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Few studies have been conducted to investigate the association of kidney function decline with the trajectories of homocysteine (Hcy) over time, using repeated measurements. We aimed to investigate the association of kidney function with changes in plasma Hcy levels over time.
Data were collected from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study. In detail, plasma Hcy and creatinine levels were measured in both waves (waves 2, 3 and 4) during the 3.5-year follow-up (N = 1135). Wave 2 was regarded as the baseline survey. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated based on creatinine. Subjects were categorized into four groups according to quartiles of eGFR at baseline. Linear mixed-effect models were used to investigate the association of eGFR with subsequent plasma Hcy levels.
The mean eGFR at baseline was 90.84 (11.42) mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean plasma Hcy level was 14.09 (6.82) at baseline and increased to 16.28 (8.27) and 17.36 (10.39) μmol/L during follow-ups. In the crude model, the interaction between time and eGFR at baseline was significant (β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.02 to −0.01, p = 0.002). After adjusting for confounding factors, a significant relationship remained (β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.02 to −0.01, p = 0.003), suggesting that kidney function decline at baseline was associated with a faster increase in Hcy levels.
Kidney function decline is associated with a more pronounced increase in plasma Hcy levels. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and larger sample sizes are needed to validate our findings.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato has complex defence mechanisms that protect it from the anti-parasitic immune response for long periods. Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF) is involved in the immune escape. Nevertheless, whether and how EgCF modulates the inflammatory response in macrophages remains poorly understood. Here, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that EgCF could markedly attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-6 but increase the expression of IL-10 at mRNA and protein levels in mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanically, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay showed that EgCF abolished the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK1/2 signalling pathways by LPS stimulation in mouse macrophages. EgCF's anti-inflammatory role was at least partly contributed by promoting proteasomal degradation of the critical adaptor TRAF6. Moreover, the EgCF-promoted anti-inflammatory response and TRAF6 proteasomal degradation were conserved in human THP-1 macrophages. These findings collectively reveal a novel mechanism by which EgCF suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 and the downstream activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in both human and mouse macrophages, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the E. granulosus-induced immune evasion.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.
Axisymmetric reverse extrusion experiments were conducted on annealed Cu rod specimens to form cup-shaped structures with sidewall thicknesses ranging from ∼400 µm down to ∼25 µm. Changes in Cu grain morphology, size, and texture were examined through scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Pole figure and orientation distribution function analysis of EBSD data showed the same texture components in the present small-scale metal forming experiments as those observed in macroscale sheet metal rolling. The plastic deformation became inhomogeneous as the characteristic dimension for extrusion decreased to ∼25 µm, such that the deformation process involved a small number of Cu grains. Extrusion force–punch displacement curves were measured as a function of extruded cup sidewall thickness and compared to outputs of a continuum plasticity finite element analysis in corresponding geometries. The present work illustrates materials characteristics in small-scale metal forming and suggests directions of future work for bringing improved correspondence between experimentation and modeling.
In this paper we present new petrological and whole-rock geochemical data for the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Ji'an Group within the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt, China, as well as zircon U–Pb age dates and in situ Lu–Hf isotope data. The new data improve our understanding of the original nature of the metasedimentary rocks, further providing insights into their tectonic setting and the evolutionary history of the northern segment of the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt. The zircons can be divided into two groups, viz., one of magmatic origin and the other of metamorphic origin. Zircon U–Pb dating gave mean or statistical peak ages for the magmatic zircons at 2035, 2082, 2178, 2343–2421, 2451–2545, 2643–2814 and 2923–3446 Ma, and mean peak ages for the metamorphic zircons at 1855 and 1912 Ma, which indicate a maximum depositional age of 2.03 Ga and two-stage metamorphic events at c. 1.91 and 1.85 Ga for the metasedimentary rocks. Geochemical data show that (1) the protoliths of these rocks were mainly sandstones, greywackes and claystones, together with some shales; (2) the main sources of the sedimentary material were Palaeoproterozoic granites and acid volcanic rocks, with minor contributions from Archaean granitic rocks; and (3) the sediments were deposited in an active continental margin setting. Moreover, along the northeastern margin of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton there is evidence of ancient crustal materials as old as 3.76 Ga, and multiple crustal growth events at 3.23–3.05, 2.80–2.65, 2.54–2.45 and 2.28–2.08 Ga.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
Mechanical integrity of the interfacial region between ceramic coatings and substrates is critical to high performance coated mechanical components and manufacturing tools. Mechanical failure of the coating/substrate interfacial region often leads to catastrophic failure of the coated system as a whole. Despite extensive research over the past two decades, quantitative assessment of the mechanical response of coating/substrate interfacial regions remains a challenge. The lack of reliable protocols for measuring the mechanical response of coating/substrate interfacial regions quantitatively hampers the understanding of key factors controlling the mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces. In this paper, we describe a new micro-pillar testing protocol for quantitative measurement of critical stresses for inducing shear failure of interfacial regions in ceramic-coating/metal-adhesion-layer/substrate systems. We observe significant differences in the critical stress for shear failure of interfacial regions in CrN/Cu/Si, CrN/Cr/Si, and CrN/Ti/Si systems. The present testing protocol has general applicability to a wide range of coating/interlayer/substrate systems.
The early Cambrian Period was a key interval in Earth history with regard to changes in both ocean chemistry and animal evolution. Although increasing ocean ventilation has been widely assumed to have played a key role in the rapid appearance, diversification and spatial colonization of early animals, this relationship is in fact not firmly established. Here, we report a high-resolution Fe-C-S-Al-Ti geochemical study of the lower Cambrian Wangjiaping section from an outer-shelf setting of the Yangtze Sea of South China. Iron speciation data document a redox transition from dominantly euxinic to ferruginous conditions during Cambrian Age 3 (c. 521–514 Ma). Interpretation of coexisting pyrite sulphur isotope (δ34Spy) records from Wangjiaping reveals relatively high marine sulphate availability at Wangjiaping. Furthermore, Wangjiaping section shows lower δ34Spy (‒2.1±5.3‰) and lower TOC (2.4±1.1%) values but higher positive correlation (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.01) between TOC and Fepy/FeHR relative to deeper sections reported previously, suggesting that euxinia developed at Wangjiaping in response to increasing marine productivity and organic matter-sinking fluxes. Our reconstructed redox conditions and fossils at Wangjiaping in comparison with previously well-studied strata in the inner-shelf Xiaotan and Shatan sections suggest that planktonic and benthic planktonic trilobites with bioturbation appeared in the oxic water columns, whereas only planktonic trilobites without bioturbation occurred within the anoxic (even euxinic) water columns during Cambrian Age 3. This finding indicates that spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions in the shelves had an important effect on early animal distribution in the Yangtze Block.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
The performance of Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation is reduced when GPS is blocked. This paper proposes an algorithm to overcome the condition where GPS is unavailable. Together with a parameter-optimised Genetic Algorithm (GA), a Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm is used to construct the mapping function between the specific force, angular rate increments of INS measurements and the increments of the GPS position. During GPS outages, the real-time pseudo-GPS position is predicted with the mapping function, and the corresponding covariance matrix is estimated by an improved adaptive filtering algorithm. A GPS/INS integration scheme is demonstrated where the vehicle travels along a straight line and around a curve, with respect to both low-speed-stable and high-speed-unstable navigation platforms. The results show that the proposed algorithm provides a better performance when GPS is unavailable.
To examine changes in periconceptional folic acid supplementation behaviour among Chinese women of reproductive age after the implementation of a folic acid supplementation programme.
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted.
One survey was before (2002–2004) and the other was after (2011–2012) implementation of the programme, both were conducted in two areas of China with different prevalence of neural tube defects. Information on supplementation behaviours was collected in face-to-face interviews with women early in their pregnancy.
A total of 1257 and 1736 pregnant women participated before and after the programme, respectively.
The rate of periconceptional folic acid supplementation increased from 15 % to 85 % in the high-prevalence population and from 66 % to 92 % in the low-prevalence population. However, more than half of the women began taking the supplement after learning they were pregnant. The proportion of women who began taking folic acid before their last menstrual period decreased after the programme in rural areas with both a high and low prevalence of neural tube defects.
Although periconceptional folic acid supplementation among Chinese women increased substantially after the programme, supplementation was often initiated too late to be effective in preventing neural tube defects. Educational and promotional campaigns should focus on how to increase the rate of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy.
In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.
We show that the complexity of the Lie module Lie(n) in characteristic p is bounded above by m, where pm is the largest p-power dividing n, and, if n is not a p-power, is equal to the maximum of the complexities of Lie(pi) for 1≤i≤m.
We conducted a retrospective study on non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from patients with diarrhoea in Shanghai, China, 2006–2010. A total of 1484 isolates of 70 Salmonella serovars were recovered from about 18 000 stool specimens. Serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most prevalent with isolation rates of 27·6% and 25·5%, respectively. The majority (1151, 77·6%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 598 (40·3%) to more than three antimicrobials. Approximately half (50·9%) of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and other resistance rates were sulfisoxazole (47·9%), streptomycin (37·6%), ampicillin (31·3%) and tetracycline (30·5%). Co-resistance to fluoroquinolones and the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was also identified.
In this paper, we present the use of the orthogonal spline collocation method for the semi-discretization scheme of the one-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. This method uses the Hermite basis functions, by which physical quantities are approximated with their values and derivatives associated with Gaussian points. The convergence rate with order and the stability of the scheme are proved. Conservation properties are shown in both theory and practice. Extensive numerical experiments are presented to validate the numerical study under consideration.
The present study evaluated the contribution of 100 % orange juice (OJ) consumption to the intakes of macronutrients and energy and its impact on body composition.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. The main exposure was OJ consumption based on two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls. Macronutrient and energy intakes and body composition parameters were outcome measures. All statistical analyses were carried out using SAS and SUDAAN statistical software packages to allow for multistage sample designs.
The US population and its subgroups.
The US population aged ≥4 years (n 13 971) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics.
In this US population, OJ consumers had lower BMI and healthier lifestyle behaviours (including lower alcohol consumption and smoking as well as higher exercise level) than non-consumers (P < 0·05). After adjusting for covariates, OJ consumers had higher daily intakes of carbohydrate, total sugar, total fat and energy than non-consumers (P < 0·01). However, these linear trends still remained even after OJ was removed from the food list of items consumed. Adult OJ consumers had lower BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat than non-consumers (P < 0·01), as well as lower odds ratio for overweight and obesity (P < 0·01). These effects were not seen in children and adolescents, where there was no significant difference in BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat in OJ consumers compared with non-consumers.
OJ consumption was associated with healthier body composition in adults; while there were no significant associations between OJ consumption and body composition in children and adolescents.
The first Electrolyte-less dye sensitized solar cell (ELDSC) is proposed with the architecture of FTO-TiO2-dye-metal. In the ELDSC design, the most significant contact is the TiO2-dye-metal interface, whereby the metal electrode acts as the charge replenishment layer as well as the external electrode. In previous work, ELDSC has an inferior Fill Factor (FF) due to insufficient metal coverage from top-down physical vapor deposition. In this work, a three dimensional (3D) metal network plated through the mesoporous TiO2 network is achieved through bottom-up metal electroplating. This study focuses on the characteristics of electro deposition onto insulating planar TiO2 as well as mesoporous TiO2 network. For planar TiO2, gold (Au) islands form readily, becoming worm-like structures as they coalesce, subsequently becoming a continuous layer. (The plated metal on the insulating TiO2 layer is made possible by plane defects within the insulator layer that serve as the conductive supply path.) In contrast, electroplating carried out on a FTO-planar TiO2-mesoporous TiO2 substrate results in a 3D Au network within the mesoporous TiO2, where Au cords were observed as the connections among Au islands. This study demonstrates that a continuous metal layer can be electroplated onto an insulating TiO2 layer, borrowing its intrinsic planar defect network. Further, applying the same principle, a 3D metal network can be formed within mesoporous TiO2.
The correlation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with oxidative stress-related chronic diseases was proved recently. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of GSTM1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with antioxidant biomarkers and consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in healthy subjects. In this study, for conducting a 3 d dietary survey, 190 healthy adults were recruited. After DNA extraction, a multiple PCR method was used for GSTM1/T1 genotyping. A spectrophotometer method was applied for the determination of plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), vitamin C level and erythrocyte GST enzyme activity. A general linear model was used to compare the mean values of antioxidant parameters for different GSTM1/T1 genotypes and consumption of F&V. Polymorphisms of GSTM1/T1 had no effects on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels. Deletion of the GSTM1 gene decreased the erythrocyte GST activity. There was correlation between plasma T-AOC and consumption of F&V in the GSTM1− or GSTT1+ subjects. A similar pattern was evident for erythrocyte GST activity in the GSTM1− subjects. No association was found among consumption of F&V and GSTM1/T1 genotypes and plasma vitamin C level. Different consumption of F&V had no impact on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels in the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ or GSTM1−/GSTT1− subjects. The erythrocyte GST activity was more sensitive to consumption of F&V in the individuals with the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ genotype. Association was found among GSTM1/T1 genotypes, antioxidant parameters and consumption of F&V. Large-scale and multiple ethnic studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship.