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Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR) serves as a central hub to support and educate clinical and translational researchers in Rhode Island. Understanding barriers to clinical research in the state is the key to setting project aims and priorities.
We implemented a Group Concept Mapping exercise to characterize the views of researchers and administrators regarding how to increase the quality and quantity of clinical and translational research in their settings. Participants generated ideas in response to this prompt and rated each unique idea in terms of how important it was and feasible it seemed to them.
Participants generated 78 unique ideas, from which 9 key themes emerged (e.g., Building connections between researchers). Items rated highest in perceived importance and feasibility included providing seed grants for pilot projects, connecting researchers with common interests and networking opportunities. Implications of results are discussed.
The Group Concept Mapping exercise enabled our project leadership to better understand stakeholder-perceived priorities and to act on ideas and aims most relevant to researchers in the state. This method is well suited to translational research enterprises beyond Rhode Island when a participatory evaluation stance is desired.
Neuroticism is associated with the onset and maintenance of a number of mental health conditions, as well as a number of deleterious outcomes (e.g. physical health problems, higher divorce rates, lost productivity, and increased treatment seeking); thus, the consideration of whether this trait can be addressed in treatment is warranted. To date, outcome research has yielded mixed results regarding neuroticism's responsiveness to treatment, perhaps due to the fact that study interventions are typically designed to target disorder symptoms rather than neuroticism itself. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a course of treatment with the unified protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic intervention that was explicitly developed to target neuroticism, results in greater reductions in neuroticism compared to gold-standard, symptom focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols and a waitlist (WL) control condition.
Patients with principal anxiety disorders (N = 223) were included in this study. They completed a validated self-report measure of neuroticism, as well as clinician-rated measures of psychological symptoms.
At week 16, participants in the UP condition exhibited significantly lower levels of neuroticism than participants in the symptom-focused CBT (t(218) = −2.17, p = 0.03, d = −0.32) and WL conditions(t(207) = −2.33, p = 0.02, d = −0.43), and these group differences remained after controlling for simultaneous fluctuations in depression and anxiety symptoms.
Treatment effects on neuroticism may be most robust when this trait is explicitly targeted.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) has caused extensive mortality of hemlocks (Tsuga (Endlicher) Carrière; Pinaceae) in the eastern United States of America and was discovered recently in Nova Scotia, Canada. We evaluated the use of a Velcro-covered racquetball as a sampling device for A. tsugae wool. Specifically, we report on improvements to an earlier design and evaluate several factors seen in routine sampling that influence the ability of the ball to trap and retain adelgid wool. Velcro was found to be critical for trapping and retaining adelgid wool on the ball during flight and landing. Wooden beads, inserted in the ball, reduced deflection during flight and bounce during landing. Higher probability of trapping wool on the ball was associated with an ascent through the crown, with increasing diameter and density of ovisacs on branch tips, and with increasing abundance of woolly twigs on the forest floor. Higher probability of retaining wool on the ball was associated with Velcro surface area and with amount and location of wool loaded on the ball. These modifications improved detection surveys for A. tsugae in general.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
Introduction: With a Canadian aging population, the prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among elderly is increasing and the age criterion of the Canadian CT head rule (CCHR) is challenged by many emergency physicians. We evaluated if increasing the age criterion of the CCHR would maintain its validity. Methods: We conducted an historical cohort study using the medical charts of all patients 65 years old or more who consulted at a Level One Trauma Centre emergency department (ED) for a mTBI between 2010 and 2014. The main outcome measures were clinically important brain injury (CIBI) on Computed Tomography (CT) and the presence of the CCHR criteria. The clinical and radiological data collection was standardized. Univariate analysis was performed to measure the predictive capacities of modified age cut-offs at 70 and 75 years old. Results: Out of the 104 confirmed mTBI in this study, 32 (30,8%) had CIBI on CT scan. Sensitivity and specificity [C.I. 95%] of the CCHR were 100% [89.1 - 100] and 0% [0.0 5.0] for an age criterion of 65 years old and above; 100% [89.1 - 100] and 4,2% [0.9 11.7] for a modified criterion of 70 years old; 100% [89.1 - 100] and 13,9% [6.9 24.1] for 75 years old. Furthermore, for an age criterion of 80 and 85 years old, sensitivity was respectively 90,6% [75.0 98.0] and 75,0% [56.6 88.5]. Conclusion: In our cohort, increasing the age criterion of the CCHR for minor head injury to 75 years old would benefit ED by further reducing CT scans without missing CIBI. A larger prospective study is indicated to confirm the proposed modification.
Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased susceptibility to interfering effects of anxiety on cognitive control; although under certain conditions adults with MDD are able to compensate for these effects. The brain mechanisms that may facilitate the ability to compensate for anxiety either via the recruitment of additional cognitive resources or via the regulation of interference from anxiety remain largely unknown. To clarify these mechanisms, we examined the effects of anxiety on brain activity and amygdala–prefrontal functional connectivity in adults diagnosed with MDD.
A total of 22 unmedicated adults with MDD and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed the Tower of London task under conditions designed to induce anxiety, while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging assessment.
During the easy condition, the MDD group demonstrated equivalent planning accuracy, longer planning times, elevated amygdala activity and left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) hyperactivity relative to HCs. Anxiety mediated observed group differences in planning times, as well as differences in amygdala activation, which subsequently mediated observed differences in RLPFC activation. During the easy condition, the MDD group also demonstrated increased negative amygdala–dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) connectivity which correlated with improved planning accuracy. During the hard condition, HCs demonstrated greater DLPFC activation and stronger negative amygdala–DLPFC connectivity, which was unrelated to planning accuracy.
Our results suggest that persons with MDD compensate for anxiety-related limbic activation during low-load cognitive tasks by recruiting additional RLPFC activation and through increased inhibitory amygdala–DLPFC communication. Targeting these neural mechanisms directly may improve cognitive functioning in MDD.
In 2011 the École française d'Athènes celebrated the centenary of its activities on Thasos (Muller and Mulliez 2012). Apart from the publication of a modern Greek translation of the second edition of the Guide de Thasos (Grandjean and Salviat 2000; 2012), the centenary was the occasion for the publication of a number of thematic studies, based on past archaeological research (Muller 2011; Picard 2011; Marc 2012). More generally, current research on Thasos focuses on all aspects of archaeology, including excavation and field survey (mainly within the ancient urban area), as well as study of archaeological material kept in the museum's collections. This work benefits from the unfailing support of the Ephoreia of Antiquities in Kavala.
Introduction: Patients presenting with high grade (HG) subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from aneurysmal rupture may have persisting neurologic deficits which may lead to questioning the decision of treating aggressively. The objective of this study aims at analyzing outcome and long-term quality of life (QOL) of patients with HG SAH treated surgically. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with Hunt Hess (HH) grade IV or V SAH treated surgically at our institution. Long-term outcome was evaluated based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 years. Survivors were evaluated for QOL using various scales. Results: 63 patients (mean age of 52 year-old) were included. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) was found in 85% of cases. 19 patients died. Predictive factors of poor prognosis and mortality were initial cerebral ischemia (p=0.003) and IPH (p=0.007). Favourable outcome (mRS 0-3) was found in 41% of patients. QOL questionnaires revealed that 80 % of responders showed more than 50% recovery. Mild or absent depression was observed in 78% of patients. Conclusion: In this surgical series, performed in an endovascular era, nearly all patients presented with SAH-associated IPH at admission. Despite the presence of such negative prognostic factor and the poor condition at admission, a high rate of favourable outcome and QOL was observed, therefore justifying aggressive surgical treatment.
Depression can adversely affect employment status.
To examine whether there is a relative advantage of cognitive therapy or
antidepressant medication in improving employment status following
treatment, using data from a previously reported trial.
Random assignment to cognitive therapy (n = 48) or the
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (n =
93) for 4 months; treatment responders were followed for up to 24 months.
Differential effects of treatment on employment status were examined.
At the end of 28 months, cognitive therapy led to higher rates of
full-time employment (88.9%) than did antidepressant medication among
treatment responders (70.8%), χ21 = 5.78, P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 5.66,
95% CI 1.16–27.69. In the shorter-term, the main effect of treatment on
employment status was not significant following acute treatment
(χ21 = 1.74, P = 0.19, OR = 1.77, 95% CI
0.75–4.17); however, we observed a site×treatment interaction
(χ21 = 6.87, P = 0.009) whereby cognitive
therapy led to a higher rate of full-time employment at one site but not
at the other.
Cognitive therapy may produce greater improvements in employment
v. medication, particularly over the longer term.
Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology.
Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study.
The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in β-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·95, Ptrend<0·01) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·81, 0·98, Ptrend=0·02) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·87, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·98, Ptrend<0·01).
TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.
Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging.
A total of 61 youth (9–17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy.
There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected).
Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical–amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
Prior studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest abnormal functioning of prefrontal and limbic regions. Cumulative childhood and adult trauma exposures are major risk factors for developing adult PTSD, yet their contribution to neural dysfunction in PTSD remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the neural correlates of childhood and adult trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) within a single model.
Medication-free male combat veterans (n = 28, average age 26.6 years) with a wide range of PTSS were recruited from the community between 2010 and 2011. Subjects completed an emotional face-morphing task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical ratings included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). A priori regions were examined through multivariate voxelwise regression in SPM8, using depressive symptoms and IQ as covariates.
In the angry condition, CAPS scores correlated positively with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC; Brodmann area (BA) 10, z = 3.51], hippocampus (z = 3.47), insula (z = 3.62) and, in earlier blocks, the amygdala. CES and CTQ correlated positively with activation in adjacent areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; BA 32, z = 3.70 and BA 24, z = 3.88 respectively). In the happy condition, CAPS, CTQ and CES were not correlated significantly with activation patterns.
dACC activation observed in prior studies of PTSD may be attributable to the cumulative effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure. By contrast, insula, hippocampus and amygdala activation may be specific to PTSS. The specificity of these results to threat stimuli, but not to positive stimuli, is consistent with abnormalities in threat processing associated with PTSS.
Countries of the Wider Caribbean have committed to principled ocean governance through several multilateral environmental and fisheries agreements at both the regional (e.g., the Cartagena Convention SPAW Protocol) and international level (e.g., the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement, the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing). They have also committed to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) targets for fisheries and biodiversity conservation. However, the ongoing challenge is to put in place the measures required to give effect to these principles at the local, national and regional levels (Fanning et al. 2009). While not minimising the important role of science in an ecosystem approach to managing the living marine resources of the Wider Caribbean Region, the chapters in this book serve to highlight the importance that regional experts have placed on the role of governance to address the problems in the region.
This synthesis chapter presents the outputs of a discussion specifically relating to the role of governance in achieving and implementing a shared vision for ecosystem-based management (EBM) in the Wider Caribbean, using the process described in Chapter 1. In terms of structure, the chapter first describes a vision for governance and reports on the priorities assigned to the identified vision elements. It then discusses how the vision might be achieved by taking into account assisting factors (those that facilitate achievement) and resisting factors (those that inhibit achievement). The chapter concludes with guidance on the strategic direction needed to implement the vision, identifying specific actions to be undertaken for each of the vision elements.
The occupational breakdown of members of the Governance Working Group reflected the diversity of affiliations present at the EBM Symposium and included governmental, intergovernmental, academic, non-governmental and private sector (fishers and fishing industry and consulting) representatives. With guidance provided by the facilitator, this diverse grouping of participants was asked to first address the question: “What do you see in place in 10 years’ time when EBM/EAF has become a reality in the Caribbean?”. This diversity provided for a fruitful and comprehensive visioning process, the results of which are summarised in Table 25.1, in terms of the key vision elements and their subcomponents, and in Figure 25.1, which illustrates the level of priority assigned to each of the vision elements.
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present with highly heterogeneous symptom profiles. We aimed to examine whether individual differences in amygdala activity to emotionally salient stimuli were related to heterogeneity in lifetime levels of depressive and subthreshold manic symptoms among adults with MDD.
We compared age- and gender-matched adults with MDD (n = 26) with healthy controls (HC, n = 28). While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed an implicit emotional faces task: they labeled a color flash superimposed upon initially neutral faces that dynamically morphed into one of four emotions (angry, fearful, sad, happy). Region of interest analyses examined group differences in amygdala activity. For conditions in which adults with MDD displayed abnormal amygdala activity versus HC, within-group analyses examined amygdala activity as a function of scores on a continuous measure of lifetime depression-related and mania-related pathology.
Adults with MDD showed significantly greater right-sided amygdala activity to angry and happy conditions than HC (p < 0.05, corrected). Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater right-amygdala activity to the happy condition in adults with MDD was associated with higher levels of subthreshold manic symptoms experienced across the lifespan (p = 0.002).
Among depressed adults with MDD, lifetime features of subthreshold mania were associated with abnormally elevated amygdala activity to emerging happy faces. These findings are a first step toward identifying biomarkers that reflect individual differences in neural mechanisms in MDD, and challenge conventional mood disorder diagnostic boundaries by suggesting that some adults with MDD are characterized by pathophysiological processes that overlap with bipolar disorder.
Recently, the French National Institute for Agricultural Research appointed an expert committee to review the issue of pain in food-producing farm animals. To minimise pain, the authors developed a ‘3S’ approach accounting for ‘Suppress, Substitute and Soothe’ by analogy with the ‘3Rs’ approach of ‘Reduction, Refinement and Replacement’ applied in the context of animal experimentation. Thus, when addressing the matter of pain, the following steps and solutions could be assessed, in the light of their feasibility (technical constraints, logistics and regulations), acceptability (societal and financial aspects) and availability. The first solution is to suppress any source of pain that brings no obvious advantage to the animals or the producers, as well as sources of pain for which potential benefits are largely exceeded by the negative effects. For instance, tail docking of cattle has recently been eliminated. Genetic selection on the basis of resistance criteria (as e.g. for lameness in cattle and poultry) or reduction of undesirable traits (e.g. boar taint in pigs) may also reduce painful conditions or procedures. The second solution is to substitute a technique causing pain by another less-painful method. For example, if dehorning cattle is unavoidable, it is preferable to perform it at a very young age, cauterising the horn bud. Animal management and constraint systems should be designed to reduce the risk for injury and bruising. Lastly, in situations where pain is known to be present, because of animal management procedures such as dehorning or castration, or because of pathology, for example lameness, systemic or local pharmacological treatments should be used to soothe pain. These treatments should take into account the duration of pain, which, in the case of some management procedures or diseases, may persist for longer periods. The administration of pain medication may require the intervention of veterinarians, but exemptions exist where breeders are allowed to use local anaesthesia (e.g. castration and dehorning in Switzerland). Extension of such exemptions, national or European legislation on pain management, or the introduction of animal welfare codes by retailers into their meat products may help further developments. In addition, veterinarians and farmers should be given the necessary tools and information to take into account animal pain in their management decisions.
Individuals with bipolar disorder demonstrate abnormal social function. Neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder have shown functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion processing, but have not examined face identity processing, a key component of social function. We aimed to elucidate functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion and face identity processing in bipolar disorder.
Twenty-seven individuals with bipolar disorder I currently euthymic and 27 healthy controls participated in an implicit face processing, block-design paradigm. Participants labeled color flashes that were superimposed on dynamically changing background faces comprising morphs either from neutral to prototypical emotion (happy, sad, angry and fearful) or from one identity to another identity depicting a neutral face. Whole-brain and amygdala region-of-interest (ROI) activities were compared between groups.
There was no significant between-group difference looking across both emerging face emotion and identity. During processing of all emerging emotions, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala activity. During facial identity and also happy face processing, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical activity compared with controls.
This is the first study to examine neural circuitry supporting face identity and face emotion processing in bipolar disorder. Our findings of abnormally elevated activity in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during face identity and happy face emotion processing suggest functional abnormalities in key regions previously implicated in social processing. This may be of future importance toward examining the abnormal self-related processing, grandiosity and social dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder.
La mesure précise des champs de contraintes autour de précipités inclus dans une matrice
cristalline est nécessaire à la compréhension de l’interaction entre les dislocations et
les précipités de matériaux structurellement durcis. Ces interactions contrôlent le
mouvement des dislocations, et donnent donc des informations sur les propriétés mécaniques
des matériaux. Les champs de contraintes autour des précipités de petite taille peuvent
être obtenus à partir d’images de microscopie électronique en transmission en haute
résolution (METHR) en utilisant la méthode des phases géométrique (GPA). Cette méthode est
utilisable de façon générale pour caractériser les contraintes à l’échelle nanométrique
autour des précipités de structure complexe ou inconnue et est appliquée ici dans les cas
de l’alliage d’aluminium 2198. Dans ce matériau, il est montré que les champs de
déformation autour d’un nanoprécipité en forme de disque et d’épaisseur faible peuvent
être modélisés par ceux d’une dislocation dissociée.
This study examines the structure of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ), a self-report instrument designed to assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with personality pathology, as proposed by the cognitive theory of personality dysfunction.
The PBQ was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with responses from 438 depressed out-patients, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with responses from 683 treatment-seeking psychiatric out-patients. All participants were assessed for personality disorder (PD) using a standard clinical interview. The validity of the resulting factor structure was assessed in the combined sample (n=1121) by examining PBQ scores for patients with and without PD diagnoses.
Exploratory and confirmatory analyses converged to indicate that the PBQ is best described by seven empirically identified factors: six assess dysfunctional beliefs associated with forms of personality pathology recognized in DSM-IV. Validity analyses revealed that those diagnosed with a PD evidenced a higher average score on all factors, relative to those without these disorders. Subsets of patients diagnosed with specific DSM-IV PDs scored higher, on average, on the factor associated with their respective diagnosis, relative to all other factors.
The pattern of results has implications for the conceptualization of personality pathology. To our knowledge, no formal diagnostic or assessment system has yet systematically incorporated the role of dysfunctional beliefs into its description of personality pathology. The identification of dysfunctional beliefs may not only aid in case conceptualization but also may provide unique targets for psychological treatment. Recommendations for future personality pathology assessment systems are provided.