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Five international consensus statements on concussion in sports have been published. This commentary argues that there is a strong need for a new approach to them that foregrounds public health expertise and patient-centered guidance. Doing so will help players, parents and practitioners keep perspective about these potentially life-altering injuries especially when they recur.
Patients with substance use disorders (SUD) have higher alexithymia levels and present frequently suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide (SA) [1,2]. Beside, alexithymia has been related to suicidal behaviors in several psychiatric disorders. Although, there are some studies on alexithymia and suicidality in SUD patients, to our knowledge there are no studies on this issue in Spanish population.
To compare the alexithymia levels in SUD patients with and without SI and SA in an outpatient addiction treatment center in Spain.
This is a cross-sectional study performed on 110 patients (74.3%males; mean age 43.6±14.5years old) for whom we had information from the Toronto Alexithymia Scale(TAS-20) and the presence or not of lifetime SI and SA.
Lifetime SI and SA were present in 55.5% and 35.5% of the sample respectively. The mean score of TAS-20, difficulties identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties describing feelings (DDT), and externally-oriented thinking(EOT) were 57.2±13.3, 20.0±7.0, 14.7±4.5, and 22.5±4.5 respectively.
SI and SA may be related to alexithymia levels. Hence, alexithymia should be further analyzed in SUD patients in longitudinal studies in order to analyze the bilateral association with suicidal spectrum behaviors. REFERENCES Rodríguez-Cintas L, et al. Factors associated with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in outpatients with substance use disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2018;262:440-5. Morie KP, et al. Alexithymia and Addiction: A Review and Preliminary Data Suggesting Neurobiological Links to Reward/Loss Processing. Curr Addict Rep. 2016;3(2):239-48. Hemming L, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between alexithymia and suicide ideation and behaviour. J Affect Disord. 2019;254:34-48.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
The quality of the educational system of a country is not only an indicator of the levels of development and well made, but also to come. Not surprisingly, providing universal schooling is also capable of stimulating the development of children and youth, is a strategic objective of the first magnitude in the more advanced nations.
Our country is no stranger to this concern. It is for this reason that, in a recurrent way, the training of our young people, in particular, the problem of school failure are the subject of public debate.
School failure is considered now a major problem, especially in Spain (20-28%), where rates are above the European average and the OECD countries. The importance of this issue has led, in recent times, the emergence of numerous analyzes and various studies trying to determine the causes and to establish the true extent of the failure and dropout rates in our country.
This paper will describe possible factors for future preventive activities, influencing the increase in the rate of absenteeism / dropout: the appearance of breaking the educational link. Link or union that is fragmented by its components: the institution and the student.
Prescription Patterns Among Spanish Inpatients with Schizophrenia
R Oberguggenberger1,2, N Ruiz 1, M Ortega1, C Roset1, Y Rendal1, J Salva1, Lago E1, P Herbera1
1. Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
2. Hospital Psiquiátrico. Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia is frequent in the short term and long term treatment. Prevalence of up to 50% of polypharmacy has been shown in some clinical settings. There is scare evidence of the prevalence of polypharmacy in inpatient settings.
The goal of this retrospective study is to assess the prescription patterns of patients with schizophrenia in a Spanish inpatient setting.
Records of all admissions between 2010 until 2012 in the adult ward of a public heatlh service in Palma de Mallorca will be analysed in this study.
The results will show current prescription patterns of patients with schizophrenia in a Spanish inpatient setting.
To assess the prescription of benzodiazepines (BZD) in elderly patients, and to explore any gender differences.
Six hundred and fifty-four patients (≥ 65) admitted in an emergency service of a general hospital due to a fall. BZD use information was collected (dose, half-life profile).
BZD are significantly more prescribed to women (47.6%) than men (36.1%) (X2 = 8.097, P = 0.004). We conducted a logistic regression analysis using as dependent variable taking or not BZD and sex as the independent one, covariating the model by age. We noted that sex remains significant despite enter the age variable in the model (OR = 1.5, P = 0.013). A total of 21.6% of patients consumed intermediate or long half-life BZDs, appearing a greater tendency to prescribe such BZD to women (X2 = 3.606, P = 0.058). In the 58.0% of prescriptions, prescribed dose was higher than the recommended for the elderly. The percentage is significantly higher for men (70.0%) than women (53.1%). Furthermore, a total of 54 prescriptions (15.8%) were even higher than the recommended adult dose, with no significant differences between men and women.
We found evidence of a higher prescription of BZD in women independently of age. Despite not being recommended, prescription of intermediate or long half-life BZD continues, in a slightly higher manner in women. BZD are prescribed above the recommended dose for elderly in a large number of patients, especially in men. A considerable proportion of elderly patients (15.8%) consume BZD doses even higher than the recommended for adults.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
NGC 7469 is a well-known type 1 AGN with a cirumnuclear star formation ring. It has previous detections of X-rays warm absorbers and an infrared biconical outflow. We analysed archival MUSE/VLT observations of this galaxy in order to look for an optical counterpart of these outflows. We report spatially resolved winds in the [O III] λ5007 emission line in two regimes: a high velocity regime possibly associated with the AGN and a slower one associated with the massive star formation of the ring. This slower regime is also detected with Hβ.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
The aim of this investigation was to study castor, canola, and sesame vegetable oils in order to evaluate their potential use as lubricants in steel mechanical components. For this purpose, densities of each oil were evaluated using the pycnometer method, as well as their dynamic viscosities through a Brookfield DV-II rotational viscometer. Both properties were evaluated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 100 °C. Additionally, viscosity indexes were determined according to ASTM D 2270. These rheological properties were used to estimate the lubrication regime considering parameters of real contact conditions in mechanical components. Friction and wear analyses were carried out to investigate the behaviour of the vegetable oil as lubricants. Such tests were carried out at room temperature on a CSM tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration by using castor, canola and sesame oils as lubricants. AISI 4140 hardened steel against AISI 100Cr6 steel pin was used as a mechanical component. From the rheological study, it was observed that canola and sesame oils behave as dilatant fluids at the evaluated temperatures, while castor oil behaves like a Newtonian fluid at 25 and 40 °C. Castor oil showed the highest density value among oils studied, but it also exhibited the lowest value of viscosity index (271). Contrarily, sesame oil was the least dense, but it exhibited the highest viscosity index (545). On the other hand, the lubrication regime study showed that by using castor oil as a lubricant in the mechanical component (4140/100Cr6), the system worked in a mixed lubrication regime while by using canola and sesame oils the system operated in boundary lubrication conditions. Finally, the kinetic friction coefficients were different for each lubricant obtaining the lowest value with castor oil while the highest value of friction coefficient was exhibited by the sesame oil lubricant.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are increasingly widespread pollutants introduced into the environment via oil spillage and incomplete anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels. In this work, the capacity of stevensite and sepiolite to adsorb phenanthrene (PHE) has been evaluated experimentally by batch testing. Both clay minerals are distributed widely in the Madrid Basin, are of low cost and can be applied with minimal environmental impact. In the context of few previous studies, adsorption isotherms have been developed to understand the adsorption mechanisms and were fitted to the Freundlich and linear models with virtually the same results. Although stevensite showed greater adsorption capacity than sepiolite, the isotherms were constructed for equilibrium concentrations up to 0.8–1.0 mg/L due to the low solubility of PHE in water. When compared to other adsorbents the ability of stevensite to retain PAHs should be examined further in order to add and complement novel functions in reactive barriers.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes small RNA molecules that are essential for cell viability. Accurate initiation of transcription by Pol III requires general transcription factor TFIIIB, which is composed of three subunits: TFIIB-related factor BRF1, TATA-binding protein and BDP1. Here we report the molecular characterization of BRF1 in Trypanosoma brucei (TbBRF1), a parasitic protozoa that shows distinctive transcription characteristics. In silico analysis allowed the detection in TbBRF1 of the three conserved domains located in the N-terminal region of all BRF1 orthologues, namely a zinc ribbon motif and two cyclin repeats. Homology modelling suggested that, similarly to other BRF1 and TFIIB proteins, the TbBRF1 cyclin repeats show the characteristic structure of five α-helices per repeat, connected by a short random-coiled linker. As expected for a transcription factor, TbBRF1 was localized in the nucleus. Knock-down of TbBRF1 by RNA interference (RNAi) showed that this protein is essential for the viability of procyclic forms of T. brucei, since ablation of TbBRF1 led to growth arrest of the parasites. Nuclear run-on and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that transcription of all the Pol III-dependent genes analysed was reduced, at different levels, after RNAi induction.
Protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Leishmania promastigotes primarily infect macrophages in the host, where they transform into amastigotes and multiply. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the most abundant surface molecule of the parasite, is a virulence determinant that regulates the host immune response. Promastigotes are able to modulate this effect through LPG, creating a favourable environment for parasite survival, although the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain unknown. We analysed the participation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the production of cytokines and explored the possible phosphorylation of ERK and/or p38 MAP kinase signalling cascades in human macrophages stimulated with Leishmania mexicana LPG. The results show that LPG induced the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70 and IL-10 and led to phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Specific inhibitors of ERK or p38 MAP kinases and mAbs against TLR2 and TLR4 reduced cytokine production and phosphorylation of both kinases. Our results suggest that L. mexicana LPG binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Recently, a team of archaeologists discovered the existence of the oldest burial in a pyramid known to date in Mesoamerica. The tomb, referred to as Tomb 1, was discovered in Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, Mexico. In here, two skeletons were excavated along with a rich offering of green stone pieces, indicating their elite origin. The burial dresses consist of various necklaces, bracelets, belts, and anklets from which some beads were carved in the shape of gourds, monkeys, and alligators. Here we present a full, integrated methodology based on a variety of non-invasive and non-destructive analytical techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Raman, and Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. These techniques are used to characterize and identify the minerals which were found in these burials. This information contributes not only to conservation and restoration purposes, but also gives more insights on the green stone (jadeite and other minerals) trading networks between different cultures in south Mesoamerica in the Pre-Classic period (c.a. 750 – 700 B. C.).
Pastes of waste glass (WG) and metakaolin (MK) were prepared by chemical activation with sodium silicate solutions of modulus Ms = 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.25 adjusted with sodium hydroxide. An experimental design was carried out using the Taguchi method. The compressive strength (CS) was followed for up to 120 days and then 4 selected formulations of the higher CS were further characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the CS depends on the experimental conditions of %WG, %Na2O and Ms and showed a maximum of 70 MPa after 120 days for the paste with 100%WG (%wt.), 8% Na2O and Ms=1.25; while a Portland cement specimen cured at 20°C reached 43MPa. The WG is more reactive than the MK under less alkaline conditions. The features of the microstructures varied notably with the %WG; however all showed relative dense matrices of reaction products, in agreement with the CS attained.
Clays were used intensively in cultural heritage’s monuments and objects. Conservation procedures can be performed specifically for earthen materials using stabilized clays, considering that the aesthetic features must be preserved in order to avoid drastic differences and the lost of their patrimonial value.
This work presents the study of the mechanical behavior of clay stabilized with different materials following the norm ASTM D 6276 – 99a, for lime stabilization. The effects of other stabilizers on the clay were studied as well. For these purposes, lime, gypsum, Portland cement (type II), sodium hydroxide, and dehydrated cactus fibers of white cactus opuntia in concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt% were added to a clay from Morelia region.
Atterberg limits were determined to calculate the linear and volumetric stabilization. The best volumetric stabilization values were chosen to prepare samples to measure the mechanical behavior under compression, tension and flexion strengths. Colorimetric measurements were also performed on the stabilized clays to determine the best preparation with the most suitable aesthetic qualities to perform conservation treatments on monuments and cultural heritage constructions made with earthen materials.
The highest values for compression were observed for gypsum and mucilage additions while the highest tension was obtained for mucilage ones. Gypsum addition had the bigger rupture module under flexion. On the other hand, the color of the stabilized clay is closer to the original clay color for cement, lime and mucilage preparations.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.