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Background: Incidence of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States during 2012–2017 has been reported to have been stable for hospital-onset BSIs and to have increased 3.9% per year for community-onset BSIs. We sought to determine whether these trends continued in more recent years and whether there were further differences within subgroups of community-onset BSIs. Methods: We analyzed CDC Emerging Infections Program active, population- and laboratory-based surveillance data during 2016–2019 for MSSA BSIs from 8 counties in 5 states. BSI cases were defined as isolation of MSSA from blood in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital onset (HO) if culture was obtained >3 days after hospital admission and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO) if culture was obtained on or after day 3 of hospitalization and was associated with dialysis, hospitalization, surgery, or long-term care facility residence within 1 year prior or if a central venous catheter was present ≤2 days prior. Cases were otherwise considered community-associated (CA). Annual rates per 100,000 census population were calculated for each epidemiologic classification; rates of HACO cases among chronic dialysis patients per 100,000 dialysis patients were calculated using US Renal Data System data. Annual increases were modeled using negative binomial or Poisson regression and accounting for changes in the overall population age group, and sex. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: Overall, 8,344 MSSA BSI cases were reported. From 2016–2019 total MSSA BSI rates increased from 23.9 per 100,000 to 28.5 per 100,000 (6.6% per year; P < .01). MSSA BSI rates also increased significantly among all epidemiologic classes. HO cases increased from 2.5 per 100,000 to 3.2 per 100,000 (7.9% per year; P = .01). HACO cases increased from 12.7 per 100,000 to 14.7 per 100,000 (7.0% per year; P = .01). CA cases increased from 8.4 per 100,000 to 10.4 per 100,000 (6.7% per year; P < .01) (Fig. 1). Significant increases in MSSA BSI rates were also observed for nondialysis HACO cases (9.3 per 100,000 to 11.1 per 100,000; 7.8% per year; P < .01) but not dialysis HACO cases (1,823.2 per 100,000 to 1,857.4 per 100,000; 1.4% per year; P = .59). Healthcare risk factors for HACO cases were hospitalization in the previous year (82%), surgery (31%), dialysis (27%), and long-term care facility residence (19%). Conclusions: MSSA BSI rates increased from 2016–2019 overall, among all epidemiologic classes, and among nondialysis HACO cases. Efforts to prevent MSSA BSIs among individuals with healthcare risk factors, particularly those related to hospitalization, might have an impact on MSSA BSI rates.
The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
Background: Automated testing instruments (ATIs) are commonly used by clinical microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), whereas public health laboratories may use established reference methods such as broth microdilution (BMD). We investigated discrepancies in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among Enterobacteriaceae tested by clinical laboratory ATIs and by reference BMD at the CDC. Methods: During 2016–2018, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) through the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (10 sites by 2018). We defined an incident case as the first isolation of Enterobacter spp (E. cloacae complex or E. aerogenes), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, or K. variicola resistant to doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem from normally sterile sites or urine identified from a resident of the EIP catchment area in a 30-day period. Cases had isolates that were determined to be carbapenem-resistant by clinical laboratory ATI MICs (MicroScan, BD Phoenix, or VITEK 2) or by other methods, using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. A convenience sample of these isolates was tested by reference BMD at the CDC according to CLSI guidelines. Results: Overall, 1,787 isolates from 112 clinical laboratories were tested by BMD at the CDC. Of these, clinical laboratory ATI MIC results were available for 1,638 (91.7%); 855 (52.2%) from 71 clinical laboratories did not confirm as CRE at the CDC. Nonconfirming isolates were tested on either a MicroScan (235 of 462; 50.9%), BD Phoenix (249 of 411; 60.6%), or VITEK 2 (371 of 765; 48.5%). Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli (62.2% of E. coli isolates tested) and Enterobacter spp (61.4% of Enterobacter isolates tested) (Fig. 1A), and among isolates testing resistant to ertapenem by the clinical laboratory ATI (52.1%, Fig. 1B). Of the 1,388 isolates resistant to ertapenem in the clinical laboratory, 1,006 (72.5%) were resistant only to ertapenem. Of the 855 nonconfirming isolates, 638 (74.6%) were resistant only to ertapenem based on clinical laboratory ATI MICs. Conclusions: Nonconfirming isolates were widespread across laboratories and ATIs. Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among nonconfirming isolates, most were resistant only to ertapenem. These findings may suggest that ATIs overcall resistance to ertapenem or that isolate transport and storage conditions affect ertapenem resistance. Further investigation into this lack of confirmation is needed, and CRE case identification in public health surveillance may need to account for this phenomenon.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major public health problem. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) is a treatment option for CRE approved in 2015; however, it does not have activity against isolates with metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Emerging resistance to CZA is a cause for concern. Our objective was to describe the microbiologic and epidemiologic characteristics of CZA-resistant (CZA-R) CRE. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 9 states participated in laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates from a normally sterile site or urine. A convenience sample of isolates from this surveillance were sent to the CDC for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using reference broth microdilution (BMD) including an MBL screen, species confirmation with MALDI-TOF, and real-time PCR to detect blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48–like genes. Additional AST by BMD was performed on CZA-R isolates using meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV), imipenem-relebactam (IMR), plazomicin (PLZ), and eravacycline (ERV). Epidemiologic data were obtained from a medical record review. Community-associated cases were defined as having no healthcare exposures in the year prior to culture, no devices in place 2 days prior to culture, and culture collected before calendar day 3 after hospital admission. Data were analyzed in 3 groups: CRE that were CZA-susceptible (CZA-S), CZA-R that were due to blaNDM, and CZA-R without blaNDM. Results: Among 606 confirmed CRE tested with CZA, 33 (5.4%) were CZA-R. Of the CZA-R isolates, 16 (48.5%) harbored a blaNDM gene, of which 2 coharbored blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes; 9 (27.3%) harbored only a blaKPC gene. Of the 17 CZA-R isolates without blaNDM, all were MBL screen negative. CZA-R due to blaNDM were more frequently community-associated (43.8%) than CZA-S or CZA-R without blaNDM (11.0% and 5.9%, respectively); a higher percentage of CZA-R cases due to blaNDM also had recent international travel (25%) compared to the other groups (1.8% and 5.9%, respectively). CZA-R without blaNDM were more susceptible to MEV (76%), IMR (71%), PLZ (88%), and ERV (65%) compared to CZA-R due to blaNDM (19%, 6%, 56%, and 44%, respectively). Conclusions: The emergence of CZA-R isolates without blaNDM are concerning; however, these isolates are more susceptible to newer antimicrobials than those with blaNDM. In addition to high rates of resistance to newer antimicrobials, isolates with blaNDM are more frequently community-associated than other CRE. This underscores the need for more aggressive measures to stop the spread of CRE.
Background: In recent years, the historic declines in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States have slowed. We examined trends in the incidence of community-onset (CO) MRSA BSIs among hospitalized persons with and without substance-use diagnoses. Methods: Using data from >200 US hospitals reporting to the Premier Healthcare Database (PHD) during 2012–2017, we conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized persons aged ≥18 years. MRSA BSIs with substance use were defined as hospitalizations having both a blood culture positive for MRSA and at least 1 International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) or ICD-10-CM diagnostic code for substance use including opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, or other substances (excluding cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine). MRSA BSIs were considered community onset when a positive blood culture was collected within 3 days of admission. We assessed annual trends and described characteristics of CO MRSA BSI hospitalizations, stratified by substance use. Results: Of 20,049 MRSA BSIs from 2012 to 2017, 17,634 (88%) were CO. Overall, MRSA BSI incidence decreased 7%, from 178.5 to 166.2 per 100,000 hospitalizations during the study period; However, CO MRSA BSI rates remained stable (152.7 to 149.9 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Among CO MRSA BSIs, 1,838 (10%) were BSIs with substance-use diagnoses; the incidence of CO MRSA BSIs with substance use increased 236% (from 8.2 to 27.6 per 100,000 hospitalizations) and represented a greater proportion of the CO MRSA rate over the study period (Fig. 1). The incidence of CO MRSA BSIs without substance use decreased 15% (from 144.5 to 122.4 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Patients with CO MRSA BSIs with substance use were younger (median, 40 vs 65 years), more likely to be female (50% vs 40%), white (79% vs 69%), and to leave against medical advice (15% vs 1%). Among patients not leaving against medical advice, CO BSI patients with substance-use diagnoses had longer lengths of stay (median, 11 vs 9 days), lower in-hospital mortality (9% vs 14%), and higher hospitalization costs (median, $22,912 vs $17,468) compared to patients without substance-use diagnoses. Conclusions: Although the overall CO MRSA BSI rate remained unchanged from 2012 to 2017, infections with substance use diagnoses increased >3-fold, and infections without substance use diagnoses decreased. These data suggest that the emergence of MRSA associated with substance-use diagnoses threatens potential progress in reducing the incidence of CO MRSA infections. Additional strategies may be needed to prevent MRSA BSI in patients with substance-use diagnoses, and to maintain national progress in the reduction of MRSA infections overall.
Background: The CDC has performed surveillance for invasive Staphylococcus aureus (iSA) infections through the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) since 2004. SCCmec and spa typing for clonal complex (CC) assignment and genomic markers have been used to characterize isolates. In 2019, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of isolates began, allowing for high-resolution assessment of genomic diversity. Here, we evaluate the reliability of SCCmec typing, spa typing, and CC assignment using WGS data compared to traditional methods to ensure that backwards compatibility is maintained. Methods:S. aureus isolates were obtained from a convenience sample of iSA cases reported through the EIP surveillance system. Overall, 78 iSA isolates with diverse spa repeat patterns, CCs, SCCmec types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were sequenced (MiSeq, Illumina). Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used as the SCCmec and spa typing reference methods, respectively. spa-MLST mapping (Ridom SpaServer) served as the reference method for CC assignment. WGS assembly and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed using the CDC QuAISAR-H pipeline. WGS-based MLST CCs were assigned using eBURST and SCCmec types using SCCmecFinder. spa types were assigned from WGS assemblies using BioNumerics. For isolate subtyping, previously published and validated canonical single-nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs) as well as the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) virulence factor were assessed for all genome assemblies. Results: All isolates were assigned WGS-based spa types, which were 100% concordant (78 of 78) with Sanger-based spa typing. SCCmecFinder assigned 91% of isolates (71 of 78) SCCmec types, which were 100% concordant with reference method results. Also, 7 isolates had multiple cassettes predicted or an incomplete SCCmec region assembly. Using WGS data, 96% (75 of 78) of isolates were assigned CCs; 3 isolates had unknown sequence types that were single-locus variants of established sequence types. Overall, 70 isolates had CCs assigned by the reference method; 100% (70 of 70) concordance was observed with WGS-based CCs. Analysis of canSNPs placed 42% (33 of 78) of isolates into CC8, with 17 (52%) of these isolates classified as USA300. PVL and ACME were not accurate markers for inferring the USA300 subtype as 24% (4 of 17) of isolates did not contain these markers. Conclusions:S. aureus CCs, SCCmec, and spa types can be reliably determined using WGS. Incorporation of canSNP analysis represents a more efficient method for CC8 assignment than the use of genomic markers alone. WGS allows for the replacement of multiple typing methods for increased laboratory efficiency, while maintaining backward compatibility with historical typing nomenclature.
Most invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (iMRSA) infections have onset in the community but are associated with healthcare exposures. More than 25% of cases with healthcare exposure occur in nursing homes (NHs) where facility-specific iMRSA rates vary widely. We assessed associations between nursing home characteristics and iMRSA incidence rates to help target prevention efforts in NHs. Methods: We used active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance data collected through the Emerging Infections Program during 2011–2015 from 25 counties in 7 states. NH-onset cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident who was in a NH within 3 days before the index culture. We calculated MRSA incidence (cases per NH resident day) using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) skilled nursing facility cost reports and described variation in iMRSA incidence by NH. We used Poisson regression with backward selection, assessing variables for collinearity, to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for NH characteristics (obtained from the CMS minimum dataset) associated with iMRSA rates. Results: Of 590 surveillance area NHs included in analysis, 89 (15%) had no NH-onset iMRSA infections. Rates ranged from 0 to 23.4 infections per 100,000 resident days. Increased rate of NH-onset iMRSA infection occurred with increased percentage of residents in short stay ≤30 days (aRR, 1.09), exhibiting wounds or infection (surgical wound [aRR, 1.08]; vascular ulcer/foot infection [aRR, 1.09]; multidrug-resistant organism infection [aRR, 1.13]; receipt of antibiotics [aRR, 1.06]), using medical devices or invasive support (ostomy [aRR, 1.07]; dialysis [aRR, 1.07]; ventilator support [aRR, 1.17]), carrying neurologic diagnoses (cerebral palsy [aRR, 1.14]; brain injury [aRR, 1.1]), and demonstrating debility (requiring considerable assistance with bed mobility [aRR, 1.05]) (Table). iMRSA rates decreased with increased percentage of residents receiving influenza vaccination (aRR, 0.96) and with the presence of any patients in isolation for any active infection (aRR, 0.83). Conclusions: iMRSA incidence varies greatly across nursing homes, with many NH patient and facility characteristics associated with NH-onset iMRSA rate differences. Some associations (short stay, wounds and infection, medical device use and invasive support) suggest that targeted interventions utilizing known strategies to decrease transmission may help to reduce infection rates, while others (neurologic diagnoses, influenza vaccination, presence of patients in isolation) require further exploration to determine their role. These findings can help identify NHs in other areas more likely to have higher rates of NH-onset iMRSA who could benefit from interventions to reduce infection rates.
Background: Epidemiological studies have utilized administrative discharge diagnosis codes to identify methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) infections and trends, despite debate regarding the accuracy of utilizing codes for this purpose. We assessed the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MRSA- and MSSA-specific diagnosis codes, trends, characteristics, and outcomes of S. aureus hospitalizations by method of identification. Methods: Clinical micro biology results and discharge data from geographically diverse US hospitals participating in the Premier Healthcare Database from 2012–2017 were used to identify monthly rates of MRSA and MSSA. Positive MRSA or MSSA clinical cultures and/or a MRSA- or MSSA-specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9/10 CM) diagnosis codes from adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) were included as S. aureus hospitalizations. Septicemia was defined as a positive blood culture or a MRSA or MSSA septicemia code. Sensitivity and PPV for codes were calculated for hospitalizations where admission status was not listed as transfer; true infection was considered a positive clinical culture. Negative binominal regression models measured trends in rates of MRSA and MSSA per 1,000 hospital discharges. Results: We identified 168,634 MRSA and 148,776 MSSA hospitalizations in 256 hospitals; 17% of MRSA and 21% of MSSA were septicemia. Less than half of all S. aureus hospitalizations (49% MRSA, 46% MSSA) and S. aureus septicemia hospitalizations (37% MRSA, 38% MSSA) had both a positive culture and diagnosis code (Fig. 1). Sensitivity of MRSA codes in identifying positive cultures was 61% overall and 56% for septicemia, PPV was 62% overall and 53% for septicemia. MSSA codes had a sensitivity of 49% in identifying MSSA cultures and 52% for MSSA septicemia; PPV was 69% overall and 62% for septicemia. Despite low sensitivity, MRSA trends are similar for cultures and codes, and MSSA trends are divergent (Fig. 2). For hospitalizations with septicemia, mortality was highest among those with a blood culture only (31.3%) compared to hospitalizations with both a septicemia code and blood culture (16.6%), and septicemia code only (14.7%). Conclusions: ICD diagnosis code sensitivity and PPV for identifying infections were consistently poor in recent years. Less than half of hospitalizations have concordant microbiology laboratory results and diagnosis codes. Rates and trend estimates for MSSA differ by method of identification. Using diagnosis codes to identify S. aureus infections may not be appropriate for descriptive epidemiology or assessing trends due to significant misclassification.
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin reports that his spouse receives consulting fees from the vaccine industry.
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing (ESBL) Escherichia coli infection incidence is increasing in the United States. This increase may be due to the rapid expansion of ST131, which is now the predominant ESBL strain globally, often multidrug resistant, and has been shown to establish longer-term human colonization than other E. coli strains. We assessed potential risk factors that distinguish ST131 from other ESBL E. coli. Methods: From October 1 through December 31, 2017, 5 CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites pilot tested active, laboratory-based surveillance in selected counties in Colorado, Georgia, New Mexico, New York, and Tennessee. An E. coli case was defined as the first isolation from a normally sterile body site or urine in a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period resistant to 1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and susceptible or intermediate to all carbapenem antibiotics tested. Epidemiologic data were collected from case patients’ medical records. A convenience sample of 117 E. coli isolates from case patients was collected. All isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing to determine sequence type and the presence of ESBL genes. We compared ST131 E. coli epidemiology to other ESBL E. coli. Results: Among 117 E. coli isolates, 97 (83%) were ESBL producers. Of the 97 ESBL E. coli, 52 (54%) were ST131 (range, for 4 EIP sites submitting >10 isolates: 25%–88%; P < .001). Other common STs were ST38 (12%) and ST10 (5%). ST131 infections were more likely to be healthcare-associated than non-ST131 (56% vs 36%; P = .05) (Table 1). Among specific prior healthcare exposures, only residence in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in the year before culture was more common among ST131 case patients (29% vs 11%; P = .03). Notably, 85% of ESBL E. coli collected from LTCF residents were ST131. ST131 E. coli were more common among patients with underlying medical conditions (81% vs 60%; P = .02). No statistically significant difference by sex, race, age, culture source, location of culture collection, and frequency of antibiotic use in the prior 30 days was observed. Conclusions:The prevalence of ST131 E. coli varies regionally. The association between ST131 and LTCFs suggests that these may be particularly important settings for ST131 acquisition. Improving infection control measures that limit ESBL transmission in these settings and preventing dissemination in facilities receiving patients from LTCFs may be necessary to contain ST131 spread.
Background: Incidence of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated, community-onset (HACO) USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections has remained unchanged in recent years. Traditionally considered a CA strain, USA300 is increasingly associated with healthcare settings. We examined whether antimicrobial nonsusceptibility among USA300 strains could distinguish epidemiologic class (community vs hospital), and whether divergences in susceptibility were occurring over time. Methods: We used data on invasive MRSA infections from active, population, and laboratory-based surveillance during 2005–2016 from 11 counties in 3 states. Invasive cases were defined as MRSA isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was obtained >3 days after hospitalization and HACO if ≥1 of the following risk factors was present: hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, or residence in a long-term care facility in the past year; or central vascular catheter ≤2 days before culture. Otherwise, cases were considered CA. Sites submitted a convenience sample of clinical MRSA isolates for molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis until 2008, when typing was inferred using a validated algorithm based on molecular characteristics. Reference broth microdilution was performed for 8 antimicrobials and interpreted based on CLSI interpretive criteria. We compared USA300 nonsusceptibility for HO and CA isolates. For antimicrobials with >5% nonsusceptibility and for which HO isolates had greater nonsusceptibility than CA isolates, we compared nonsusceptibility for HACO and CA and analyzed annual trends in nonsusceptibility within each epidemiologic class (ie, CA, HACO, and HO) using linear regression. Results: Of 17,947 MRSA cases during 2005–2016, isolates were available for 6,685 (37%), and 2,120 were USA300 (34% CA, 52% HACO, 14% HO). HO isolates had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to gentamicin (2.2% vs 0.6%; P = .03), levofloxacin (47.8% vs 39.7%; P = .02), rifampin (3.7 vs 1.1%; P = .01), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3.4% vs 0.6%; P = .04). HACO isolates also had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to levofloxacin (50.9% vs 39.7%; P < .01). Levofloxacin nonsusceptibility increased during 2005–2016 for HACO and CA isolates (P < .01), but not among HO isolates (P = .36) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Overall, nonsusceptibility across drugs cannot distinguish USA300 isolates causing HO versus CA disease. Although HO isolates had higher levofloxacin nonsusceptibility than CA and HACO isolates early on, USA300 MRSA HACO isolates now have levofloxacin nonsusceptibility most similar to that of HO isolates. Further study could help to explore whether increases in fluoroquinolone nonsusceptibility among CA and HACO cases may be contributing to the persistence of USA300 strains.
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Ent) have emerged as a significant antimicrobial-resistance threat in the community in recent years. To better characterize ESBL-Ent in the community, we examined associations between community-associated ESBL-Ent incidence rates and area-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics. Methods: Cases were identified through active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance for ESBL-Ent in 3 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (New Mexico, New York, and Tennessee) from October through December 2017. We defined a case as first isolation of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or K. oxytoca from a normally sterile body specimen or urine in a surveillance-site resident, with resistance to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistance to all carbapenems tested. Epidemiologic data were abstracted from medical records. Cases were considered community associated if no significant prior healthcare exposures (ie, inpatient healthcare facility stay, surgery, chronic dialysis, indwelling devices, or external catheters) were documented. Case residential addresses were geocoded and linked to US Census Bureau data to obtain census-tract level SES measures. Census tracts were dichotomized by the percentage living in rural areas (0–49% or ≥50%); census tracts were stratified into quartiles for all other characteristics. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each measure, controlling for EIP site, were calculated using Poisson regression. Results: Among 742 ESBL-Ent cases with medical records available, 355 (47.1%) were community associated; of these, 327 case addresses (92.1%) were successfully geocoded. The combined annualized 2017 incidence rate for community-associated ESBL-Ent was 83.2 cases per 100,000 persons. The highest incidence of community-associated ESBL-Ent was seen in census tracts with the lowest median income (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0) and with the highest percentages of persons without health insurance (IRR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7), with <12th-grade education (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1), living in urban areas (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.2), foreign-born (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0), or speaking limited English (IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0). There were no significant differences across quartiles for population density, income inequality, the percentage of the population living below poverty, or the percentage of households with crowding (>1 occupant or room). Conclusions: Social determinants of health, such as coverage for healthcare, appear to be important contributors to community-associated ESBL-Ent transmission. Higher rates in areas with more foreign-born persons and persons with limited English proficiency suggest a role for recent travel in importation and spread in specific communities. These findings provide additional information about the epidemiology of ESBL-Ent in the community and have potential implications for control efforts.
It is known that Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is higher in patient with depression than in the general population. Though antidepressant seems to worsen the situation, there are also indications that the gender may play a role on it.
Evaluate the gender effect of sexual function among unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls.
The sample was formed by male and female Taiwanese outpatients in three age and sex matched groups, with sixty nine participants per group: unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls. the diagnoses of depressions were performed according DSM-IV and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. SD was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS software v17. Mixed designed ANOVA was used.
There are significant differences between males and females CSFQ results (sex main effect F = 82.44, p < 0.001) and between groups (group main effect F = 3.48, p = 0.034). Additionally, the 2-way interaction between sex and group was also significant (F = 3.40, p = 0.036). Simple main effect analysis shows differences among male participants, between healthy and medicated males (F = 11.41, p = 0.002), but not in female (F = 1.58, p = 0.21). However the statistics weren’t different between females groups, the medicated expresses better results (similar to healthy group) than the unmedicated one.
SD is different between genders in each of the groups. Antidepressant seems to increase SD in man, while improves sexual satisfaction/function among depressive woman. We speculate that psychological improvement after treatment may have different impact between genders on sexual satisfaction.
We compared methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) captured by culture-based surveillance and MRSA septicemia hospitalizations captured by administrative coding using statewide hospital discharge data in Connecticut from 2010 to 2018. Observed discrepancies between identification methods suggest administrative coding is inappropriate for assessing trends in MRSA BSIs.
Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique.
Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.
To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category.
Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
To describe pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from pediatric locations during 2011–2014.
Device-associated infection data were analyzed for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and surgical site infection (SSI). Pooled mean percentage resistance was calculated for a variety of pathogen-antimicrobial resistance pattern combinations and was stratified by location for device-associated infections (neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], pediatric intensive care units [PICUs], pediatric oncology and pediatric wards) and by surgery type for SSIs.
From 2011 to 2014, 1,003 hospitals reported 20,390 pediatric HAIs and 22,323 associated pathogens to the NHSN. Among all HAIs, the following pathogens accounted for more than 60% of those reported: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%), Escherichia coli (11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae and/or oxytoca (9%), and Enterococcus faecalis (8%). Among device-associated infections, resistance was generally lower in NICUs than in other locations. For several pathogens, resistance was greater in pediatric wards than in PICUs. The proportion of organisms resistant to carbapenems was low overall but reached approximately 20% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from CLABSIs and CAUTIs in some locations. Among SSIs, antimicrobial resistance patterns were similar across surgical procedure types for most pathogens.
This report is the first pediatric-specific description of antimicrobial resistance data reported to the NHSN. Reporting of pediatric-specific HAIs and antimicrobial resistance data will help identify priority targets for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship activities in facilities that provide care for children.
To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
To determine the impact of mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections (MBI-LCBIs) on central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates during the first year of MBI-LCBI reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)
Descriptive analysis of 2013 NHSN data
Selected inpatient locations in acute care hospitals
A descriptive analysis of MBI-LCBI cases was performed. CLABSI rates per 1,000 central-line days were calculated with and without the inclusion of MBI-LCBIs in the subset of locations reporting ≥1 MBI-LCBI, and in all locations (regardless of MBI-LCBI reporting) to determine rate differences overall and by location type.
From 418 locations in 252 acute care hospitals reporting ≥1 MBI-LCBIs, 3,162 CLABSIs were reported; 1,415 (44.7%) met the MBI-LCBI definition. Among these locations, removing MBI-LCBI from the CLABSI rate determination produced the greatest CLABSI rate decreases in oncology (49%) and ward locations (45%). Among all locations reporting CLABSI data, including those reporting no MBI-LCBIs, removing MBI-LCBI reduced rates by 8%. Here, the greatest decrease was in oncology locations (38% decrease); decreases in other locations ranged from 1.2% to 4.2%.
An understanding of the potential impact of removing MBI-LCBIs from CLABSI data is needed to accurately interpret CLABSI trends over time and to inform changes to state and federal reporting programs. Whereas the MBI-LCBI definition may have a large impact on CLABSI rates in locations where patients with certain clinical conditions are cared for, the impact of MBI-LCBIs on overall CLABSI rates across inpatient locations appears to be more modest.
Investigation of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a hemodialysis facility revealed evidence that limited intrafacility transmission occurred despite adherence to published infection control standards for dialysis clinics. Outpatient dialysis facilities should consider CDI prevention, including environmental disinfection for C. difficile, when formulating their infection control plans.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(8):972–974