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To investigate the feasibility of using an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) robot for the terminal decontamination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient rooms.
We assessed the presence of viral RNA in samples from environmental surfaces before and after UV LED irradiation in COVID-19 patient rooms after patient discharge.
We analyzed 216 environmental samples from 17 rooms: 2 from airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 15 from isolation rooms in the community treatment center (CTC). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in 40 (18.5%) of 216 samples after patient discharge: 12 (33.3%) of 36 samples from AIIRs in the ICU, and 28 (15.6%) of 180 samples from isolation rooms in the CTC. In 1 AIIR, all samples were PCR negative after UV LED irradiation. In the CTC rooms, 14 (8.6%) of the 163 samples were PCR positive after UV LED irradiation. However, viable virus was not recovered from the culture of any of the PCR-positive samples.
Although no viable virus was recovered, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on various environmental surfaces. The use of a UV LED disinfection robot was effective in spacious areas such as an ICU, but its effects varied in small spaces like CTC rooms. These findings suggest that the UV LED robot may need enough space to disinfect rooms without recontamination by machine wheels or insufficient disinfection by shadowing.
Given the dynamic characteristic of an individual’s drinking behaviours, comprehensive consideration of alcohol consumption variation using repeated measures may improve insight into the nature of its association with blood pressure (BP) change. We examined the association between longitudinal alcohol consumption (trajectory and quantity) and changes in BP and pulse pressure (PP) among Korean aged ≥ 40 years living in rural areas. Totally, 1682 hypertension-free participants who completed all three health examinations (median, 5·3 years) were included. All three visits were used to determine the cumulative trajectory of and quantity of alcohol consumption and the latest two visits and the last visit were used for the recent trajectory and the most recent quantity of alcohol consumption, respectively. Changes in BP and PP from the baseline to the third visit were used as outcome. In men, ≥30 ml/d cumulative average alcohol consumption was associated with the greatest increase in systolic BP (SBP) in both baseline outcome-unadjusted (2·9 mmHg, P = 0·032) and -adjusted models (3·6 mmHg, P = 0·001), and the given association for the most recent alcohol consumption was observed in the baseline outcome-adjusted model (3·9 mmHg, P = 0·003). For PP, similar associations were observed only in the baseline outcome-adjusted model. No meaningful associations in diastolic BP in men and any BP or PP in women existed. The quantity of alcohol consumption rather than the trajectory may be significantly related to raised SBP, and a possible short-term influence of the most recent alcohol consumption may exist when baseline SBP is adjusted in men.
Simultaneous PET/MR/EEG (Positron Emission Tomography – Magnetic Resonance – Electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here within the framework of the European Union Project TRIMAGE. The trimodal, cost-effective PET/MR/EEG imaging tool makes use of cutting edge technology both in PET and in MR fields. A novel type of magnet (1.5T, non-cryogenic) has been built together with a PET scanner that makes use of the most advanced photodetectors (i.e., SiPM matrices), scintillators matrices (LYSO) and digital electronics. The combined PET/MR/EEG system is dedicated to brain imaging and has an inner diameter of 260 mm and an axial Field-of-View of 160 mm.
It enables the acquisition and assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. The dopaminergic system and the glutamatergic system in schizophrenic patients are investigated via PET, the same physiological/pathophysiological conditions with regard to functional connectivity, via fMRI, and its electrophysiological signature via EEG. In addition to basic neuroscience questions addressing neurovascular-metabolic coupling, this new methodology lays the foundation for individual physiological and pathological fingerprints for a wide research field addressing healthy aging, gender effects, plasticity and different psychiatric and neurological diseases.
The preliminary performances of two components of the imaging tool (PET and MR) are discussed. Initial results of the search of possible candidates for suitable schizophrenia biomarkers are also presented as obtained with PET/MR systems available to the collaboration.
We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an important medicinal herb and has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases worldwide. Understanding the genetic diversity within Glycyrrhiza species is important for the efficient conservation of these medicinal herbs. In this study, we have developed 20 polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers using the chloroplast genome of G. lepidota. The cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 27 Glycyrrhiza individual plants. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight among the Glycyrrhiza accessions. Overall, the Shannon index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.315 to 1.694, the diversity indices (h) were 0.140–0.793 and the unbiased diversity indices (uh) were 0.145–0.825. In addition, the cpSSR markers were successfully divided and classified the 27 Glycyrrhiza individuals into four groups. The cpSSR markers developed in this study could be used in the assessment of genetic diversity and rapid identification of Glycyrrhiza species.
Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 21 of 121 patients (17%) receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the median time of 6 days after initiation (interquartile range, 4–19 days). Longer duration of arterial catheterization and more blood transfusions were independently associated with BSI, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38–0·87, Pfor trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43–0·95, Pfor trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the unemployment experience and depressive symptoms among mid-aged (ages 45–59) and elderly (ages 60 or above) persons and to examine further the effects of unemployment insurance, industrial accident compensation insurance (IACI) and national pension on the stated relationship. Data were used from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1,536 individuals employed at the 2006 baseline were followed. The association between employment status change during 2006 to 2008, 2008 to 2010 or 2010 to 2012 and depressive symptoms in years 2008, 2010 or 2012 were analysed using a generalised estimating equation model. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scale. The results showed that the ‘employed to unemployed’ group had statistically significant increases in depression scores in the mid-aged (β = 0.4884, p = 0.0038) and elderly (β = 0.8275, p ⩽ 0.0001) categories, compared to the ‘employed to employed’ group. Findings were maintained in groups without a social safety net. Contrastingly, the ‘employed to unemployed’ groups with unemployment insurance and IACI did not show statistically significant increases in depression scores. The ‘employed to unemployed’ category of individuals enrolled in the national pension system exhibited a lower increase of depression. Therefore, an enhanced focus on the mental health of unemployed individuals is required, in addition to the provision of a reliable social safety net.
The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea’s modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389–393)
This study investigates the effects of learning orientation and global mindset on virtual team member’s willingness to cooperate. It also explores the mediating role of self-efficacy in these relationships. To test the hypothesized relationships, the study used a sample of 224 employees from five global companies in South Korea. The results show that while global mindset is directly and positively related to virtual team members’ willingness to cooperate, learning orientation is not. Self-efficacy serves as a mediator in these relationships. The study concludes with a discussion of the theoretical contributions and managerial implications for improving virtual team members’ cooperative behavior.
The thickness dependence of the electrical stability under monotonic and cyclic tensile loading is investigated for Cu films on polymer substrates. As for monotonic tensile deformation, thicker films show better stability than thinner films due to their higher ductility and the larger capability of strain accommodation. For the fatigue resistance, however, a more complex behavior was observed depending on the amount of the applied strain. For low strain amplitude in the high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime, thinner films exhibit longer fatigue life because the larger strength of thinner films suppresses dislocation movement and damage nucleation. However, for high strain amplitudes in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime, the fatigue life for thinner films is drastically reduced compared to thicker films. It is shown that fatigue coefficients in the LCF regime can be obtained when applying the Coffin–Manson relationship.
The Order Asaphida was grouped by the presence of a ventral median suture and a globular protaspis. The Superfamily Trinucleoidea has been assigned to the Order Asaphida, based on the recognition of a globular protaspis in the Ordovician representatives of the group, and the presence of a ventral median suture in the middle Cambrian genus Liostracina which has been regarded as a primitive sister-group to the post-Cambrian trinucleoideans. Recent studies demonstrate that the ventral median suture and the globular protaspis could have evolved multiple times in the trilobite evolutionary history, casting doubt on the traditional concept of the Order Asaphida. Inclusion of the Trinucleoidea into the Order Asaphida, therefore, has to be tested. It has recently been revealed that Liostracina simesi Jago and Cooper, 2005 did not possess a ventral median suture, implying that there could have been variable types of ventral suture within the genus Liostracina. Here we report the ontogeny of Liostracina tangwangzhaiensis n. sp. from the Cambrian Series 3 (middle Cambrian) strata of Shandong Province of North China. The material for this study includes protaspides, which are of flat, benthic morphology, contrasting to the globular protaspid morphology of the Ordovician trinucleoideans. The benthic protaspid morphology of L. tangwangzhaiensis indicates an independent evolution of the globular protaspis within the Superfamily Trinucleoidea. Together with the variable types of ventral suture within the genus Liostracina, the benthic protaspid morphology of Liostracina leads us to propose that the Superfamily Trinucleoidea be excluded from the Order Asaphida.
Magnetic bearings are oil-free bearings that are widely employed in turbo machineries such as turbo refrigerant compressors in order to eliminate lubrication systems, avoid contamination, and increase efficiency. We have developed a 145 refrigerant ton (RT)-class turbo refrigerant compressor using homopolar-type radial hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) and thrust magnetic bearings. The thrust magnetic bearing comprises a thrust HMB and a permanent magnet that generate downward forces to overcome high upward thrust forces of 2000 N at 21 000 rpm. A test rig and controller for the compressor with magnetic bearings were fabricated, and rotordynamics such as the unbalance response and axial displacement were investigated. Rotordynamics analyses using the finite element method predicted that the 1st bending mode is located at a high frequency with sufficient margin from the operating speeds. Further, the zero-to-peak displacement caused by the unbalanced response was sufficiently small. The rotor was stably supported with few vibrations across the entire range of the operational speeds. Our results demonstrate that the advantages of oil-free bearings can be easily exploited in turbo machineries such as turbo refrigerant compressors by adopting HMBs.
The Sesong Formation is a member of the Taebaek Group, Korea, which extends from late Cambrian Series 3 to middle Furongian in age. Recent studies on the trilobites of the Sesong Formation have contributed significantly to the revision of the biostratigraphy. However, trilobites in the lower part of the formation, which may include the “Stephanocare Zone”, have remained essentially overlooked since the establishment of the biozone, making it difficult to correlate with the equivalent biozones of North China. Here we report trilobite faunas from the lower part of the Sesong Formation in two different sections, the Seokgaejae and the Jikdong sections, which yield two species of Jiulongshania among other species. Species of Jiulongshania have been known to occur successively in North China, so are useful for detailed correlation. Specimens of Stephanocare richthofeni are fragmentary and rarely occur in association with Jiulongshania regularis, while Jiulongshania species occur throughout the studied intervals. Accordingly, it is reasonable to extend the previously established Jiulongshania Zone of the uppermost part of the underlying Daegi Formation into the lower part of the Sesong Formation. By doing so, the Jiulongshania Zone is correlated with the Blackwelderia Zone of North China with confidence. The lowermost part of the Sesong Formation in the Jikdong section yields a fauna including J. regularis, which implies that the boundary between the Daegi and Sesong formations is diachronous within the Taebaeksan Basin. The Daegi/Sesong formation boundary in Korea is comparable to the Zhangxia/Gushan boundary in North China in that it displays an abrupt change from a carbonate-dominant facies to a shale-dominant facies. The correlation employing the Jiulongshania species indicates that the facies shift occurred significantly earlier in Shandong, North China than in the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea.
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 99.9999% aluminum single crystal at room temperature was examined under frictionless deformation mode. To exclude the self-heating of the specimen due to applied high strain, a microcrack that localizes the stress at a very small region was intentionally introduced by controlled local necking. For the in situ observation of DRX, a specially designed in situ microdeformation device was positioned inside an electron backscattered diffraction system chamber. Recrystallized grains showed relatively random texture and preferred growth direction. The subgrains with low-angle grain boundaries formed by dynamic recovery transformed into small grains with high-angle grain boundaries, acting as nuclei for discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and growing by further deformation. The DRX in pure aluminum can take place under frictionless tensile deformation conditions at room temperature, and the stress localization and high purity are key issues for the DRX of aluminum at room temperature.
Band contrast (BC) is a qualitative measure of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), which is derived from the intensity of the Kikuchi bands. The BC is dependent upon several factors including scanning electron microscope measurement parameters, EBSD camera setup, and the specimen itself (lattice defect and grain orientation). In this study, the effective factors for BC variations and the feasibility of using BC variations for the quantification of microstructure evolutions have been investigated. In addition, the effects of the lattice defect and the grain orientation on the BC variations are studied. Next, a shear-deformed microstructure of 316L stainless steel, which contains nanosized grains and a large portion of twin boundaries, is revealed by BC map and histogram. Recovery and recrystallization of shear-deformed 316L stainless steel are displayed by BC variations during isothermal annealing at 700 and 800°C, respectively. It is observed that the BC turns bright as the shear-deformed crystal structure is recovered or recrystallized.
The development of the trilobite pygidium involves both an articulation process at the frontal part and the formation of new segments at the rear end, and hence the development of the meraspid pygidium entails complicated morphological changes. This study deals with the ontogeny of the Furongian (late Cambrian) ptychaspidid trilobite, Quadraticephalus elongatus (Kobayashi, 1935), from the Hwajeol Formation of the Taebaek Group, Taebaeksan Basin, Korea, with a special focus on the segmentation process during the meraspid pygidial development. Compared to the ontogeny of a ptychaspidid trilobite, Asioptychaspis subglobosa (Sun, 1924), which is assumed to be an ancestral species of Q. elongatus, the convexity of the cranidium of Q. elongatus increased in a slower rate; the yoked free cheek of Q. elongatus splits to form a ventral median suture in a later developmental stage; and, a rim-like ridge, which disappeared in the early holaspid pygidium of A. subglobosa, was maintained in the late holaspid period of Q. elongatus. These morphological changes with growth imply that paedomorphosis was involved in the evolution of Q. elongatus. Eleven stages are recognized for the meraspid pygidial development, which began with an accumulation phase during which the number of segments increased from three to seven, followed by an equilibrium phase with seven segments, and ended up with a depletion phase during which the number of segments within the pygidium decreased to four. During the depletion phase, the pygidial length did not increase or even slightly decreased. The onset of the epimorphic phase, in which the total number of trunk segments does not increase anymore, precedes the onset of the holaspid period, demonstrating that the developmental mode of Q. elongatus is protomeric.
Many studies conducted in Western societies indicated that work–family enrichment (WFE) and conflict influence employees' work performance positively and/or negatively. However, few studies have been conducted in collectivist, rapidly growing societies like Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which those work–family interface variables influence the work performance of employees within the Korean organizational context. We performed forward and backward translation procedure to develop the Korean language versions of the WFE scale, work–family conflict (WFC) scale, and other scales assessing life satisfaction and job performance. Data were collected from a sample of 425 workers from various for-profit firms and universities in Korea. For data analysis, basic descriptive analyses, item reliability and construct validity tests, and a two-step structural equation modeling (SEM) approach were employed to identify influential relationships among WFE/WFC, life satisfaction, and job performance. Results indicated that WFE was a significant factor influencing Korean workers' life satisfaction (WLS) and job performance, whereas WFC was not. Implications of the study findings, including the strategies for improving employee well-being within the Korean cultural context, were presented.