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High levels of early emotionality (of either negative or positive valence) are hypothesized to be important precursors to early psychopathology, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a prime early target. The positive and negative affect domains are prime examples of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) concepts that may enrich a multilevel mechanistic map of psychopathology risk. Utilizing both variable-centered and person-centered approaches, the current study examined whether levels and trajectories of infant negative and positive emotionality, considered either in isolation or together, predicted children's ADHD symptoms at 4 to 8 years of age. In variable-centered analyses, higher levels of infant negative affect (at as early as 3 months of age) were associated with childhood ADHD symptoms. Findings for positive affect failed to reach statistical threshold. Results from person-centered trajectory analyses suggest that additional information is gained by simultaneously considering the trajectories of positive and negative emotionality. Specifically, only when exhibiting moderate, stable or low levels of positive affect did negative affect and its trajectory relate to child ADHD symptoms. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that infant negative emotionality is a promising early life marker of future ADHD risk and suggest secondarily that moderation by positive affectivity warrants more consideration.
In this case–case control study, we identified receipt of β-lactam antibiotics and older age as independently associated with increased infection risk with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli among residents aged 20–88 years in a rural Maine hospital system where the infection prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli is low.
There are many screening instruments available for the detection of dementia. However, they were not tested in very old age and often not in the primary care setting for which they are developed.
We condensed a screening battery of all elements of common tests (MMSE, TFDD, DEMTECT, Clock Test…). Nine primary care practices took part in the study. The practice assistants were trained to approach all patients over 75y visiting the practice. Only patients with already diagnosed dementia, severe hearing or vision disability or communication deficits were excluded. After informed consent they applied the screening. Within the next days a second independent neuropsychological examination was arranged in the memory clinic of the University of Goettingen. This included established neuropsychological tests (CERAD-NP, WMS-R, TMT.) and further scales were applied (NPI, CDR..). All patients with CDR=0.5 were approached 1.5y later for a follow-up by phone.
N=90 patients (25M, 65F) took part in the initial evaluation. From N=54 with CDR=0.5 only N=14 could be reached for follow-up. None of them returned to CDR=0, most progressed up to CDR=4. There were some correlations to education and dementia severity. All available screenings showed a good effect size of >0.70 (MMSE, DEMTECT, TFDD, RDST).
Elements for an optimal screening of the oldest old are discussed.
A regional, multistate investigation into a June–August 2013 cyclosporiasis outbreak was conducted in Nebraska, Iowa, and neighbouring states. Cases were confirmed on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. Of 227 cases in Iowa (n = 140) and Nebraska (n = 87) residents, 162 (71%) reported dining at chain A/B restaurants – 96% reported house salad consumption. A case-control study identified chain A/B house salad as the most likely vehicle. Traceback was conducted to ascertain production lot codes of bagged salad mix (iceberg and romaine lettuce, red cabbage, and carrots) served as house salad in implicated restaurants. A single production lot code of salad mix supplied by both a common producer and distributor was linked to the majority of confirmed cases in persons reporting regional chain A/B exposure. The salad mix linked to illnesses contained imported romaine lettuce from two separate single-grower fields-of-origin and ⩾1 additional field from another grower.
During June–August 2013, 25 US states reported 631 cyclosporiasis cases including Nebraska and Iowa where a regional investigation implicated common-source imported salad mix served in two chain restaurants. At least two common-origin growing fields were likely sources of contaminated romaine lettuce. Using producer- and distributor-provided data, we conducted a grower-specific traceforward investigation to reveal exposures of ill US residents elsewhere who reported symptom onset during 11 June–1 July 2013, the time period established in the Nebraska and Iowa investigation. Romaine lettuce shipped on 2–6 June from one of these Mexico-origin growing fields likely caused cyclosporiasis in 78 persons reporting illness onsets from 11 June to 1 July in Nebraska, Texas, and Florida. Nationwide, 97% (314/324) of persons confirmed with cyclosporiasis with symptom onset from 11 June to 1 July 2013 resided in 11 central and eastern US states receiving approximately two-thirds of romaine lettuce from this field. This grower's production practices should be investigated to determine potential sources of contamination and to develop recommendations to prevent future illnesses.
In Germany, active bat rabies surveillance was conducted between 1993 and 2012. A total of 4546 oropharyngeal swab samples from 18 bat species were screened for the presence of EBLV-1- , EBLV-2- and BBLV-specific RNA. Overall, 0·15% of oropharyngeal swab samples tested EBLV-1 positive, with the majority originating from Eptesicus serotinus. Interestingly, out of seven RT–PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs subjected to virus isolation, viable virus was isolated from a single serotine bat (E. serotinus). Additionally, about 1226 blood samples were tested serologically, and varying virus neutralizing antibody titres were found in at least eight different bat species. The detection of viral RNA and seroconversion in repeatedly sampled serotine bats indicates long-term circulation of the virus in a particular bat colony. The limitations of random-based active bat rabies surveillance over passive bat rabies surveillance and its possible application of targeted approaches for future research activities on bat lyssavirus dynamics and maintenance are discussed.
Psychobiological models of allostatic load have delineated the effects of multiple processes that contribute to risk for psychopathology. This approach has been fruitful, but the interactive contributions of allostatic and environmental load remain understudied in early childhood. Because this developmental period encompasses the emergence of internalizing problems and biological sensitivity to early experiences, this is an important time to examine this process. In two studies, we examined allostatic and environmental load and links to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Study 1 examined relations between load indices and maladjustment, concurrently and at multiple times between age 2 and kindergarten; Study 2 added more comprehensive risk indices in a sample following a group of highly fearful toddlers from 2 to 3 years of age. Results from both studies showed that increased allostatic load related to internalizing problems as environmental risk also increased. Study 2, in addition, showed that fearfulness interacted with allostatic and environmental load indices to predict greater anxiety among the fearful children who had high levels of allostatic and environmental load. Taken together, the findings support a model of risk for internalizing characterized by the interaction of biological and environmental stressors, and demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences and environmental context in applying models of allostatic load to developmental change in early childhood.
There is evidence that fetal exposure to maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about the association between fetal responses to a stressor and indicators of fetal maturity and developmental outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns in response to a startling stimulus at ∼30 weeks of gestation were associated with gestational age at birth and birth weight. FHR was measured in 156 maternal–fetal dyads following a vibroacoustic stimulus. All pregnancies were singleton intrauterine pregnancies in English-speaking women who were primarily married, middle class, White and at least 18 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling identified five groups of fetuses displaying distinctive longitudinal trajectories of FHR response to the startling stimulus. The FHR group trajectories were significantly associated with birth weight percentile (P < 0.01) even after controlling for estimated fetal weight at the time of assessment and parity, which are the known factors influencing birth weight (P < 0.01). Post hoc analyses indicated that two groups accounted for the association between FHR patterns and birth weight. The group (n = 23) with the lowest birth weight exhibited an immediate FHR deceleration followed by an immediate acceleration that does not recover. An FHR pattern characterized by immediate and fast acceleration to the peak and a slow discovery to baseline was associated with the highest birth weight. This is the first direct evidence showing that low birth weight and the resulting neurological consequences may have their origins in early fetal development.
In order to assign 18 mayfly taxa found in streams in the Macaé River basin into Functional Feeding Groups, the anatomy of their feeding
apparatus was examined through scanning electron microscopy. Also, habitat preference and field observations of feeding behaviour were made
to assure FFG assignment. Ephemeropteran taxa were classified into five FFGs: Passive Filterers - Hylister plaumanni; Active Filterer -
Lachlania boanovae and Campylocia sp.; Brushers - Askola froehlichi, Farrodes carioca, Hagenulopsis spp., Massartela brieni, Miroculis froehlich,
Miroculis sp., and Thraulodes spp; Grazers - Cloeodes spp., Americabaetis spp., Camelobaetidius spp.and Baetodes spp.; Scrapers -
Leptohyphes pereirae, Leptohyphes spp., Tricorythodes spp. and Tricorythopsis spp. Species of the three best represented mayfly families in
south-east Brazil were assigned to different FFGs (Leptophlebiidae - Brushers; Baetidae - Grazers and Leptohyphidae - Scrapers), with one
exception, Hylister plaumanni (Leptophlebiidae; Active filterers). This information is useful to understand the role of mayflies in stream ecosystems,
and to help the development of ecological theories for tropical streams.
Gangestad & Simpson make a major contribution by highlighting the importance of mate choice for good genes, the costs of alternative strategies, and tradeoffs inherent in human mating. By downplaying sex differences and ignoring the nongenetic adaptive benefits of short term mating, however, they undermine their goal of “strategic pluralism” by presenting a theory devoid of many documented complexities of human mating.
Secondary and tertiary states of fluid flow in a layer between
two plates in relative
motion and rotating about a normal axis of rotation are studied numerically
wide range of parameters. Plane Couette flow without rotation and the single
layer at a rigid plate above a quiescent fluid half-space are obtained
as limiting cases.
A Galerkin method is used for the investigation of the bifurcation structures
problem. A Chebyshev collocation scheme is used for following the evolution
time-dependent states of the flow. Comparisons are made with experimental
as well as with previous studies of particular parameter limits.
This study examines the precise time course that brown adipose tissue (BAT) takes to adopt the characteristics of white adipose tissue in postnatal lambs. Perirenal adipose tissue was sampled from ewe-reared lambs within 1 h of birth and at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days of age and analysed for the amount of mRNA for uncoupling protein (UCP), the amount and activity of UCP, and protein, mitochondrial protein and lipid content. This was combined with measurements of colonic temperature and jugular venous plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Over the first 4-7 days of age, large quantities of UCP mRNA were associated with a peak in plasma triiodothyronine concentration at 2 days of age followed by a maximal amount and activity of UCP at 4 days and a basal colonic temperature of 39·3°C. Between 7 and 30 days there was a large increase in lipid deposition as the amount and activity of UCP and the amount of UCP mRNA declined to basal values and colonic temperature was maintained at 40°C. A significant positive relationship between perirenal adipose tissue lipid content and plasma IGF-1 concentration was observed throughout the study period. It is concluded that ovine adipose tissue maturation occurs in two distinct phases over the first month of life. The precise time scale of this process could be regulated in part by the lamb's body temperature which determines whether adipose tissue is required for heat production (i.e. BAT) or as an endogenous energy source (i.e. white adipose tissue).
The interaction of SiO radicals from a SiCl4/O2 plasma with the surface of a depositing thin film is studied with the IRIS (Imaging of Radicals Interacting with Surfaces) technique, which combines spatially-resolved laser-induced fluorescence with molecular beam methods. In contrast to previous results for SiH, SiO appears not to react at the surface of the depositing film, but desorbs with a cosine spatial distribution for a wide range of substrate temperatures. No evidence is observed for specular scattering of the molecules.
The sources of scattering losses in fluorozirconate glasses and fibers are reviewed. Results are presented which show that the predominant mechanism responsible for the presence of fluoride crystals is heterogeneous nucleation. The nature and origin of the different nuclei are discussed and possible ways to eliminate them from the glasses assessed. It is proposed that extreme care be employed in the processing of the glasses with particular emphasis on the preform fabrication step as this is critical to the design of ultra-low loss fibers.
Numerical calculations of losses due to polymer coatings and macrobending have been made for step index multimode fluoride fibers. To avoid such losses, fiber core and cladding diameters and numerical aperture must be chosen carefully.
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