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Hispanic adults in the USA tend to have a disproportionate prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared to other races.
We examined whether the association between acculturation and MetS and its components are mediated by the intake of fruit in Hispanics.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2016 were used in this study.
A total of 2078 Hispanics aged ≥ 20 years were included in this analysis.
The mediating role of total fruit intake was assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic structural equation models with the bootstrapping method by estimating indirect (IE) and direct (DE) effects from acculturation to MetS. High acculturation was associated with increased odds of MetS (adjusted OR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·39), central obesity (OR = 1·24, 95 % CI 1·07, 1·44) and high blood pressure (OR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·32) among Hispanic adults. Total fruits intake partially mediated the associations of acculturation with MetS (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) and central obesity (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03), whereas fully mediated the association between acculturation and high blood pressure (ORIE = 1·03, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·06). Moreover, intake of total fruits fully mediated the acculturation–MetS association among Mexican Americans (ORIE = 1·02, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·05).
Our findings suggested that increasing fruit consumption may reduce the impact of high acculturation on MetS development in Hispanic adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
This paper presents a simple and highly visual approach for the type synthesis of a family of overconstrained parallel mechanisms that have one translational and two rotational movement capabilities. It considers, especially, mechanisms offering the accuracy and dynamic response needed for machining applications. This family features a spatial limb plus a member of a class of planar symmetrical linkages, the latter connected by a revolute joint either to the machine frame at its base link or to the platform at its output link. Criteria for selecting suitable structures from among numerous candidates are proposed by considering the realistic practical requirements for reconfigurability, movement capability, rational component design and so on. It concludes that a few can simultaneously fulfil the proposed criteria, even though a variety of structures have been presented in the literature. Exploitation of the proposed structures and evaluation criteria then leads to a novel five degrees of freedom hybrid module named TriMule. A significant potential advantage of the TriMule over the Tricept arises because all the joints connecting the base link and the machine frame can be integrated into one single, compact part, leading to a lightweight, cost effective and flexible design particularly suitable for configuring various robotized manufacturing cells.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
A systematic study, using ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry, is presented for the photo-dissociation processes of Bisanthenquinone (Bq) cations, C28H12O2+, a ketone substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH). The Bq cation fragments through sequential loss of the two neutral carbonyl (CO) units upon laser (626nm) irradiation, resulting in a PAH-like derivative C26H12+. Upon further irradiation, C26H12+ exhibits both stepwise dehydrogenation and C2/C2H2 loss fragmentation channels. Quantum chemistry calculations reveal a detailed picture for the first CO-loss, which involves a transition state with a barrier of ∼ 3.4 eV, which is lower than the energy required for the lowest H-loss pathway (∼ 5.0 eV). The barrier for the second CO-loss is higher (∼ 4.9 eV). The subsequent loss of this unit changes the Bq geometry from a planar to a bent one. It is concluded that the photodissociation mechanism of the substituted PAH cations studied here is site selective in the substituted subunit. This work also shows that an acetone substituted PAH cation is not photo-stable upon irradiation.
In this work, we utilize a method based on Wang-Landau Monte Carlo sampling for studying the temperature effects of astrophysically relavant molecules. Anharmonic effects, e.g., resonances, overtones, and combination bands, are fully incoportated in this method. The calculated infrared (IR) spectra are consistent with the experimental data measured by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are progressively used for decentralized electricity generation. To obtain the maximum yield from such systems, optimisation of all components is essential. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive modelling and sizing of PV systems for any location. Three applications are here presented providing real time monitoring of PV potential, accurate prediction of yield taking into account thermodynamic temperature effects, optimization of modules orientation addressing the effects of shading and efficient sizing of inverter for a higher yield output. When combined, these models can accurately predict the real time performance of any PV system.
The impact of nanostructured broadband antireflection (AR) coatings on solar panel performance has been projected for a broad range of panel tilt angles at various locations. AR coated films have been integrated on test panels and the short-circuit current has been measured for the entire range of panel tilts. The integration of the AR coatings resulted in an increase in short-circuit current of the panels by eliminating front sheet reflection loss for a broad spectrum of light and wide angle of light incidence. The short-circuit current enhancement is 5% for normal light incidence and approximately 20% for off-angle light incidence. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM) predicts that this AR coating can yield at least 6.5% improvement in solar panel annual power output. The greatest enhancement, approximately 14%, is predicted for vertical panels. The AR coating’s contributions to vertical mount panels and building-integrated solar panels are significant. This nanostructured broadband AR coating thus has the potential to lower the cost per watt of photovoltaic solar energy.
Flexible copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on lightweight substrates can deliver high specific powers. Flexible lightweight CIGS solar cells are also primary candidates for building-integrated panels. In all applications, CIGS cells can greatly benefit from the application of broadband and wide-angle AR coating technology. The AR coatings can significantly improve the transmittance of light over the entire CIGS absorption band spectrum. Increased short-circuit current has been observed after integrating AR coated films onto baseline solar panels. NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM) has predicted up to 14% higher annual power output on AR integrated vertical or building-integrated panels. The combination of lightweight flexible substrates and advanced device designs employing nanostructured optical coatings together have the potential to achieve flexible CIGS modules with enhanced efficiencies and specific power.
Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests. The effects of heat stress temperature (33, 36, and 39 °C), duration of exposure (2, 4, 6, and 8 h), and developmental stage during exposure (embryo-first instar larvae, second instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae) on the development and reproduction of parasitoid T. bactrae were investigated in the laboratory. When exposed to 39 °C for 8 h during pupal stage, only 19.90% adults emerged from host eggs, and more than 14% were deformed (wings were folded or incomplete). Parasitoid females exposed to 39 °C for 8 h as prepupae only lived for 1.45 days and parasitized about 23.5 host eggs. Moreover, life-table parameters of T. bactrae were also influenced by exposure to heat stress temperatures during each preimaginal developmental stage. Based on these results, we propose that T. bactrae is susceptible to high temperatures, especially at 39 °C. Thus, this parasitoid may be more effectively controlling lepidopterous pests during cooler weather conditions.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
Understanding blood flow in human body’s cerebral arterial system is of both fundamental and practical significance for prevention and treatment of vascular diseases. The mechanism and treatment for the growth of daughter aneurysm on its mother aneurysm are not yet fully understood. Themain purpose of the present paper is to elucidate the relationships between hemodynamics and the genesis, growth, subsequent rupture of the mother and daughter aneurysm on the cerebral vascular. The intensified stents with different porosities and structures are investigated to reduce the wall shear stress and pressure of mother and daughter aneurysm. The simulation is based on a lattice Boltzmann modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow. A novel stent structurewith “dense in front and sparse in rear” is proposed,which is verified to have good potential to reduce the wall shear stress of both mother and daughter aneurysm. The simulation is based on a lattice Boltzmann modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow. A novel stent structurewith “dense in front and sparse in rear” is proposed,which is verified to have good potential to reduce the wall shear stress of both mother and daughter aneurysm.
To provide insight into the influence of the length scale on the kinetics of phase evolution during severe plastic deformation, we studied the microstructure evolution of cryomilled Al and Ti mixture, which is further subjected to high-pressure torsion (HPT). The cryomilled microstructure consisted of elemental Al and Ti, and the subsequent HPT deformation at ambient temperature led to the solid state formation of Al-rich intermetallics. X-ray diffraction peaks originating from TiAl2 and TiAl3 were observed after one revolution of HPT, suggesting a shear strain-assisted formation of the intermetallics. A high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed the formation of TiAl2 following HPT for one revolution. Further HPT straining led to microstructure refinement and a mixing of the Ti and Al, as well as of any phases formed initially. The solid state formation of the intermetallics and the overall evolution of the microstructure are discussed based on the generation of a high density of lattice defects that evolve under the strain conditions present during HPT.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
In this work, experiments were performed to study the effect of cathode materials on the amplitude of the super-short avalanche electron beam (SAEB) current and X-ray density during discharges in atmospheric-pressure air. In the experiments, discharges were generated by three nanosecond-pulse generators in air gaps between a plane anode and a tubular cathode made of different metals. The output pulse of the three generators had a rise time of 0.3, 1, 15 ns, and a full width at half maximum of 1, 2, 30–40 ns, respectively. For the generators with pulse rise-time of 0.3 and 1 ns, the cathodes used in these experiments were made of stainless steel, permalloy, titanium, niobium, copper, brass, and aluminum. For the generator with pulse rise-time of 15 ns, the cathodes were made of stainless steel, titanium, copper, and aluminum. When the rise time of the applied pulse is 0.3 ns, our experimental results show that the amplitude of the voltage across the gap depends on the cathode material and reaches its maximum value when a stainless steel cathode is used. It is also observed that, under such situation, the maximum amplitudes of the SAEB current occur at maximum voltages across the gap when all other factors are equal. Furthermore, the amplitude of the SAEB current hereof is found to depend not only on the material of the sharp edge of the tubular cathode, but also on the material of the side surface of the tubular cathode. When the rise time of the applied pulse is 1 ns, the experimental results show that the average number of electrons in SAEB is also affected by the cathode materials. In addition, in the case that the rise time of the voltage pulse is 15 ns and the gap spacing is 8 cm, the experimental results show that the cathode material has no effect on the voltage amplitude across the gap and the X-ray density. The increase of the pulse repetition frequency from 250 to 500 Hz under such condition can lead to a three-fold increase in X-ray density in a repetitive pulsed mode.
Gases in microfluidic structures or devices are often in a non-equilibrium state. The conventional thermodynamic models for fluids and heat transfer break down and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations are no longer accurate or valid. In this paper, the extended thermodynamic approach is employed to study the rarefied gas flow in microstructures, including the heat transfer between a parallel channel andpressure-driven Poiseuille flows through a parallel microchannel andcircular microtube. The gas flow characteristics are studied and it is shown that the heat transfer in the non-equilibrium state no longer obeys the Fourier gradient transport law. In addition, the bimodal distribution of streamwise and spanwise velocity and temperature through a long circular microtube is captured for the first time.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.