration. These findings provide evidence that political homophily within religious organizations may facilitate the bonding of social capital between racial/ethnic minorities, and this homophily is indeed salient to democratic participation.
This chapter focuses on advancements in the understanding of personality pathology gained from structural and functional neuroimaging studies. It draws from the literature on the most widely researched personality disorders including schizotypal, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder. Prominent findings in schizotypal personality disorder include abnormalities in temporal and frontal lobe volumes, decreased structural connectivity of temporal lobe regions, and inefficient recruitment of brain areas during task performance. In borderline personality disorder, neuroimaging findings are characterized by aberrant volume and activity of limbic and prefrontal brain areas that suggest diminished top-down control of affective responsivity. Studies in antisocial personality disorder reveal reduced volume in prefrontal and temporal lobe structures, white matter structure compromise, and altered brain network functional connectivity. Significant challenges in studying this complex population and limitations of current methodology are discussed. Suggestions for future directions of research in this field are provided.
This rejoinder uses the neuroimaging literature on affect regulation to exemplify how integration of complementary methods suggested by the commentaries could advance neurobiological understanding of personality disorders. It illustrates progressive insights gained from incorporating multiple sources of evidence including neuroimaging, genetics, and behavioral data associated with affect regulation. It also demonstrates the use of brain pattern activation analysis in addition to studying individual regions of interest to better understand the complex relationships between biological genotype, brain activity, and behavioral phenotype. The ways in which neuroimaging can serve as an endophenotype to bridge the gap between genes and distant phenotypes are highlighted.