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The Late Intermediate period in the south-central Andes is known for the widespread use of open sepulchres called chullpas by descent-based ayllus to claim rights to resources and express idealized notions of how society should be organized. Chullpas, however, were rarer on the coast, with the dead often buried individually in closed tombs. This article documents conditions under which these closed tombs were used at the site of Quilcapampa on the coastal plain of southern Peru, allowing an exploration into the ways that funerary traditions were employed to both reflect and generate community affiliation, ideals about sociopolitical organization, and land rights. After a long hiatus, the site was reoccupied and quickly expanded through local population aggregation and highland migrations. An ayllu organization that made ancestral claims to specific resources was poorly suited to these conditions, and the site's inhabitants instead seem to have organized themselves around the ruins of Quilcapampa's earlier occupation. In describing what happened in Quilcapampa, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the myriad ways that Andean peoples used mortuary customs to structure the lives of the living during a period of population movements and climate change.
The inhibitory effect of positional syllable frequency is a well-known phenomenon in visual word recognition: words with high-frequency syllables require extra time for deactivating the lexical syllabic neighbors. The inhibitory effect implies that a connection exists between graphemes, phonemes, the first syllable, and the phonological lexicon. However, experimental results of the first developmental stages of occurrence are scarce and inconclusive. A second- and fourth-grade sample of typical school readers participated in a lexical decision task containing high/low frequency words and high/low syllable frequency words. Our primary hypothesis was that the inhibitory effect would be found on both school grade groups. We did not predict significant differences in magnitude of effect between second- and fourth-grade participants. A general inhibitory effect was found, and separate analyses by school grade groups also indicated significant inhibitory effects. Furthermore, second- and fourth-grade children showed small sizes of the inhibitory effect, resembling the sizes found in adult normal readers. Our results suggest that Spanish readers reach a functional connection between syllables and words at an early stage. The straightforward theoretical implication is that the inhibitory effect relies heavily on the structural properties of the lexical access system that are acquired at an early age.
To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA.
Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.
São Paulo, Brazil; and Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.
Adolescents (12–16 years) living in São Paulo (n 189) and USA (n 787).
ISA-Nutrition individuals with EBW (v. without) had marginally lower (unhealthier) scores for whole grains using BHEI-R and sugary beverages using AHEI. SOL-Youth individuals with EBW had lower scores of nuts/legumes using AHEI, and Na using BHEI-R, but higher scores of whole grains and dairy using BHEI-R. In ISA-Nutrition, BHEI-R was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·87; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·95) and CVDR (OR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In SOL-Youth, AHEI was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99).
Dietary improvements should be made by adolescents in both USA and Brazil. Healthier diet quality as measured with the country-specific index was associated with lower odds of EBW in Brazilian and USA-Hispanic/Latino adolescents, and with lower CVDR in Brazilian adolescents.
To elucidate mechanisms across family function, home environment and eating behaviours within sociocultural context among Hispanic youth.
Two models tested via path analysis (youth fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; empty energy consumption) using data from the Study of Latino Youth (2011–2013).
Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.
Youth (8–16-year-olds), n 1466.
Youth ate 2·4 servings of FV per d and received 27 % of total energy from empty energies. Perceiving higher acculturative stress was indirectly associated with lower FV consumption via a pathway of low family function and family support for FV (β = −0·013, P < 0·001) and via lower family closeness and family support (β = −0·004, P = 0·004). Being >12-year-olds was indirectly associated with lower FV consumption via lower family closeness and family support (β = −0·006, P < 0·001). Household food security was indirectly associated with greater FV consumption via family closeness and family support (β = 0·005, P = 0·003). In contrast, perceiving higher acculturative stress was indirectly associated with higher empty energy consumption (via family closeness and family support: β = 0·003, P = 0·028 and via low family function and low family support: β = 0·008, P = 0·05). Being older was associated with higher consumption of empty energies via family closeness (related to family support: β = 0·04, P = 0·016; parenting strategies for eating: β = 0·002, P = 0·049).
Findings suggest pathways of influence across demographic and sociocultural context, family dynamics and home environment. The directionality of these associations needs confirmation using longitudinal data.
Agroforestry systems can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change given their capacity to increase tree diversity and to store more carbon than conventional farming. This study aims at assessing carbon stocks and the use of shade trees in different coffee growing systems in the Northeast Peruvian Amazon. Carbon stocks in trees were estimated by field-based measurements and allometric equations. Carbon stocks in dead wood, litter and soil (upper 60 cm) were determined using field sampling and laboratory analysis. The diversity analysis drew on the Shannon–Weiner diversity index, and focus groups were used to obtain information about the local use of shade trees. The total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded coffee system was 189 t C/ha, while the Inga-shaded and unshaded systems totalled 146 and 113 t C/ha, respectively. The soil compartment contributed the largest carbon stock in the coffee growing systems and contained 67, 82 and 96% of the total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded, Inga-shaded and unshaded coffee systems, respectively. The Shannon–Weiner index and tree species richness values were highest for the polyculture-shaded coffee system, with a total of 18 tree species identified as important sources of fodder, food, wood, firewood and medicine. Therefore, coffee agroforestry systems play a significant role in carbon storage, while promoting conservation of useful trees in agricultural landscapes in the Peruvian Amazon.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
Suicide is a major public health problem, one of the leading causes of death and one of the first causes of years of life lost. It is a voluntary act that can be carried out by men and women, children and adults, rich and poor, people of every race and religion.
The aim of this text is to outline the most popular suicides and briefly discuss the representation of suicide in art. Painters such as Vincent Van Gogh, Edvard Munch, Jackson Pollock, musicians as Kurt Cobain, Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, the actresses Lupe Vélez, Carole Landis, Pier Angeli, Capucine, Marylin Monroe, Lucy Gordon and the actors Heath Ledger and Freddie Prinze decided the end of their lives in different ways and at different stages.
In the literary field, we find the world renowned suicides of Socrates, Seneca and Caton. Other famous and more recent suicidal writers are Ernest Hemingway, Dylan Thomas, Virginia Woolf, Yukio Mishima, Alfonsina Stormi and Cesare Pavese among others.
Suicide has been represented in several plays and operas, not only people of flesh and blood kill themselves but also fictional characters. the love-death of Liu in Turandot and Tosca in the opera of the same name Are noteworthy, both were composed by Giacomo Puccini. In Hamlet, tragedy written by William Shakespeare, is Ophelia who dies drowning at the sea.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
Patients diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have disturbed interpersonal relationships and emotional dysregulation. However, it remains uncertain whether these patients are also deficient at processing other people´s emotions. The initial appraisal of emotional information (involving attention and interpretation of emotional cues) is viewed as one essential precursor to emotional response and may relate to emotional dysregulation in borderline individuals.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion and to investigate the pattern of classification errors among a group diagnosed with BPD, compared to a non-patient control group.
40 outpatients diagnosed with BPD, and 91 control subjects completed the Picture of Facial Affect developed by P. Ekman (POFA, 1976), a computerized emotion discrimination test presenting 110 photographs of evoked happy, sad, anger, fear, surprised, disgust and neutral expressions using a fixed-response format.
We found significant differences in the patterns of error rates in POFA tests related to identifying emotions with a negative valence as well as in neutral expression responses between both groups.
Results are discussed in terms of emotional appraisal ability and dysregulation among individuals with BPD. Examining the predictive factors of emotional responding in borderline individuals may provide information on the nature of emotion dysregulation in this population.
Explore the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts in women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and compare eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impulsivity, personality, and genetic variants in four candidate genes of the serotonin pathway: the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), serotonin receptors 1A (HTR1A) and 2A (HTR2A) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) between individuals who had and had not attempted suicide. Determine the best predictors of suicide attempts.
Lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.9% CI 95%: 23.2 to 30.5). BN subtype was not associated with lifetime suicide attempts (p=0.36). Compared to non-attempters, attempters exhibited higher unemployment, eating disorder symptomatology, general psychopathology, previous eating disorder treatment, impulsive behaviors, and lower educational level (p<0.004). In relation to personality traits, suicide attempters exhibited significantly (p<0.002) higher Harm Avoidance and lower Self-directedness, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness. No significant differences in any of the genetic variants between attempters and non-attempters. The best predictors of suicide attempts were (p<0.006): lower education, minimum BMI, previous eating disorder treatment, family history of alcoholism and self-directedness.
Suicidality in BN patients appears to be within the range previously found. Our results support that internalizing personality traits combined with impulsivity may increase the probability of engaging in suicidal behaviors in these patients. Our data do not support the hypothesis that variants of SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A or TPH1 are associated with suicide attempts in BN individuals.
Psychotherapy is considered the primary treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is one of the most effective, based on empirical data (Lieb et al.,2004). Pharmacotherapy strategies have been successful in decreasing some core symptoms like impulsivity (Oldham,2005). Topiramate has been effective against BPD anger, considered as an expression of affective instability and a proxy measure of impulsivity (Nickel et al.,2004;2005).
To analyze the topiramate contribution in the aggressive impulsivity decrease with BPD patients treated by DBT.
23 BPD patients, treated with DBT, participated in the study. Patients were evaluated with SCID-I and SCID-II. Topiramate dosage was adapted to the frequency and severity of self-aggressive impulsive behaviors.
The influence of topiramate in behavior outcomes was analysed using step by step multivariated regression analysis.
Topiramate didn't decrease suicidal attempts number, but had strong influence in parasuicidal behaviors (Standarized Betha=0.57;t=3.16,p<0.05) and in the reduction of emergencies visits (Standarized Betha=0.22;t=2.151, p<0.05). The medium topiramate dosage was 200 mg UID (100-500mg).
Topiramate can be helpful, as a symptom-targeted pharmacotherapy, for self-aggresive impulsive behavior with BPD patients treated by DBT.
To determine the extent to which ED psychopathology and underlying personality traits account for social anxiety in EDs while controlling for potential confounding factors such as age, ED duration, inpatient status, body mass index, ED subtype and overall level of self-reported psychopathology.
927 ED women completed standardized measures of social anxiety (SADS), eating behaviors (EAT-40, EDI-II, BITE), personality (TCI-R)and general psychopathology (SCL-90-R).
Regression analyses showed that EAT-40, EDI-Social insecurity and interpersonal distrust, TCI-Harm avoidance (HA) and low Reward Dependence (RD) highly explained (57%) social anxiety in this population.
This is the first and largest study to date examining the specific association of social anxiety with different eating and personality characteristics in ED controlling for confounds. The importance of temperament traits such as high HA and low RD to explain the co-occurrence of both social anxiety and ED is highlighted.
Given the clinical similarity and the frequent comorbidity between impulse control disorders and certain eating disorders (ED) such as bulimia nervosa, we aimed to compare personality and clinical profiles of individuals with and without substance use disorders (SUD) who had primary diagnoses of ED or impulse control disorders, namely pathological gambling (PG).
1096 ED [91.8% females] and 1120 PG [92.4% males] patients were assessed for the presence of SUD. All patients were consecutively admitted to our Psychiatry Department and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. We administered the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Symptom ChekList-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and other clinical indices. Lifetime substance use included alcohol and other substances and was measured with the SCID-I. Student-Fisher t-tests were used to compare clinical features. Binary logistic regression models were used to analyse personality predictors of comorbidity with SUD. Adjustments for sex, age, and specific diagnosis were applied.
High Novelty Seeking, low Reward Dependence and low Self-Directedness were predictive of SUD in the whole sample independent of diagnosis (p<0.01). In the PG sample only, after adjustment for sex and age, Reward Dependence was no longer associated with SUD. Patients of both clinical samples with SUD showed higher SCL-90-R scores and severer eating and gambling symptoms (respectively).
Our results suggest that high Novelty Seeking, low Reward Dependence and low Self-Directedness are associated with lifetime SUD, which is also associated with a severer presentation of the primary disorder. This pattern holds across different populations such as ED and PG.
This study was performed to identify the predictive factors of functional capacity assessed by the Spanish University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA) and real-world functioning assessed by the Spanish Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) in outpatients with schizophrenia.
Naturalistic, 6-month follow-up, multicentre, validation study. Here, we report data on 139 patients with schizophrenia at their baseline visit. Assessment: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sp-UPSA and PSP. Statistics: Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationships between variables, and multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses to identify predictive variables of Sp-UPSA and PSP total scores.
Functional capacity: scores on the PSP and PANSS-GP entered first and second at P < 0.0001 and accounted for 21% of variance (R2 = 0.208, model df = 2, F = 15.724, P < 0.0001). Real-world functioning: scores on the CGI-S (B = −5.406), PANSS-N (B = −0.657) and Sp-UPSA (B = 0.230) entered first, second and third, and accounted for 51% of variance (model df = 3, F = 37.741, P < 0.0001).
In patients with schizophrenia, functional capacity and real-world functioning are two related but different constructs. Each one predicts the other along with other factors; general psychopathology for functional capacity, and severity of the illness and negative symptoms for real-world functioning. These findings have important clinical implications: (1) both types of functioning should be assessed in patients with schizophrenia and (2) strategies for improving them should be different.
Schizophrenia is not only a mental disorder but also has other components affecting the physical part of the body. Several studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients.
This poster reported the preliminary results of a project aiming to find schizophrenia biomarkers. We present biological parameters and clinical variables of patients with schizophrenia according to the lab results and the clinical assessments.
Cross-sectional, naturalistic study. Inclusion criteria: DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; age >17 years; and written informed consent given.
123 patients with schizophrenia. Mean age 40.75 (10.37), 67.5% males. There is relationship between homocysteine(oxidative stress) and psychopathology: PANSS [negative subscale 0.27 (p=0.003), general subscale 0.21 (p=0.028) and Marder factor 0.28 (p=0.003)], NSA [global score 0.24 (p=0.010), and some factors: communication 0.26 (p=0.005), affect 0.28 (p=0.002), motivation 0.30 (p=0.001) and motor retardation 0.27 (p=0.004)]; Functioning [(PSP total score -0.24 (p=0.011) and some PSP factors: work 0.30 (p=0.001), self-care 0.21 (p=0.022)]. However, there is no relationship between C-reactive protein(inflammation) and any clinical variable. On the other hand, there is relationship between: glucose and cognitive impairment; cholesterol and NSA motivation score, cognitive impairment and PSP (total score, self-care and work); triglycerides and HDRS (total score, melancholia factor and vitality factor), NSA motivation score and cognitive impairment.
The negative dimension of schizophrenia is associated with high homocysteine levels, which means an oxidative stress state. As well, a worse functioning level is associated with high homocysteine level.
Some coping strategies might serve as protective functions by regulating the negative emotions associated with stress, whereas others may exacerbate the effects of stress and contribute to maladaptation.
To examine the distribution of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores in the Spanish sample of adolescents from the “Working in Europe to Stop Truancy among Youth” Project (WE-STAY) and study the differences according to the coping style.
Sample: 1409 pupils from 23 schools sited in Asturias (Spain) [48.55% males; mean age(SD) = 15.16(1.22)]. Instruments:
(1) Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (CASQ);
7.3% of the sample scored in mild depression, while 4.9% did so in moderate (BDI-II criteria). Significant differences were found by gender in BDI-II scores, females scoring higher in severe, moderate and mild depression (p< .005). Regarding to the coping style, 65.4% of the sample showed internal style. The least representative was the withdrawal style (13.9%). Significant differences were found in the coping style by gender, females scoring higher in both active and withdrawal styles (p< .050). Regarding to the relation between BDI-II scores and coping style, pupils with withdrawal style score higher in severe, moderate and mild depression (p< .000).
Although ideally would be an active style, pupils showed mainly an internal coping style (which includes assessing a situation and looking for a compromise). Coping style was related with the severity of depression. Withdrawal style (which includes denial) is related to a worsening of depression. Thereby, training coping skills may be important.