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The present study aimed to: (i) examine associations between food store patronage and diet and weight-related outcomes; and (ii) explore consumer motivations for visiting different types of food store.
A stratified probability sample of residents completed household and individual-level surveys in 2009/2010 on food purchasing patterns and motivations, dietary intake, waist circumference (WC), weight and height. Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index for Canada from a subset of participants (n 1362). Generalized estimating equations were created in 2015 to examine how frequency of patronizing different types of food store was associated with diet quality, intake of fruits and vegetable, mean intake of energy (kcal) sodium and saturated fat, WC and BMI.
Three mid-sized urban municipalities in Ontario, Canada.
A representative sample of residents (n 4574).
Participants who shopped frequently at food co-ops had significantly better diet quality (β=5·3; 99 % CI 0·3, 10·2) than those who did not. BMI and WC were significantly lower among those who frequently shopped at specialty shops (BMI, β=−2·1; 99 % CI −3·0, −1·1; WC, β=−4·8; 99 % CI −7·0, −2·5) and farmers’ markets (BMI, β=−1·4; 99 % CI −2·3, −0·5; WC, β=−3·8; 99 % CI −6·0, −1·6) compared with those who did not. Relative importance of reasons for food outlet selection differed by large (price, food quality) v. small (proximity, convenient hours) shopping trip and by outlet type.
Findings contribute to our understanding of food store selection and have implications for potentially relevant retail food intervention settings.
Demonstrating the equivalence of constructs is a key requirement for cross-cultural empirical research. The major purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to assess measurement and functional equivalence or invariance using the 9-item, 3-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS, a second-order factor model) and the 4-item, 1-factor Pay Level Satisfaction Scale (PLSS, a first-order factor model) across 29 samples in six continents (N = 5973). In step 1, we tested the configural, metric and scalar invariance of the LOMS and 17 samples achieved measurement invariance. In step 2, we applied the same procedures to the PLSS and nine samples achieved measurement invariance. Five samples (Brazil, China, South Africa, Spain and the USA) passed the measurement invariance criteria for both measures. In step 3, we found that for these two measures, common method variance was non-significant. In step 4, we tested the functional equivalence between the Love of Money Scale and Pay Level Satisfaction Scale. We achieved functional equivalence for these two scales in all five samples. The results of this study suggest the critical importance of evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies. Suggestions for remedying measurement non-equivalence are offered.
Cancers are fundamentally caused by genomic changes in the cancer cells that lead to their uncontrolled growth (Balmain et al., 2003; Stratton et al., 2009). Understanding these changes, which include DNA copy number alterations, is an intense focus of current research into the causes of, and potential therapies for, every type of cancer. Major research projects, such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project (The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, 2008), aim to comprehensively catalog all genomic changes in cancer. This chapter discusses the problem of interpreting copy number data, specifically in the context of cancer research.
To measure copy number, whole-genome genotyping array assays hybridize sample DNA to oligonucleotides deposited on the array. Modern designs use synthetic oligonucleotides to measure copy number at frequent intervals along the genome, especially in regions of known copy number variation. Modern arrays also include many probes that target both alleles of a large number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These platforms are therefore widely used in genotyping studies. Array-based assays available for measuring genome-wide copy number include arrays from Illumina, Sentrix, Agilent, and Affymetrix. Data from next-generation sequencing of DNA can also be used to detect copy number alterations and is rapidly becoming cost competitive with array-based platforms.
Molecular inversion probe (MIP) arrays (Wang et al., 2007, 2009; Ji and Welch, 2009) are another platform that can be used for large-scale copy number analysis and genotyping. MIP technology uses less DNA, can handle lower quality DNA, has a greater dynamic range, has higher quality markers, and better separates allelic information than other array-based approaches.
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a national target for mandatory reporting and a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services target for value-based purchasing. Differences in chart review versus claims-based metrics used by national agencies and groups raise concerns about the validity of these measures.
Evaluate consistency and reasons for discordance among chart review and claims-based CLABSI events.
We conducted 2 multicenter retrospective cohort studies within 6 academic institutions. A total of 150 consecutive patients were identified with CLABSI on the basis of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria (NHSN cohort), and an additional 150 consecutive patients were identified with CLABSI on the basis of claims codes (claims cohort). Ail events had full-text medical record reviews and were identified as concordant or discordant with the other metric.
In the NHSN cohort, there were 152 CLABSIs among 150 patients, and 73.0% of these cases were discordant with claims data. Common reasons for the lack of associated claims codes included coding omission and lack of physician documentation of bacteremia cause. In the claims cohort, there were 150 CLABSIs among 150 patients, and 65.3% of these cases were discordant with NHSN criteria. Common reasons for the lack of NHSN reporting were identification of non-CLABSI with bacteremia meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for an alternative infection source.
Substantial discordance between NHSN and claims-based CLABSI indicators persists. Compared with standardized CDC chart review criteria, claims data often had both coding omissions and misclassification of non-CLABSI infections as CLABSI. Additionally, claims did not identify any additional CLABSIs for CDC reporting. NHSN criteria are a more consistent interhospital standard for CLABSI reporting.
There is emerging evidence to show that high levels of NEFA contribute to endothelial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. However, the impact of NEFA composition remains unclear. A total of ten healthy men consumed test drinks containing 50 g of palm stearin (rich in SFA) or high-oleic sunflower oil (rich in MUFA) on separate occasions; a third day included no fat as a control. The fats were emulsified into chocolate drinks and given as a bolus (approximately 10 g fat) at baseline followed by smaller amounts (approximately 3 g fat) every 30 min throughout the 6 h study day. An intravenous heparin infusion was initiated 2 h after the bolus, which resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in circulating NEFA level from baseline. Mean arterial stiffness as measured by digital volume pulse was higher during the consumption of SFA (P < 0·001) but not MUFA (P = 0·089) compared with the control. Overall insulin and gastric inhibitory peptide response was greater during the consumption of both fats compared with the control (P < 0·001); there was a second insulin peak in response to MUFA unlike SFA. Consumption of SFA resulted in higher levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sI-CAM) at 330 min than that of MUFA or control (P ≤ 0·048). There was no effect of the test drinks on glucose, total nitrite, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or endothelin-1 concentrations. The present study indicates a potential negative impact of elevated NEFA derived from the consumption of SFA on arterial stiffness and sI-CAM levels. More studies are needed to fully investigate the impact of NEFA composition on risk factors for CVD.
Technological applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) require high critical current density, Jc, under operation at high magnetic field strengths. This requires effective flux pinning by introducing artificial defects through creative processing. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of mixed-phase LaMnO3:MgO (LMO:MgO) films as a potential cap buffer layer for the epitaxial growth and enhanced performance of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films. Such composite films were sputter deposited directly on IBAD-MgO templates (with no additional homo-epitaxial MgO layer) and revealed the formation of two phase-separated, but at the same time vertically aligned, self-assembled composite nanostructures that extend throughout the entire thickness of the film. The YBCO coatings deposited on these nanostructured cap layers showed correlated c-axis pinning and improved in-field Jc performance compared to those of YBCO films fabricated on standard LMO buffers. Microstructural characterization revealed additional extended disorder in the YBCO matrix. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of novel and potentially practical approaches in the pursuit of more efficient, economical, and high performance superconducting devices.
Simplification of the ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) buffer architecture is one of the key issues for reduced manufacturing cost of second-generation superconducting wire production. In this work, we studied various radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition conditions for epitaxial growth of LaMnO3 (LMO) layers, with varying thicknesses, directly on IBAD-MgO without homo-epitaxial MgO layers. Performance of the simplified LMO/IBAD-MgO samples was qualified by pulsed-laser-deposited 1-μm-thick YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) coatings. Detailed property characterizations revealed that though the growth temperature has a substantial effect on the texture of LMO layers, neither LMO thickness nor different sputter gas compositions had a significant effect on the performance of YBCO films. The superconducting properties of YBCO on LMO/IBAD-MgO are found to be similar to those obtained on templates having homo-epitaxial MgO layers. The present results underscore the strong potential of LMO as a single cap layer directly on IBAD-MgO for the development of a simplified IBAD architecture.
Ultramicrotomy, the technique of cutting nanometers-thin slices of
material using a diamond knife, was applied to prepare transmission
electron microscope (TEM) specimens of nanoporous
poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSSQ) thin films. This technique was compared
to focused ion beam (FIB) cross-section preparation to address possible
artifacts resulting from deformation of nanoporous microstructure during
the sample preparation. It was found that ultramicrotomy is a successful
TEM specimen preparation method for nanoporous PMSSQ thin films when
combined with low-energy ion milling as a final step. A thick, sacrificial
carbon coating was identified as a method of reducing defects from the FIB
process which included film shrinkage and pore deformation.
Background. We carried out a large randomized trial of a brief form of cognitive therapy, manual-assisted cognitive behaviour therapy (MACT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) for deliberate self-harm.
Method. Patients presenting with recurrent deliberate self-harm in five centres were randomized to either MACT or (TAU) and followed up over 1 year. MACT patients received a booklet based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) principles and were offered up to five plus two booster sessions of CBT from a therapist in the first 3 months of the study. Ratings of parasuicide risk, anxiety, depression, social functioning and global function, positive and negative thinking, and quality of life were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months.
Results. Four hundred and eighty patients were randomized. Sixty per cent of the MACT group had both the booklet and CBT sessions. There were seven suicides, five in the TAU group. The main outcome measure, the proportion of those repeating deliberate self-harm in the 12 months of the study, showed no significant difference between those treated with MACT (39%) and treatment as usual (46%) (OR 0·78, 95% CI 0·53 to 1·14, P=0·20).
Conclusion. Brief cognitive behaviour therapy is of limited efficacy in reducing self-harm repetition, but the findings taken in conjunctin with the economic evaluation (Byford et al. 2003) indicate superiority of MACT over TAU in terms of cost and effectiveness combined.
Synthetic ether-linked bolaform amphiphile vesicles and a novel gramicidin-porphyrin “diad” have been prepared. Photoinduced electron transfer properties of the diad were compared in bilayer (dihexadecylphosphate, DHP) and monolayer (2,2′-0-didecyl-1,1′-0-eicosamethylene-racdiglycero- 3,3′-diphosphoric acid, PS20) membrane vesicles with dithiothreitol sacrificial donor and methyl viologen electron acceptor present on both vesicle membrane surfaces. Although the rates of methyl viologen photoreduction varied depending on the mode of diad orientation within DHP bilayer membranes, photoreduction rates were not orientation-dependent in bolaform membrane vesicles containing the gramicidinporphyrin diad. The relevance of these results on vectorial electron transfer processes in closed membrane systems is briefly discussed.
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