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This 62-d research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine levels (DLL) and salinity on growth performance and nutrition metabolism of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus). Six diets with lysine supplementation (1·34, 1·70, 2·03, 2·41, 2·72 and 3·04 % of DM) were formulated under different cultured salinities in a two-factorial design. The results indicated that supplemental lysine improved the specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain (WG) and decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Meanwhile, the fish had higher SGR and WG and lower FCR at 8 ‰ salinity. Except for moisture, the whole-body protein, lipid and ash content of GIFT were increased by 8 ‰ salinity, which showed that DLL (1·34 %) increased the whole-body fat content and DLL (2·41 %) increased whole-body protein content. Appropriate DLL up-regulated mRNA levels of protein metabolism-related genes such as target of rapamycin, 4EBP-1 and S6 kinase 1. However, 0 ‰ salinity reduced these protein metabolism-related genes mRNA levels, while proper DLL could improve glycolysis and gluconeogenesis mRNA levels but decrease lipogenesis-related genes mRNA levels in liver. 0 ‰ salinity improved GLUT2, glucokinase and G6 Pase mRNA levels; however, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels were higher at 8 ‰ salinity. Moreover, 8 ‰ salinity also increased plasma total protein and cholesterol levels and decreased glucose levels. These results indicated that the recommended range of lysine requirement under different salinity was 2·03–2·20 % (0 ‰) and 2·20–2·41 % (8 ‰) and 8 ‰ salinity resulted in higher lysine requirements due to changes in the related nutrient metabolism, which might provide useful information for designing more effective feed formulations for GIFT cultured in different salinity environment.
In this study, we focus on the temporal behaviors – speed and rhythm – of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs) and examine the effect of such behaviors on innovation performance. Using a learning perspective, we argue that OFDI speed has an inverted U-shaped effect on EMNEs’ innovation performance, whereas the relationship between the uneven rhythm of OFDI and innovation performance is negative. The results, based on OFDI panel data of 1,092 Chinese firms, support our predictions that a moderate OFDI speed and a more regular pattern of OFDI expansion provide sources of competitiveness and contribute to firms’ innovation performance.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
To examine the mediating effects of maternal perception of child weight (weight perception) and concern about overweight (weight concern) on the paths between child weight and maternal feeding practices.
Pudong District, Shanghai, China.
A convenience sample of 1164 mothers who were primary caregivers of preschool children.
Sixty per cent of the mothers perceived their overweight/obese children as normal weight or even underweight. The disagreement between actual child weight and maternal weight perception was statistically significant (Kappa = 0·212, P < 0·001). Structural equation modelling indicated that weight perception fully mediated the relationship between child BMI Z-scores and pressure to eat. Weight concern fully mediated the relationships between child BMI Z-scores and the other three feeding practices. The serial mediating effects of weight perception and concern were statistically significant for the paths between child BMI Z-score and monitoring (β = 0·035, P < 0·001), restriction (β = 0·022, P < 0·001), and food as a reward (β = –0·017, P < 0·05).
Child weight may influence maternal feeding practices through weight perception and concern. Thus, interventions are needed to increase the accuracy of weight perception, which may influence several maternal feeding practices and thereby contribute to child health.
Sustainability encompasses social, economic and environmental issues with the primary aim to fulfil the needs of the present society without compromising the potential needs of future generations. Product design has been identified to greatly influence the sustainability of New Product Development. This study aims to identify and review the fundamental factors in which product design has the ability to influence and improve the overall environmental sustainability of a product. A comprehensive literature review has been performed to establish trends over the past four decades. The factors that have significant potential, such as the 6Rs, waste and energy, which aid designers in the implementation of environmental sustainability during the product design process have been identified and discussed. Through this analysis, a new conceptual framework has been conceived, facilitating designers in implementing environmental sustainability during product development. In addition, future research opportunities have been identified.
Based on hubs of neural circuits associated with addiction and their degree centrality (DC), this study aimed to construct the addiction-related brain networks for patients diagnosed with heroin dependence undertaking stable methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and further prospectively identify the ones at high risk for relapse with cluster analysis.
Sixty-two male MMT patients and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) underwent brain resting-state functional MRI data acquisition. The patients received 26-month follow-up for the monthly illegal-drug-use information. Ten addiction-related hubs were chosen to construct a user-defined network for the patients. Then the networks were discriminated with K-means-clustering-algorithm into different groups and followed by comparative analysis to the groups and HC. Regression analysis was used to investigate the brain regions significantly contributed to relapse.
Sixty MMT patients were classified into two groups according to their brain-network patterns calculated by the best clustering-number-K. The two groups had no difference in the demographic, psychological indicators and clinical information except relapse rate and total heroin consumption. The group with high-relapse had a wider range of DC changes in the cortical−striatal−thalamic circuit relative to HC and a reduced DC in the mesocorticolimbic circuit relative to the low-relapse group. DC activity in NAc, vACC, hippocampus and amygdala were closely related with relapse.
MMT patients can be identified and classified into two subgroups with significantly different relapse rates by defining distinct brain-network patterns even if we are blind to their relapse outcomes in advance. This may provide a new strategy to optimize MMT.
Echinococcus shiquicus is currently limited to the Qinghai–Tibet plateau, a large mountainous region in China. Although the zoonotic potential remains unknown, progress is being made on the distribution and intermediate host range. In this study, we report E. shiquicus within Gansu and Qinghai provinces in regions located not only around the central areas but also the southeast edge of the plateau and describe their genetic relationship with previous isolates from the plateau. From 1879 plateau pikas examined, 2.39% (95% CI 1.79–3.18) were infected with E. shiquicus. The highest prevalence of 10.26% (4.06–23.58) was recorded in Makehe town, Qinghai province. Overall the prevalence was marginally higher in Qinghai (2.5%, CI 1.82–3.43) than in Gansu (2%, CI 1.02–3.89). The cox1 and nad1 genes demonstrated high and low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, respectively. The median-joining network constructed by the cox1–nad1 gene sequences demonstrated a star-like configuration with a median vector (unsampled haplotype) occupying the centre of the network. No peculiar distinction or common haplotype was observed in isolates originating from the different provinces. The presence of E. shiquicus in regions of the southeast and northeast edges of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and high genetic variation warrants more investigation into the haplotype distribution and genetic polymorphism by exploring more informative DNA regions of the mitochondrial genome to provide epidemiologically useful insight into the population structure of E. shiquicus across the plateau and its axis.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum Zn concentrations were associated with metabolic risk factors in Chinese children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study including 3241 participants, aged 6 to 17 years, from Jiangsu, China. Metabolic risk factors included fasting glucose (FG), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Data were analysed using multi-variable linear regression and generalised additive models, which were adjusted for age, sex, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI and region of residence, to assess the associations of serum Zn concentrations with metabolic risk factors. We observed a negative association between serum Zn concentrations and FG (coefficient = −0·532; 95 % CI −0·569, −0·495; P < 0·001). Moreover, TC (coefficient = 0·175; 95 % CI 0·127, 0·222; P < 0·001), HDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·137; 95 % CI 0·082, 0·193; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (coefficient = 0·195; 95 % CI 0·128, 0·263; P < 0·001) were found to be positively associated with Zn levels. A generalised additive model showed that the negative association between serum Zn and FG was weak at lower serum Zn concentrations and was stronger with the increase in serum Zn concentrations. Additionally, a U-shaped association between serum Zn and TAG was observed. Serum Zn concentrations were associated with FG, TC, TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in Chinese children and adolescents. Lower levels of serum Zn were more likely related to a poor metabolic status.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013–2014).
A population-based case–control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western and Picky; the proportion in the controls and cases was 0·30/0·32/0·16/0·23 and 0·29/0·26/0·11/0·33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterised by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption of specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soya foods and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1·42, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR = 1·44, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·05) but not in premenopausal women. The Western class characterised by high-protein, high-fat and high-sugar foods, and the Chinese traditional class characterised by typical consumption of soya foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA captures the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population and could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of BC.
Nutrition in early life has a long-term influence on later health. In order to the explore effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of vitamin C on splenic development, splenic metabolism and apoptosis were detected in embryo, adult chickens and in vitro. A total of 360 fertile eggs were selected and randomly assigned to control (CON) and vitamin C (VC) groups which were injected with saline and vitamin C on embryonic day 11, respectively. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes by transcriptome on embryonic day 19 suggested that purine nucleotide metabolism might be a potential pathway for the IOF of vitamin C to regulate spleen development. Additionally, the IOF of vitamin C significantly increased splenic vitamin C content on post-hatch day 21. Meanwhile, the splenic expression of adenosine deaminase, serine/threonine kinase 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen was down-regulated, whereas the expression of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 9 was up-regulated in the VC group. On post-hatch day 42, the IOF of vitamin C significantly down-regulated the splenic expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and increased the mRNA level of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 9. The IOF of vitamin C could regulate the expression of genes related to adenylate metabolism and increased the apoptosis rate in vitro, which is consistent with the result in vivo. In conclusion, the IOF of vitamin C regulated splenic development and maturation by affecting purine nucleotide metabolism pathway and promoting apoptosis.
The single initial Global Positioning System (GPS) has been expanded into multiple global and regional navigation satellite systems (multi-GNSS/RNSS) as the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) is restored and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Galileo Satellite Navigation System (Galileo) and Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) evolve. Using the differences among these five systems, the paper constructs a consolidated multi-GNSS/RNSS precise point positioning (PPP) observation model. A large number of datasets from Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are employed to evaluate the PPP performance of multi-GNSS/RNSS. The paper draws three main conclusions based on the experimental results. (1) The combined GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS/QZSS presents the PPP with the shortest mean convergence time of 11·5 min, followed by that of GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BDS (12·4 min). (2) The combined GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo/QZSS shows the optimal PPP performance when the cut-off elevation angle is basically the same because of the rich observation data due to a large number of satellites. To be specific, for combined GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo/QZSS, the PPP convergence percentage is 80·9% higher relative to other combined systems under 35° cut-off elevation angle, and the percentages of the root mean square values of PPP within 0–5 cm are enhanced by 80·5%, 81·5% and 87·3% in the North, East and Up directions relative to GPS alone at 35° cut-off elevation angle. (3) GPS alone fails to conduct continuous positioning due to the insufficiency of visible satellites at 40° cut-off elevation angle, while the kinematic PPP of multi-GNSS/RNSS remains capable of obtaining positioning solutions with relatively high accuracy, especially in the horizontal direction.
We aimed to describe the clinical features in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. We studied 134 critically ill COVID-19 cases from 30 December 2019 to 20 February 2020 in an intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital. Demographics, underlying diseases, therapy strategies and test results were collected and analysed from patients on admission, admission to the ICU and 48 h before death. The non-survivors were older (65.46 (s.d. 9.74) vs. 46.45 (s.d. 11.09)) and were more likely to have underlying diseases. The blood group distribution of the COVID-19 cases differed from that of the Han population in Wuhan, with type A being 43.85%; type B, 26.92%; type AB, 10% and type O, 19.23%. Non-survivors tend to develop more severe lymphopaenia, with higher C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels and gradually increased with time. The clinical manifestations were non-specific. Compared with survivors, non-survivors more likely to have organ function injury, and to receive mechanical ventilation, either invasively or noninvasively. Multiple organ failure and secondary bacterial infection in the later period is worthy of attention.
Predictors of compliance with aspirin in children following cardiac catheterisation have not been identified. The aim of this study is to identify the caregivers’ knowledge, compliance with aspirin medication, and predictors of compliance with aspirin in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) post-percutaneous transcatheter occlusion.
A cross-sectional explorative design was adopted using a self-administered questionnaire and conducted between May 2017 and May 2018. Recruited were 220 caregivers of children with CHD post-percutaneous transcatheter occlusion. Questionnaires included child and caregivers’ characteristics, a self-designed and tested knowledge about aspirin scale (scoring scale 0–2), and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (scoring scale 0–8). Data were analysed using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of compliance with aspirin.
Of the 220 eligible children and caregivers, 210 (95.5%) responded and 209 surveys were included in the analysis. The mean score of knowledge was 7.25 (standard deviation 2.27). The mean score of compliance was 5.65 (standard deviation 1.36). Child’s age, length of aspirin use, health insurance policies, relationship to child, monthly income, and knowledge about aspirin of caregivers were independent predictors of compliance with aspirin (p < 0.05).
Caregivers of children with CHD had an adequate level of knowledge about aspirin. Compliance to aspirin medication reported by caregivers was low. Predictors of medium to high compliance with aspirin were related to the child’s age and socio-economic reasons. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve knowledge, compliance with medication, and long-term outcomes of children with CHD.
The rhoptry kinase 18 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgROP18) has been identified as a key virulence factor that allows the parasite to escape from host immune defences and promotes its proliferation in host cells. Although much research is focused on the interaction between host cells and TgROP18, the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TgROP18 has not been reported till date. To produce mAbs targeting TgROP18, two hybridomas secreting mAbs against TgROP18, designated as A1 and T2, were generated using cell fusion technology. The subtypes of the A1 and T2 mAbs were identified as IgG3 λ and IgM κ, and peptide scanning revealed that the core sequences of the antigenic epitopes were 180LRAQRRRSELVFE192 and 351NYFLLMMRAEADM363, respectively. The T2 mAb specifically reacted with both T. gondii type I and Chinese I, but not with T. gondii type II, Plasmodium falciparum or Schistosoma japonicum. Finally, the sequences of heavy chain and light chain complementarity-determining regions of T2 were amplified, cloned and characterized, making the modification of the mAb feasible in the future. The development of mAbs against TgROP18 would aid the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of host cellular functions by TgROP18, and in the development of strategies to diagnose and treat Toxoplasmosis.
Na–Se batteries are promising energy storage systems for grid and transportation applications, due to the high volumetric energy density and relatively low cost. However, the development of Na–Se batteries has been hindered by the shuttle effect originating from polyselenide dissolution from the Se cathode. Herein, we reported the utilization of nanoscale Al2O3 surface coating by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to protect a microporous carbon/Se (MPC/Se) cathode and reduce polyselenide dissolution. Compared with the pristine MPC/Se, Al2O3-coated MPC/Se cathode exhibited improved discharge capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability in Na–Se batteries. Post-cycling analysis disclosed that Al2O3 coating on MPC/Se cathode effectively suppressed the polyselenide dissolution, facilitated the formation of thin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers, and reduced charge transfer resistance, thus improving the overall performance of Na–Se batteries. This work suggests the effectiveness of interface control by ALD in enabling high-performance Na–Se batteries and might shed light on the development of new-generation Li/Na/K-chalcogenide batteries.
In this paper, a fictitious domain method is used to perform interface-resolved numerical simulations of particle-laden turbulent flows in a vertical channel filled with Bingham fluids. The interactions between the particles and the turbulence are investigated at a bulk Reynolds number of 8000 (based on the mean velocity and the channel width), a particle/channel size ratio of 0.1 and a particle volume fraction of 2 %. The Bingham number based on the mean velocity and the channel half-width is 0.0, 0.54 and 3.0, respectively. Both neutrally buoyant and weak particle settling effects are considered. Our results indicate that the yield stress of Bingham fluids has drag-reduction effects by weakening the turbulence, and the addition of the particles enhances the flow friction. The Saffman lift force is important to the particle concentration distribution across the channel. Particle sedimentation attenuates the fluctuating velocity and Reynolds stress, resulting in a smaller flow friction compared with the neutrally buoyant case. When the fluid plasticity is strong, the single-phase flow has considerable temporal and spatial intermittencies. The vortex structures in one half-channel can be stronger than those in the other half-channel for a long period, resulting in the asymmetry of the statistics for a long time. The vortices are preferentially concentrated in streamwise-extended bands. The vortex bands and the laminar flow regions are largely segregated in the spanwise directions, and the vortex bands in the two half-channels are also typically staggered in the spanwise direction. The addition of the particles suppresses such vortex structures, the enormous intermittency and the asymmetry during the transition in the single-phase flow.