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Emotion Regulation and Parenting provides a state-of-the-art account of research conducted on emotion regulation in parenting. After describing the conceptual foundations of parenthood and emotion regulation, the book reviews the influence of parents' emotion regulation on parenting, how and to what extent emotion regulation influences child development, cross-cultural perspectives on emotion regulation, and highlights current and future directions. Drawing on contributions from renowned experts from all over the world, chapters cover the most important topics at the intersection of parenting and emotion regulation. Essentials are explored, as well as current, topical, and controversial issues, pointing both to what is known and what requires further research. This title is part of the Flip it Open Programme and may also be available Open Access. Check our website Cambridge Core for details.
Spanning the economics of the fine arts, performing arts, and public policy, this updated classic is the go-to resource for navigating today's creative industries. Building on real-world data, engaging case studies, and cutting-edge research, it prepares students for careers in the cultural, creative, and public sectors. By avoiding mathematical treatments and explaining theories with examples, this book develops theoretical concepts from scratch, making it accessible to readers with no background in economics. While most of the theory remains timeless, this new edition covers changes in the world's economic landscapes. Updates include new sections on gender representation, cultural districts and tourism, digital broadcasting and streaming, how technology impacts the arts, and arts management and strategy. The authors demonstrate data-driven decision-making using examples and cases from various databases. Students learn to assess academic results and apply the learned material using the discussion questions and problem sets.
Family caregivers are essential inpatient pediatric care partners, yet their handwashing knowledge and compliance are rarely studied. Through hand hygiene audits and self-administered questionnaires, we observed 9% compliance, significantly lower than self-reported practice. We suggest interventions to improve caregiver handwashing behaviors to decrease infection transmission risk to hospitalized children.
Data from a national survey of 348 U.S. sports field managers were used to examine the effects of participation in Cooperative Extension events on the adoption of turfgrass weed management practices. Of the respondents, 94% attended at least one event in the previous three years. Of this 94%, 97% reported adopting at least one practice as a result of knowledge gained at an Extension turfgrass event. Half of the respondents adopted four or more practices; a third adopted five or more practices. Non-chemical, cultural practices were the most-adopted practices (65% of respondents). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine factors explaining practice adoption and Extension event attendance. Compared to attending one event, attending three events increased total adoption by an average of one practice. Attending four or more events increased total adoption by two practices. Attending four or more events (compared to one event) increased the odds of adopting six individual practices by 3- to 6-fold, depending on the practice. This suggests practice adoption could be enhanced by encouraging repeat attendance among past Extension event attendees. Manager experience was a statistically significant predictor of the number of Extension events attended, but a poor direct predictor of practice adoption. Experience does not appear to increase adoption directly, but indirectly, via its impact on Extension event attendance. In addition to questions about weed management generally, the survey asked questions about annual bluegrass management, specifically. Respondents were asked to rank seven sources of information for their helpfulness in managing annual bluegrass. There was no single dominant information source, but Extension was ranked as the most helpful more than any other source (by 22% of the respondents) and was ranked among the top three by 53%, closely behind field representative/local distributor sources at 54%.
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for COVID-19 has been underutilized due to logistical challenges, lack of access and variable treatment awareness among patients and healthcare professionals. The use of telehealth during the pandemic provides an opportunity to increase access to COVID-19 care.
This is a single-center descriptive study of telehealth-based patient self-referral for mAb therapy between March 1, 2021, to October 31, 2021 at Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital (BCCFH).
Among the 1001 self-referral patients, the mean age was 47, and most were female (57%) white (66%), and had a primary care provider (62%). During the study period, self-referrals increased from 14 per month in March to 427 in October resulting in a 30-fold increase. About 57% of self-referred patients received a telehealth visit, and of those 82% of patients received mAb infusion therapy. The median time from self-referral to onsite infusion was 2 days (1-3 IQR).
Our study shows the integration of telehealth with a self-referral process improved access to mAb infusion. A high proportion of self-referrals were appropriate and led to timely treatment. This approach helped those without traditional avenues for care and avoided potential delay for patients seeking referral from their PCPs.
We study a retirement savings plan with a default contribution rate of 12 percent of income, which is much higher than previously studied defaults. Twenty-five percent of employees had not opted out of this default 12 months after hire; a literature review finds that the corresponding fraction in plans with lower defaults is approximately one-half. Because only contributions above 12 percent were matched by the employer, 12 percent was likely to be a suboptimal contribution rate for employees. Employees who remained at the 12 percent default contribution rate had average income that was approximately one-third lower than would be predicted from the relationship between salaries and contribution rates among employees who were not at 12 percent. Defaults may influence low-income employees more strongly in part because these employees face higher psychological barriers to active decision making.
Annual bluegrass is a troublesome weed in turfgrass, with reported resistance to at least 12 herbicide sites of action. The mitotic-inhibiting herbicide pronamide has both pre- and postemergence activity on susceptible annual bluegrass populations. Previous studies suggest that postemergence activity may be compromised due to lack of root-uptake, as well as target-site- and translocation-based mechanisms. Research was conducted to determine the effects of spray droplet spectra on spray coverage and control of annual bluegrass with pronamide, flazasulfuron, and the mixture of pronamide plus flazasulfuron. Herbicides were delivered to annual bluegrass plants having two to three leaves via five different spray spectra based on volume median diameters (VMD) of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 µm. Fluorescent tracer dye was added to each treatment solution to quantify the effects of herbicide and spray droplet spectra on herbicide deposition. In another experiment, efficacy of 0.58, 1.16, and 2.32 kg pronamide ha-1; 0.022, 0.044, and 0.088 kg flazasulfuron ha-1, or the combination, were assessed in iteration with droplet spectrum sprays of 400 and 1000 µm on two pronamide-resistant and two pronamide-susceptible annual bluegrass populations. Spray droplet spectrum affected deposition of pronamide and flazasulfuron, applied alone and in combination. Pronamide foliar deposition decreased with increasing droplet spectra. Pronamide efficacy was affected by droplet spectrum, with the largest (1000 µm) showing improved control. Flazasulfuron efficacy and pronamide plus flazasulfuron efficacy were not affected by droplet spectra. Pronamide plus flazasulfuron mixture controlled all four populations more effectively than pronamide alone, regardless of droplet spectra. Pronamide plus flazasulfuron mixture applied with relatively large droplets may be optimal for annual bluegrass control, which offers valuable insights for optimizing herbicide application and combatting herbicide resistance. However, applications in this controlled growth pot study may not mimic conditions where thatch and turfgrass canopy limit soil deposition of pronamide.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) exist to optimize antibiotic use, reduce selection for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, and improve patient outcomes. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to optimal antibiotic use. Because diagnostic testing plays a significant role in diagnosing patients, it has one of the strongest influences on clinician antibiotic prescribing behaviors. Diagnostic stewardship, consequently, has emerged to improve clinician diagnostic testing and test result interpretation. Antimicrobial stewardship and diagnostic stewardship share common goals and are synergistic when used together. Although ASP requires a relationship with clinicians and focuses on person-to-person communication, diagnostic stewardship centers on a relationship with the laboratory and hardwiring testing changes into laboratory processes and the electronic health record. Here, we discuss how diagnostic stewardship can optimize the “Four Moments of Antibiotic Decision Making” created by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and work synergistically with ASPs.
Insecure attachment styles are associated with retrospectively reported suicide attempts (SAs). It is not known if attachment styles are prospectively associated with medically documented SAs.
A representative sample of US Army soldiers entering service (n = 21 772) was surveyed and followed via administrative records for their first 48 months of service. Attachment style (secure, preoccupied, fearful, dismissing) was assessed at baseline. Administrative medical records identified SAs. Discrete-time survival analysis examined associations of attachment style with future SA during service, adjusting for time in service, socio-demographics, service-related variables, and mental health diagnosis (MH-Dx). We examined whether associations of attachment style with SA differed based on sex and MH-Dx.
In total, 253 respondents attempted suicide. Endorsed attachment styles included secure (46.8%), preoccupied (9.1%), fearful (15.7%), and dismissing (19.2%). Examined separately, insecure attachment styles were associated with increased odds of SA: preoccupied [OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.7–3.4)], fearful [OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.3)], dismissing [OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.3–2.6)]. Examining attachment styles simultaneously along with other covariates, preoccupied [OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.7)] and dismissing [OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4)] remained significant. The dismissing attachment and MH-Dx interaction was significant. In stratified analyses, dismissing attachment was associated with SA only among soldiers without MH-Dx. Other interactions were non-significant. Soldiers endorsing any insecure attachment style had elevated SA risk across the first 48 months in service, particularly during the first 12 months.
Insecure attachment styles, particularly preoccupied and dismissing, are associated with increased future SA risk among soldiers. Elevated risk is most substantial during first year of service but persists through the first 48 months. Dismissing attachment may indicate risk specifically among soldiers not identified by the mental healthcare system.
Changes in abundance and distribution of marine top predators can indicate environmental change or anthropogenic pressure requiring management response. Here, we used an extensive dataset (21 years) to conduct a spatial and temporal analysis of grey seal strandings in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, close to the southern edge of the breeding range of the species. A total of 2007 strandings were reported from 2000 to 2020, increasing by 474% from 35 to 201 individuals per year during this period. The continued rise in strandings was consistent across all life stages and timeframes (5, 10 and 20 years), underpinning the suggestion of increasing abundance in the region. The observed seasonality differed by life stage, coinciding with the increased presence of animals near the coast for key life phases such as breeding, moulting and pupping. Strandings are widely distributed across the coast of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; however, most strandings were recorded on the north coast of Cornwall (70%) where major pupping and haul out sites are found. Despite hosting several pupping and haul out sites, a small proportion was recorded on the Isles of Scilly (5%) where it is thought that strandings are particularly underreported. Describing baselines in magnitude of strandings and life-stage compositions across space and time allows future deviations in frequency, demographic composition or spatial distribution to be detected and investigated. We demonstrate the utility of long-term citizen science data to provide valuable and cost-effective information on the distribution and abundance of a highly mobile marine mammal.
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent social distancing guidelines and restrictions brought on changes in the everyday experiences of older adults. It is not clear, however, to what extent the pandemic has impacted the importance of everyday preferences for persons with cognitive impairment (CI) or the proxy ratings of those preferences. The sample of this study included 27 dyads of persons with CI and their care partners. The Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory was used to assess importance of preferences among persons with CI; care partners completed concurrent proxy assessments. Mixed random and fixed effects longitudinal models were used to evaluate changes in ratings and concordance levels between persons with CI and care partners prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Persons with CI rated autonomous choice preferences as significantly more important during the COVID-19 pandemic than before; there was no association between the COVID-19 pandemic and change in other everyday preferences domains or discrepancy in proxy assessments of everyday preferences. Identifying avenues to support and provide for autonomy in the decision-making of older adults with CI may offer a way forward in mitigating the psychological and behavioral impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in this population.
The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Weeds and invasive plants know no borders and have collectively impacted many ecosystems worldwide, including croplands, forests, grasslands, rangelands, wetlands, and riparian areas. Losses continue to mount, affecting yield and productivity, species diversity, and ecosystem services, with both short- and long-term repercussions on the sustainability of plant and animal communities and the livelihoods of many. New and emerging invasive plants, along with many of the most intractable weeds, have undermined even the best control efforts, serving as a reminder of the constant need for improvements in science, application, and technology. One of the main reasons for the success of weeds and invasive plants is their ability to adapt to abiotic and biotic conditions, and research suggests that this will continue with minimal change.
Many social interventions have been developed with the hopes of reducing and preventing social isolation among older people (e.g., recreation, arts-based programs and social prescription). Friendly visiting programs, also known as befriending schemes, have been a mainstay in this area for decades and are largely thought to be effective at reconnecting older people (≥ 60 years of age) experiencing isolation. Research and evaluations have yet to determine, however, how and why these programs may be most successful, and under what conditions. This article presents the findings of a realist synthesis aimed at identifying the critical mechanisms and contextual factors that lead to successful outcomes in friendly visiting programs. Seven studies are synthesized to inform a friendly visiting program theory accounting for key mechanisms (e.g., provision of informal support) and underlying contexts (e.g., training of volunteers) that can be used to inform future programs. Recommendations for future research are also presented.
Three years after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, better knowledge on the transmission of respiratory viral infections (RVI) including the contribution of asymptomatic infections encouraged most healthcare centers to implement universal masking. The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and improved immunization of the population call for the infection and prevention control community to revisit the masking strategy in healthcare. In this narrative review, we consider factors for de-escalating universal masking in healthcare centers, addressing compliance with the mask policy, local epidemiology, the level of protection provided by medical face masks, the consequences of absenteeism and presenteeism, as well as logistics, costs, and ecological impact. Most current national and international guidelines for mask use are based on the level of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Actions are now required to refine future recommendations, such as establishing a list of the most relevant RVI to consider, implement reliable local RVI surveillance, and define thresholds for activating masking strategies. Considering the epidemiological context (measured via sentinel networks or wastewater analysis), and, if not available, considering a time period (winter season) may guide to three gradual levels of masking: (i) standard and transmission-based precautions and respiratory etiquette, (ii) systematic face mask wearing when in direct contact with patients, and (iii) universal masking. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the different strategies is warranted in the coming years. Masking is just one element to be considered along with other preventive measures such as staff and patient immunization, and efficient ventilation.
Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is recommended as a first-line treatment for Tourette syndrome in children and adults. While there is strong evidence proving its efficacy, the mechanisms of reduction in tic severity during CBIT are still poorly understood. In a recent study, our group identified a functional brain network involved in tic suppression in children with TS. We reasoned that voluntary tic suppression and CBIT may share some mechanisms and thus we wanted to assess whether functional connectivity during tic suppression was associated with CBIT outcome.
Thirty-two children with TS, aged 8 to 13 years old, participated in a randomized controlled trial of CBIT v. a treatment-as-usual control condition. EEG was recorded during tic suppression in all participants at baseline and endpoint. We used a source-reconstructed EEG connectivity pipeline to assess functional connectivity during tic suppression.
Functional connectivity during tic suppression did not change from baseline to endpoint. However, baseline tic suppression-related functional connectivity specifically predicted the decrease in vocal tic severity from baseline to endpoint in the CBIT group. Supplementary analyses revealed that the functional connectivity between the right superior frontal gyrus and the right angular gyrus was mainly driving this effect.
This study revealed that functional connectivity during tic suppression at baseline predicted reduction in vocal tic severity. These results suggest probable overlap between the mechanisms of voluntary tic suppression and those of behavior therapy for tics.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is the standard framework for informing the efficient allocation of scarce healthcare resources. The importance of considering all relevant intervention strategies and appropriate incremental comparisons have both long been recognized in CEA. Failure to apply methods correctly can lead to suboptimal policies. Our objective is to assess if CEAs of infant pneumococcal vaccination apply appropriate methods with respect to the completeness of strategies assessed and incremental comparisons between them.
We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases and performed a comparative analysis of the retrieved pneumococcal vaccination CEAs. We checked the appropriateness of the incremental analyses by attempting to replicate the published incremental cost-effectiveness (CE) ratios from the reported costs and health effects.
Our search returned twenty-nine eligible articles. Most studies failed to recognize one or more intervention strategies (n = 21). Incremental comparisons were questionable in four CEAs and insufficient reporting of cost and health effect estimates was identified in three studies. Overall, we only found four studies that made appropriate comparisons between all strategies. Lastly, study findings appear to be strongly associated with manufacturer sponsorship.
We found considerable scope for improvement regarding strategy comparison in the infant pneumococcal vaccination literature. To prevent overestimation of the CE of new vaccines, we urge greater adherence to existing guidelines recommending that all available strategies are evaluated to capture relevant comparators for CE evaluation. Closer adherence to existing guidelines will generate better evidence, leading to more effective vaccination policies.