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Characterization of Ceftazidime-Avibactam-Resistant Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, United States, 2015–2017

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2020

Uzma Ansari
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Hannah E. Reses
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Julian Grass
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sandra Bulens, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Joelle Nadle
Affiliation:
California Emerging Infections Program
Chris Bower
Affiliation:
Georgia Emerging Infections Program/Foundation for Atlanta Veterans'
Jesse Jacob
Affiliation:
Emory University
Elisabeth Vaeth
Affiliation:
Maryland Department of Health
Medora Witwer
Affiliation:
Minnesota Department of Health
Emily Hancock
Affiliation:
University of New Mexico
Suzanne Dale
Affiliation:
ACM Global Laboratories
Ghinwa Dumyati
Affiliation:
University of Rochester
Zintars Beldavs
Affiliation:
Oregon Public Health Division
Daniel Muleta
Affiliation:
Tennessee Department of Health
Nadezhda Duffy
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Isaac See
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Joseph Lutgring
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Abstract

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major public health problem. Ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) is a treatment option for CRE approved in 2015; however, it does not have activity against isolates with metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Emerging resistance to CZA is a cause for concern. Our objective was to describe the microbiologic and epidemiologic characteristics of CZA-resistant (CZA-R) CRE. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 9 states participated in laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates from a normally sterile site or urine. A convenience sample of isolates from this surveillance were sent to the CDC for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using reference broth microdilution (BMD) including an MBL screen, species confirmation with MALDI-TOF, and real-time PCR to detect blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48–like genes. Additional AST by BMD was performed on CZA-R isolates using meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV), imipenem-relebactam (IMR), plazomicin (PLZ), and eravacycline (ERV). Epidemiologic data were obtained from a medical record review. Community-associated cases were defined as having no healthcare exposures in the year prior to culture, no devices in place 2 days prior to culture, and culture collected before calendar day 3 after hospital admission. Data were analyzed in 3 groups: CRE that were CZA-susceptible (CZA-S), CZA-R that were due to blaNDM, and CZA-R without blaNDM. Results: Among 606 confirmed CRE tested with CZA, 33 (5.4%) were CZA-R. Of the CZA-R isolates, 16 (48.5%) harbored a blaNDM gene, of which 2 coharbored blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes; 9 (27.3%) harbored only a blaKPC gene. Of the 17 CZA-R isolates without blaNDM, all were MBL screen negative. CZA-R due to blaNDM were more frequently community-associated (43.8%) than CZA-S or CZA-R without blaNDM (11.0% and 5.9%, respectively); a higher percentage of CZA-R cases due to blaNDM also had recent international travel (25%) compared to the other groups (1.8% and 5.9%, respectively). CZA-R without blaNDM were more susceptible to MEV (76%), IMR (71%), PLZ (88%), and ERV (65%) compared to CZA-R due to blaNDM (19%, 6%, 56%, and 44%, respectively). Conclusions: The emergence of CZA-R isolates without blaNDM are concerning; however, these isolates are more susceptible to newer antimicrobials than those with blaNDM. In addition to high rates of resistance to newer antimicrobials, isolates with blaNDM are more frequently community-associated than other CRE. This underscores the need for more aggressive measures to stop the spread of CRE.

Funding: None

Disclosures: None

Type
Poster Presentations
Copyright
© 2020 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.
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Characterization of Ceftazidime-Avibactam-Resistant Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, United States, 2015–2017
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