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The extinct family Hylicellidae, as the ancestral group of modern cicadomorphans, had a wide distribution and a very high species-level biodiversity from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. We herein report 11 new hylicellid specimens from the Jurassic Daohugou beds of Inner Mongolia, NE China, and execute geometric morphometric analysis (GMA) to elucidate their systematic position. Our GMA and subsequent morphometric statistics indicate that 10 of our new specimens can be compared to the holotype of Cycloscytina gobiensis, and one is new to science. Cycloscytina incompleta new species is erected based on this specimen, with the following discriminatory tegminal traits: C3 almost as long as and slightly narrower than C2, and the forking position of stem M distinctly migrates towards wing apex and much apicad of the stem CuA bifurcating. Additionally, Cycloscytina plachutai is herein transferred to the procercopid genus Procercopina, resulting in P. plachutai new combination. To date, just a few body structures of Hylicellidae have been revealed, and the new whole-bodied hylicellids reported herein provide some novel insights on the evolution of basal Clypeata. This study also emphasizes the use of morphometric analysis in the systematics of wing-bearing insects such as hylicellids.
The Lancang-Mekong River Basin (LMRB) is Asia's most important transboundary river. The precipitation-dependent agriculture and the world's largest inland fishery in the basin feed more than 70 million people. Floods are the main natural disasters which pose a serious threat to the local agriculture and human life. In the future, climate change will affect the streamflow and lead to changes in flood events. Based on the GMDF and GCM data, the SPI and the VIC model were used to assess the impact of climate change on streamflow and flood events during the historical (1985–2016) and future periods (2020–2050) in the LMRB. The results show that the LMRB will become more humid in the future and annual precipitation will change from about -2 to 6 per cent under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In the future, this basin should experience a higher flood risk, with more flood events and a relative increase in the flood peak and frequency reaching up to +15 and +58 per cent, respectively. This study contributes to improve our understanding of the role of climate change on streamflow and flood events and provides a scientific reference for the development of local water resources management in the LMRB.
Mounting evidence showed that insula contributed to the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorder (BD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of insular Mubregions and its association with personality traits in BD with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, we investigated the alterations of dFC variability in insular subregions and personality characteristics in BD patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA).
Thirty unmedicated BD patients with SA, 38 patients without SA (NSA) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each insular subregion seed. We assessed between-group differences of psychological characteristics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Finally, a multivariate regression model was adopted to predict the severity of suicidality.
Compared to NSA and HCs, the SA group exhibited decreased dFC variability values between the left dorsal anterior insula and the left anterior cerebellum. These dFC variability values could also be utilized to predict the severity of suicidality (r = 0.456, p = 0.031), while static functional connectivity values were not appropriate for this prediction. Besides, the SA group scored significantly higher on the schizophrenia clinical scales (p < 0.001) compared with the NSA group.
Our findings indicated that the dysfunction of insula–cerebellum connectivity may underlie the neural basis of SA in BD patients, and highlighted the dFC variability values could be considered a neuromarker for predictive models of the severity of suicidality. Moreover, the psychiatric features may increase the vulnerability of suicidal behavior.
The complex sea ice conditions in Arctic waters has different impacts on the legs of the Arctic passage, and ships of specific ice classes face different navigation risks. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of the navigation risks faced in different legs has important practical significance. Based on the POLARIS introduced by IMO, the sea ice condition data from 2011 to 2020 was used to quantify the navigation risk of the Arctic Northeast passage. The risk index outcome (RIO) of the Arctic Northeast Passage were calculated. The navigable windows of the route for ice class 1A ships sailing independently under different sea ice conditions in the last decade were determined, with a navigable period of 91 days under normal sea ice conditions, approximately 175 days under light sea ice conditions and only week 40 close to navigation under severe sea ice conditions. The three critical waters affecting the safety of ships were identified. Combined with the navigable windows and critical waters, recommendations on ship's navigation and manipulation and recommendations for stakeholders were given. The method and results provided reference and support for the assessment of the navigation risk of ships in the Northeast Passage and safety navigation and operations of ships, and satisfied the needs of relevant countries and enterprises to rationally arrange shipment dates and sailing plans based on different ice classes of ships.
We performed U–Pb dating of detrital zircons and conducted petrological and whole-rock geochemical analyses to assess the provenance of the Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic clastic rocks in the southeastern margin of the South China Block. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages are mainly classified into age groups of 2000–1700, 900–700, 490–390 and 280–210 Ma, consistent with derivation from the Jiangnan orogenic belt, Nanling Belt, as well as Wuyi and Yunkai domains. Lower Jurassic samples yield a special main age population of 200–190 Ma, and these detrital zircon grains have low Th/U and Nb/Hf ratios and high Th/Nb and Hf/Th ratios, showing they are derived from a continental magmatic arc. However, the cross-correlation and likeness coefficients of kernel density estimates of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic sandstones are 0.8608 and 0.8403, indicating that their populations are highly similar. Since the tectonic setting is the key factor in controlling the relationship between source and sink, the stable supply of identical provenance suggests that the tectonic setting did not significantly change during Late Triassic – Early Jurassic time. Sandstone petrography, regional facies distribution and the detrital zircon age patterns all reflect a consistent tectonic setting for the South China Block during Late Triassic – Early Jurassic time. The Palaeo-Pacific subduction therefore did not control the tectonic evolution of the South China Block until after the Early Jurassic Epoch.
Extensive magmatism in NE China, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, has produced multi-stage granitic plutons and accompanying W mineralization. The Narenwula complex in the southwestern Great Xing’an Range provides important insights into the petrogenesis, geodynamic processes and relationship with W mineralization. The complex comprises granodiorites, monzogranites and granite porphyry. Mafic microgranular enclaves are common in the granodiorites, and have similar zircon U–Pb ages as their host rocks (258.5–253.9 Ma), whereas the W-bearing granitoids yield emplacement ages of 149.8–148.1 Ma. Permian granodiorites are I-type granites that are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, and depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements. Both the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites have nearly identical zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The results suggest that the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites formed by the mixing of mafic and felsic magmas. W-bearing granitoids are highly fractionated A-type granites, enriched in Rb, Th, U and Pb, and depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu. They have higher W concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios, and lower Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and K/Rb ratios than the W-barren granodiorites. These data and negative ϵHf(t) values (–6.0 to –2.1) suggest that they were derived from the partial melting of ancient lower crust and subsequently underwent extreme fractional crystallization. Based on the regional geology, we propose that the granodiorites were generated in a volcanic arc setting related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, whereas the W-bearing granitoids and associated deposits formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting controlled by the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and Palaeo-Pacific Ocean tectonic regimes.
Dissipative solitons have been realized in mode-locked fiber lasers in the theoretical framework of the Ginzburg–Landau equation and have significantly improved the pulse energy and peak power levels of such lasers. It is interesting to explore whether dissipative solitons exist in optical parametric oscillators in the framework of three-wave coupling equations in order to substantially increase the performance of optical parametric oscillators. Here, we demonstrate a temporal-filtering dissipative soliton in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator. The temporal-gain filtering of the pump pulse combined with strong cascading nonlinearity and dispersion in the optical parametric oscillator enables the generation of a broad spectrum with a nearly linear chirp; consequently, a significantly compressed pulse and high peak power can be realized after dechirping outside the cavity. Furthermore, we realized, for the first time, dissipative solitons in an optical system with a negative nonlinear phase shift and anomalous dispersion, extending the parameter region of dissipative solitons. The findings may open a new research block for dissipative solitons and provide new opportunities for mid-infrared ultrafast science.
Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional changes of the hippocampus in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of hippocampal subregions in melancholic MDD. We aimed to reveal the patterns for dFC variability in hippocampus subregions – including the bilateral rostral and caudal areas and its associations with cognitive impairment in melancholic MDD.
Forty-two treatment-naive MDD patients with melancholic features and 55 demographically matched healthy controls were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each hippocampal subregions seed. We assessed between-group differences in the dFC variability values of each hippocampal subregion in the whole brain and cognitive performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Finally, association analysis was conducted to investigate their relationships.
Patients with melancholic MDD showed decreased dFC variability between the left rostral hippocampus and left anterior lobe of cerebellum compared with healthy controls (voxel p < 0.005, cluster p < 0.0125, GRF corrected), and poorer cognitive scores in working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, and social cognition (all p < 0.05). Association analysis showed that working memory was positively correlated with the dFC variability values of the left rostral hippocampus-left anterior lobe of the cerebellum (r = 0.338, p = 0.029) in melancholic MDD.
These findings confirmed the distinct dynamic functional pathway of hippocampal subregions in patients with melancholic MDD, and suggested that the dysfunction of hippocampus-cerebellum connectivity may be underlying the neural substrate of working memory impairment in melancholic MDD.
This chapter presents an overview of how government, corporations and other actors are approaching the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI) governance and ethics across China, Europe, India and the United States of America. Recent policy documents and other initiatives from these regions, both from public sector agencies and private companies such as Microsoft are documented and a brief analysis is offered.
Dietary patterns high in fat contribute to the onset of cardiometabolic disease through the accrual of adipose tissue (AT). Lycopene, a carotenoid shown to exert multiple health benefits, may disrupt these metabolic perturbations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate AT development and obesity-associated metabolic outcomes in the neonate and weanling offspring of Sprague-Dawley mothers fed a high-fat diet (HFD = 50 % fat) with and without lycopene supplementation. Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a normal fat diet (NFD; 25 % fat) or HFD throughout gestation. Upon delivery, half of HFD mothers were transitioned to an HFD supplemented with 1 % lycopene (HFDL). At postnatal day 14 (P14), P25, and P35, pups were euthanised, body weight was recorded, and visceral white AT (WAT) and brown AT (BAT) mass were determined. Serum redox status, adipokines, glucose and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated, as well as BAT mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The HFD was effective in inducing weight gain as evident by significantly greater BW and WAT in the HFD group compared to the NFD group across all time points. Compared to HFD, the HFDL group exhibited significantly greater BAT with concomitant reductions in WAT mass, serum lipid peroxides and serum glucose. No significant differences were observed in serum adipokines, inflammatory markers or UCP1 expression despite the aforementioned alterations in AT development. Results suggest that dietary lycopene supplementation may influence metabolic outcomes during the weaning and post-weaning periods. Additional research is warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which lycopene influences AT biology.
Preschooler inactivity and insufficient motor development have serious long-term consequences. The Chinese Ministry of Education launched a nationwide football-focused pilot project aimed at kindergartens in 2019 and issued the policy “Notice on the Establishment of National Football Kindergartens” in 2020. However, the impact of fundamental movement skills (FMS) interventions on other aspects of child development is unclear.
This study will evaluate the effects of ball skills physical education projects on the development of Chinese preschoolers’ physical, motor, cognitive, and social competencies and examine the influencing factors.
This is a quasi-experimental study evaluating how well the “Hello Sunshine” curriculum project promotes children’s development over 10 weeks. The trial will be conducted from September 2021 to November 2021 in 12 classes from 3 kindergartens with a total of 249 children aged 4 to 6 years in Haikou, China. Pre- and posttest analyses will include tests on participants’ physical fitness, FMS, cognitive self-regulation, and emotional competence. Participants’ background information will be collected through questionnaires answered by parents and teachers. The intervention will focus on game-based basic ball skills.
If this intervention provides evidence that these skills improve children’s multidimensional development, it will support the promotion of similar programs in China. We will also outline the social-ecological factors affecting the intervention’s results, providing further information for improving pedagogical methods related to preschool ball skills.
Celestial navigation is an important means of maritime navigation; it can automatically achieve inertially referenced positioning and orientation after a long period of development. However, the impact of different accuracy of observations and the influence of nonstationary states, such as ship speed change and steering, are not taken into account in existing algorithms. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptively robust maritime celestial navigation algorithm, in which each observation value is given an equivalent weight according to the robust estimation theory, and the dynamic balance between astronomical observation and prediction values of vessel motion is adjusted by applying the adaptive factor. With this system, compared with the frequently used least square method and extended Kalman filter algorithm, not only are the real-time and high-precision navigation parameters, such as position, course, and speed for the vessel, calculated simultaneously, but also the influence of abnormal observation and vessel motion status change could be well suppressed.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
Although many organizations encourage employees to voice, employees may be reluctant to voice directly because they are afraid that their supervisors will perceive it as challenging their face (i.e., the positive image or social value of an individual). Alternatively, employees could deliver improvements or express concerns to their supervisors using indirect and implicit approaches, which we refer to as ‘implicit voice delivery’. Applying face theory, we examine the antecedents and outcomes as well as two boundary conditions of implicit voice delivery in organizations with two studies. In Study 1, we define the construct and develop a measure of implicit voice delivery. In Study 2, we test our proposed model with supervisor-subordinate dyadic data from a time-lagged survey. Results demonstrate that concern for other people's face drives employees to express their voices implicitly and that this relationship is stronger when supervisors’ concern for their own face is high rather than low. In addition, implicit voice delivery is associated with supervisors’ favorable response in terms of voice endorsement. Furthermore, the effect on voice endorsement is stronger when the supervisor is more able to infer meaning from implicit messages. Theoretical contribution and managerial implications are discussed.
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a key role in diabetes development and prognosis through its role in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death as well as in upregulating the inflammatory response in hyperglycemia. DNA methylation (DNAm) of TXNIP (TXNIP-cg19693031) is associated with the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, its role in inflammation and its relationship with T2D remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the epigenetic associations of TXNIP-cg19693031 with a panel of inflammatory biomarkers and to examine whether these inflammatory biomarkers modify the association between TXNIP-cg19693031 methylation and diabetes in 218 middle-aged male twins from the Emory Twin Study. We confirmed the association of TXNIP-cg19693031 DNAm with T2D, as well as with HbA1c, insulin and fasting glucose. We found that hypomethylation at TXNIP-cg19693031 is strongly associated with both type 2 diabetes and higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MMP-2, sRAGE and P-selectin); however, the relationship between TXNIP-cg19693031 and T2D is independent of the levels of these inflammatory biomarkers. Our results suggest that DNA methylation of TXNIP is linked with multiple biological processes, through which the TXNIP may have broad influence on chronic disease risk.
Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment often coexisted in the elderly. This study investigates the effect of late-life depressive symptoms on risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
A total of 14,231 dementia- and MCI free participants aged 60+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe were followed-up for 10 years to detect incident MCI. MCI was defined as 1.5 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the standardized global cognition score. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a 12-item Europe-depression scale (EURO-D). Severity of depressive symptoms was grouped as: no/minimal (score 0–3), moderate (score 4–5), and severe (score 6–12). Significant depressive symptoms (SDSs) were defined as EURO-D score ≥ 4.
During an average of 8.2 (SD = 2.4)-year follow-up, 1,352 (9.50%) incident MCI cases were identified. SDSs were related to higher MCI risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.10–1.44) in total population, individuals aged 70+ (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14–1.61) and women (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.08–1.51) in Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for confounders. In addition, there was a dose–response association between the severity of depressive symptoms and MCI incidence in total population, people aged ≥70 years and women (p-trend <0.001).
Significant depressive symptoms were associated with higher incidence of MCI in a dose–response fashion, especially among people aged 70+ years and women. Treating depressive symptoms targeting older population and women may be effective in preventing MCI.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.