To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies have yielded mixed findings regarding the effect of familiar and novel L2 graphemes on learners’ phonological encoding. The current study investigated this topic by comparing the effect of Pinyin and Chinese characters on English speakers’ Mandarin word learning. Different from previous research, this study examined both segmental and tonal encoding and compared participants from different Mandarin proficiency levels. Seventeen Advanced learners, 29 Intermediate learners, and 21 Naïve English speakers participated in a word-learning experiment in which half of the participants were exposed to the Pinyin spelling of the target words while the other half to characters. After the learning phase, they did a meaning – auditory stimulus matching task. Half of the stimuli were complete matches, while in the other half the stimulus mismatched the target either in segments or tones. The results revealed that at the Advanced level, the Character group was more accurate than the Pinyin group in rejecting tonal mismatches to the target words, while the opposite tendency was observed at the Naïve level. This study suggests that novel graphemes facilitate advanced L2 learners’ tonal encoding more than familiar graphemes, which is probably due to the unique nature of Chinese characters.
To improve Antarctic sea-ice simulations and estimations, an ensemble-based Data Assimilation System for the Southern Ocean (DASSO) was developed based on a regional sea ice–ocean coupled model, which assimilates sea-ice thickness (SIT) together with sea-ice concentration (SIC) derived from satellites. To validate the performance of DASSO, experiments were conducted from 15 April to 14 October 2016. Generally, assimilating SIC and SIT can suppress the overestimation of sea ice in the model-free run. Besides considering uncertainties in the operational atmospheric forcing data, a covariance inflation procedure in data assimilation further improves the simulation of Antarctic sea ice, especially SIT. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of assimilating sea-ice observations in reconstructing the state of Antarctic sea ice, but also highlight the necessity of more reasonable error estimation for the background as well as the observation.
To present the clinical characteristics and dynamic changes in laboratory parameters of the COVID-19 in Guangzhou, and explore the probable early warning indicators of disease progressing.
We enrolled all the patients diagnosed as COVID-19 in the Guangzhou No. 8 People’s Hospital. The patients’ demographic, and epidemiologic data were collected, including chief complaints, lab results and imaging examination.
The characteristics of the patients in Guangzhou are different from that in Wuhan. They were younger in age, female dominated, not commonly combined with other disease. 75% of patients suffered fever on admission, followed by cough occurring in 62% patients. By comparing the mild/normal and severe/critical patients, male, aged, combined with hypertension, abnormal in blood routine result, raised creatine kinase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, CRP, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, APTT, and positive in proteinuria can be candidate of early warning indicators to severe disease.
The patients in outside epidemic areas showed different characteristics from that in Wuhan. The abnormal laboratory parameters were markedly changed in 4 weeks after admission, and also shown different between the mild and severe patients. The highest specificity and sensitivity potential early warning indicators of severe disease need more evidence to confirm.
The debate about extending working lives in response to population ageing often overlooks the lack of employment opportunity for older adults with disabilities. Without work, their living standards depend heavily on government transfers. This study contributes to the literature on health inequalities by analysing the sources of income and poverty outcomes for people aged 50 to 64 in two liberal democratic countries yet with contrasting disability benefit contexts – Canada and the United Kingdom. This choice of countries offers the opportunity to assess whether the design of benefit systems has led the most disadvantaged groups to fare differently between countries. Overall, disabled older persons without work faced a markedly higher risk of poverty in Canada than in the UK. Public transfers played a much greater role in the UK, accounting for two-thirds of household income among low-educated groups, compared with one-third in Canada. The average benefit amount received was similar in both countries, but the coverage of disabled people was much lower in Canada than in the UK, leading to a high poverty risk among disabled people out of work. Our findings highlight the importance of income support systems in preventing the widening of the poverty-disability gap at older ages.
Fast and accurate unveiling of power-line outages is of paramount importance not only for preventing faults that may lead to blackouts but also for routine monitoring and control tasks of the smart grid. This chapter presents a sparse overcomplete model to represent the effects of (potentially multiple) power line outages on synchronized bus voltage angle measurements. Based on this model, efficient compressive sensing algorithms can be adopted to identify outaged lines at linear complexity of the total number of lines. Furthermore, the effects of uncertainty in synchronized measurements will be analyzed, along with the optimal placement of measurement units.
We investigate the dynamics of a self-rewetting drop placed on a substrate with a constant temperature gradient via three-dimensional numerical simulations using a conservative level-set approach to track the interface of the drop. The surface tension of a so-called self-rewetting fluid exhibits a parabolic dependence on temperature with a well-defined minimum. Two distinct drop behaviours, namely deformation and elongation, are observed when it is placed at the location of the minimum surface tension. The drop spreads slightly and reaches a pseudo-steady state in the deformation regime, while it continuously spreads until breakup in the elongation regime. Theoretical models based on the forces exerted on the drop have been developed to predict the critical condition at which the drop undergoes the transition between the two regimes, and the predictions are in good agreement with the numerical results. We also investigate the effect of the initial position of the drop with respect to the location of the minimum surface tension on the spreading and migration dynamics. It is found that, at early times, the migration of the drop obeys an exponential function with time, but it diverges at the later stage due to an increase in the drop deformation.
Steam jet milling was applied for the first time to ultra-fine grind the filter cake (moisture content 23.80%) produced by a kaolin concentrator. The material was dehydrated and dried simultaneously during grinding, and the final ground sample met the moisture content requirement for powder products of <2%. The particle size of the ground kaolin samples decreased and the particle-size distribution was more concentrated, indicating that the steam jet milling was more effective for kaolin processing than the conventional dry grinding process. In addition, steam jet milling can improve the whiteness and decrease the crystal order of the samples, thus improving the kaolin properties in follow-up applications.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
Post-procedural right ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening complication of interventional catheterisation. We describe a 3-day-old newborn who underwent transcatheter intervention for pulmonary atresia with a complication of right ventricular pseudoaneurysms, and transcatheter embolisation of the pseudoaneurysms was performed at 3-week-old. It is the first described case that receives transcatheter closure of right ventricular pseudoaneurysms in a newborn with a favourable outcome.
This chapter reports preliminary results of an acoustic analysis of fricatives in American English produced by native Japanese-speaking adults and children. The data were from 16 native Japanese (NJ) adults and 16 NJ children as well as 16 native English-speaking (NE) adults and NE children. All 64 participants were tested twice, one year apart, to study NJ adults’ and children’s learning of English. Their production of /s/ in the word ‘six’ was acoustically analyzed. Noise duration (absolute and normalized), fricative intensity, and center of gravity (CoG) were measured. For duration, the NJ adults’ /s/ was longer than the NE adults’ /s/ in both absolute duration and normalized duration. The CoG values were greater in the NE adults’ and children’s /s/ than in the NJ adults’ and children’s /s/. Noise amplitude was greater in the NE speakers’ /s/ than in the NJ speakers’ /s/. These results suggest that the NJ speakers’ /s/ was slightly more back than the NE speakers’ /s/ productions and that the NE speakers’ /s/ was more sibilant than the NJ speakers’ /s/. In addition, the noise amplitude increased significantly over the course of one year in the NJ children’s productions.
GBF1 [Golgi brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor 1] is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Arf family. GBF1 localizes at the cis-Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment where it participates in ER-Golgi traffic by assisting in the recruitment of the coat protein COPI. However, the roles of GBF1 in oocyte meiotic maturation are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory functions of GBF1 in mouse oocyte organelle dynamics. In our results, GBF1 was stably expressed during oocyte maturation, and GBF1 localized at the spindle periphery during metaphase I. Inhibiting GBF1 activity led to aberrant accumulation of the Golgi apparatus around the spindle. This may be due to the effects of GBF1 on the localization of GM130, as GBF1 co-localized with GM130 and inhibiting GBF1 induced condensation of GM130. Moreover, the loss of GBF1 activity affected the ER distribution and induced ER stress, as shown by increased GRP78 expression. Mitochondrial localization and functions were affected, as the mitochondrial membrane potential was altered. Taken together, these results suggest that GBF1 has wide-ranging effects on the distribution and functions of Golgi apparatus, ER, and mitochondria as well as normal polar body formation in mouse oocytes.
The high overall plant-based diet index (PDI) is considered to protect against type 2 diabetes in the general population. However, whether the PDI affects gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among pregnant women is still unclear. We evaluated the association between PDI and GDM risk based on a Chinese large prospective cohort – the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary data were collected at 13–28 weeks of pregnancy by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The PDI was obtained by assigning plant food groups positive scores while assigning animal food groups reverse scores. GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate OR of GDM, with associated 95 % CI, comparing women in different PDI quartiles. Among the total 2099 participants, 169 (8·1 %) were diagnosed with GDM. The PDI ranged from 21·0 to 52·0 with a median of 36·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 33·0–39·0). After adjusting for social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors etc., the participants with the highest quartile of PDI were associated with 57 % reduced odds of GDM compared with women in the lowest quartile of PDI (adjusted OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·77; Pfor trend = 0·005). An IQR increment in PDI was associated with 29 % decreased odds of GDM (adjusted OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·90). Findings suggest that adopting a plant-based diet during pregnancy could reduce GDM risk among Chinese women, which may be valuable for dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
We report the use of aqueous microdroplets to accelerate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), and we present a simple, ultrafast approach named DNA fragment mass fingerprinting to discriminate different DNA sequences by comparing their fragment mass patterns. DNA fragmentation in tiny microdroplets, which was produced by electrosonically spraying (+3 kV) a room temperature aqueous solution containing 10 μM DNA and 10 μg ml−1 DNase I from a homemade setup, takes less than 1 ms. High differentiation/identification fidelity could be obtained by applying a cosine correlation measure for similarity assessment between two fragment mass patterns, which compares both mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) with an error tolerance of 5 ppm and the peaks’ relative intensities. A single-nucleotide mutation in the sequence of bases, as exemplified by the sickle cell anemia mutation, is differentiated by setting a cutoff value of similarity at 90%. The order change of two adjacent bases in the sequence could still be well discriminated with a similarity of only 62% between the fragment mass patterns of the two similar sequences, which have the same molecular weights and thus cannot be differentiated by gel electrophoresis or direct mass detection by mass spectrometry. Compared to traditional genotyping methods, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the identification process with our approach could be completed within several minutes without any other expensive and complicated reagents or experimental steps. The potential of our approach for convenient and fast microbe genetic discrimination or identification is further demonstrated by differentiating the Orf1ab gene fragments of two similar coronaviruses with a very high sequence homologous rate of 96%, SARS-CoV-2 and bat-SL-CoVZC45, with a similarity of 0% between their fragment mass patterns.
We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel scheme for efficient mid-infrared difference-frequency generation based on passively synchronized fiber lasers. The adoption of coincident seeding pulses in the nonlinear conversion process could substantially lower the pumping threshold for mid-infrared parametric emission. Consequently, a picosecond mid-infrared source at 3.1 μm was prepared with watt-level average power, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 77% was realized from pump to down-converted light. Additionally, the long-term stability of generated power was manifested with a relative fluctuation as low as 0.17% over one hour. Thanks to the all-optical passive synchronization and all-polarization-maintaining fiber architecture, the implemented laser system was also featured with simplicity, compactness and robustness, which would favor subsequent applications beyond laboratory operation.
Major progress has recently been made regarding the biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and isotope chemostratigraphy of the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia, in particular of the Arrowie Basin, which has facilitated robust global stratigraphic correlations. However, lack of faunal and sedimentological data from the lower Cambrian Normanville Group in the eastern Stansbury Basin, South Australia – particularly the transition from the Fork Tree Limestone to the Heatherdale Shale – has prevented resolution of the age range, lithofacies, depositional environments and regional correlation of this succession. Here we present detailed sedimentologic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data through this transition in the eastern Stansbury Basin. Three lithofacies are identified that indicate a deepening depositional environment ranging from inner-mid-shelf (Lithofacies A and B) to outer shelf (Lithofacies C). New δ13C chemostratigraphic data capture global positive excursion III within the lower Heatherdale Shale. Recovered bradoriid Sinskolutella cuspidata supports an upper Stage 2 (Micrina etheridgei Zone). The combined geochemistry and palaeontology data reveal that the lower Heatherdale Shale is older than previously appreciated. This integrated study improves regional chronostratigraphic resolution and interbasinal correlation, and better constrains the depositional setting of this important lower Cambrian package from the eastern Stansbury Basin, South Australia.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases threatening the health of Chinese residents. Insufficient glycemic control results in inevitable and sometimes irreversible complications. The condition can be more complicated for patients with comorbidities. To maintain appropriate glycemic control, patients may need to add or switch to different classes of drugs as the disease progresses. The complicated drug treatment for diabetes poses a high risk for drug-drug interactions and challenges patient compliance, which is the most important factor affecting the ability to achieve glycemic control. In addition, T2DM is a life-long disease that is associated with a heavy economic burden for patients’ families and for society. Therefore, this paper aims to characterize the complexity of prescribed medications used to treat T2DM and to assess the trends in the number of complications, medications used, and costs incurred among these patients.
Data were retrieved from two tertiary hospitals. The population consisted of patients receiving at least one diagnosis of diabetes (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes: E11, E12, E13, and E14) between October 2007 and May 2017. Three measures were assessed, including the number of patients with different complications, concomitant drug use, and costs. Patients with a short disease duration (< 5 years) were compared with patients who had a longer disease duration (≥ 5 years).
Of 31,071 patients, about half of those with a longer disease duration had at least five concomitant diseases, compared with nine percent of patients with a shorter disease duration. The maximum number of concomitant diseases was nine for both disease duration groups. Patients with longer disease duration were more likely to use multiple classes of drugs, compared with patients in the short disease duration group. The average annual medical costs for patients without concomitant disease was CNY 1,894 (USD 265).
Overall, the results demonstrated that T2DM is a relatively complex disease. Firstly, patients have up to nine concomitant diseases and use twenty-two classes of drugs. Secondly, patients with more complications tended to use more medications. Thirdly, patients with a longer disease duration tend to have a higher number of concomitant diseases, use more classes of drugs, and have higher medical costs than patients with a shorter disease duration.
Under the national guidance of Internet Plus Healthcare, Internet hospital was officially recognized in 2018 by the Chinese government, however, how to innovate the business models of Internet hospitals remains controversial. This study sought to explore key stakeholders’ perspectives on key dilemmas about innovative business models of Internet hospitals in China.
A focus group study of key stakeholders was performed. Twelve key stakeholders (six senior officials from related ministries, two industry practitioners of Internet medicine, one hospital leader, two healthcare researchers (financing and policy), and one venture capital manager) participated in the focus group, in 2019. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis.
Themes highlighted six key dilemmas when developing a business model of Internet hospitals, including (i) value proposition (medical treatment versus entire health management); (ii) leading party (hospitals versus third parties such as Internet companies); (iii) level of healthcare (tertiary versus primary); (iv) scope of service (provide full range versus part of traditional hospital service); (v) primary source of revenue (medical services versus drug sales); and (vi) legal liability (web-based unit versus physical hospital).
The healthcare industry is currently in search of innovative business models of Internet hospitals in response to the unprecedented form of healthcare in China. However, the core aspects of the model design still remain debatable. At this revolutionary stage, policies are important to allow the implementation of different model designs that support the successful transformation of the entire health care system in China.
Self-localization in highly dynamic environments is still a challenging problem for humanoid robots with limited computation resource. In this paper, we propose a dual-channel unscented particle filter (DC-UPF)-based localization method to address it. A key novelty of this approach is that it employs a dual-channel switch mechanism in measurement updating procedure of particle filter, solving for sparse vision feature in motion, and it leverages data from a camera, a walking odometer, and an inertial measurement unit. Extensive experiments with an NAO robot demonstrate that DC-UPF outperforms UPF and Monte–Carlo localization with regard to accuracy.
Mainland China has not adopted the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law, nor has it permitted ad hoc arbitration. Yet, arbitration in China is developing rapidly. According to the data released by the Ministry of Justice on March 2019, at the end of 2018 there were 255 arbitration commissions established with more than 60,000 staff members in mainland China.1 The caseload of 2018 is 540,000, which was a 127 percent increase compared to that in 2017.2 The stakes involved in 2018 are around 700 billion RMB.3 Since the promulgation of the Chinese Arbitration Law (CAL) in 1994, domestic arbitral commissions have handled over 2.6 million cases involving more than seventy countries/regions.4 Additionally, judicial review of arbitration in China has undergone changes over the last decades. The Chinese Arbitration Law has gone through heated discussions of amendment, and the Supreme People’s Court’s (SPC) judicial interpretations have contributed significantly to the development of Chinese arbitration. With the acceleration of open-up policy and the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China endeavors to elevate its international image by providing fair, transparent, and efficient judicial services for international dispute resolution. Judicial attitude toward arbitration becomes more open minded than ever before. In earlier days, foreign investors had little information on the prospects of enforceability of arbitral awards in mainland China. The uncertainty inevitably affected their decisions on whether to choose arbitration as a dispute resolution mechanism when doing business with Chinese counterparts.