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Large truncated spherical near-field systems with conductive or absorbing floors are typically used in the measurement of the performances of vehicle-installed antennas. The main advantage of conductive floor systems is the ease of accommodation of the vehicle under test, but their performances are affected by the interaction with the reflecting ground floor. Instead, absorbing-based systems emulating free-space conditions minimize the effect of the interaction with the floor, but generally require longer setup times, especially at lower frequencies (70–400 MHz), where bulky absorbers are typically used to improve reflectivity levels. Considering scaled measurements of a vehicle model, the performances of these two typical implementations are analyzed in the 84–1500 MHz range and compared to free-space measurements. Absorbers with different dimensions and reflectivity have been installed in the scaled measurement setup, and measured data have been investigated with proper post-processing to verify the applicability to realistic systems. Figures of merit of interest for automotive applications, like gain and partial radiated powers, have been compared to free-space to evaluate the impact of different scenarios.
A delusion of parasitosis is defined as the fixed, false belief of infestation by invisible organisms or fibrous material of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis is true infection, substance use disorder, dementia or other neuropsychiatric disease.
Our goal was to characterize delusions of parasitosis, classically named Ekbom syndrome, among individuals attending our emergency department (ED).
Over a four-year period (2017-2020), we carried out a retrospective case-register study of patients with DSM-5 Ekbom syndrome attending an ED that provides mental health services to an area of nearly 450.000 inhabitants in Sabadell (Barcelona, Spain).
There were 13 eligible patients: 7 were diagnosed for the first time and 6 had multiple episodes. Female-to-male ratio was 1.6:1; average age was 56.9. The most common diagnosis was delusional disorder (n=5;8.5%), followed by schizophrenia (n=3;23.1%) and organic disorders (n=2;15.4%). Origin: Africa (n=5;38.5%), South-America (n=4;30.8%) and Spain (n=4;30.8%). Fifty percent showed poor treatment compliance. Antipsychotics used: risperidone (n=8;61.54%), olanzapine (n=4;30.8%). Five patients received antidepressants. Most patients had previously been seen by other medical specialties (internal medicine, dermatology and hematology). ‘’Match box sign’’: 7 patients (53.8%). Cerebral atrophy was present on brain scan in 4 patients. After discharge: acute psychiatric unit (n=7), outpatient appointments (n=4), day hospital (n=1) and 1 to a psychogeriatric unit.
Delusions of parasitosis are rare in our emergency department. The typical patient is a postmenopausal woman, a visitor or immigrant to Spain. Effective treatment requires a focus on cultural, gender, and age aspects, with close cooperation between psychiatry and other relevant specialties.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
Sorghum panicle residue (SPR), a by-product of Sorghum vulgare, obtained in the manufacture of brooms and wisks, has potential as a partial substitute for grain in growing-finishing diets for feedlot lambs. Accordingly, 48 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (initial weight=16.2±4.3 kg) were used in an 84-d growth-performance trial to evaluate its comparative feeding value. Lambs were blocked by weight and assigned within weight groupings to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen). The SPR was finely ground before it was incorporated into the diet. The basal diet contained 60% whole grain sorghum (WGS; DM basis). Dietary treatments consisted in the replacement of WGS with 0, 50, or 100% SPR. Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P=0.04) average daily gain (ADG), and tended to increase (linear effect, P=0.06) dry matter intake (DMI). Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P<0.01) gain efficiency (ADG : DMI), and observed dietary net energy (NE), as well as hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, kidney–pelvic–heart fat, and back fat thickness (linear effect, P⩽.05) Other carcass characteristics and wholesale cuts as a percentage of cold carcass weight were not affected by dietary treatments. It is concluded that SPR is a palatable feed ingredient for inclusion in finishing diets for feedlot lambs. The comparative NE values for SPR are 1.50 and 0.91 Mcal/kg for maintenance and gain, respectively, 75% the NE value of WGS. These NE values reflect the greater fiber content of SPR. To the extent that dietary energy density limits energy intake (and hence daily weight gain), appropriate constraints on level of SPR incorporation is warranted.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
The dilution effect, that high host species diversity can reduce disease risk, has attracted much attention in the context of global biodiversity decline and increasing disease emergence. Recent studies have criticized the generality of the dilution effect and argued that it only occurs under certain circumstances. Nevertheless, evidence for the existence of a dilution effect was reported in about 80% of the studies that addressed the diversity–disease relationship, and a recent meta-analysis found that the dilution effect is widespread. We here review supporting and critical studies, point out the causes underlying the current disputes. The dilution is expected to be strong when the competent host species tend to remain when species diversity declines, characterized as a negative relationship between species’ reservoir competence and local extinction risk. We here conclude that most studies support a negative competence–extinction relationship. We then synthesize the current knowledge on how the diversity–disease relationship can be modified by particular species in community, by the scales of analyses, and by the disease risk measures. We also highlight the complex role of habitat fragmentation in the diversity–disease relationship from epidemiological, evolutionary and ecological perspectives, and construct a synthetic framework integrating these three perspectives. We suggest that future studies should test the diversity–disease relationship across different scales and consider the multiple effects of landscape fragmentation.
A number of recent reports emphasize the risk of zoonotic diseases and the high degree of prevalence of asymptomatic animals infected with Leptospira interrogans. This report sought to assess the prevalence of antibodies to certain serovars of L. interrogans, and to describe the association between seropositivity and risk factors associated with within-flock transmission in a mountainous region of Mexico. Overall seroprevalence to L. interrogans was 54·5% (95% confidence interval 48·3–60·7); the most frequent serovar was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The accumulation of placentas and fetuses at a site close to lambing paddocks can play a significant role as a risk factor for within-flock transmission of L. interrogans in transhumant farming systems in the municipality of Xalatlaco. The high prevalence of L. interrogans antibodies supports the hypothesis that natural foci of this zoonosis are present in sheep flocks in this area. These findings emphasize the need for planning and implementation of control programmes for ovine leptospirosis in Mexico and elsewhere.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and the 2024 aluminum alloy (Al2024) are used in the production of Al2024-CNTs composites. An homogeneous dispersion of the CNTs into the aluminum matrix is achieved by a mechanical milling processing. CNTs keet their morphology after milling and sintering processes. Formation of aluminum carbide as a function of CNTs contents is observed. Formation of equilibrium phases during sintering is observed by electron microscopy. CNTs and aluminum carbide in the composites are characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Hardness results of sintered products show an increment of up to 285% over the unreinforced alloy prepared by the same route.
West Nile virus (WNV) was probably introduced in southern and northern Mexico from the USA in two independent events. Since then, WNV activity has been reported in several Mexican states bordering the USA and the Gulf of Mexico, but disease manifestations seen there in humans and equids are quite different to those observed in the USA. We have analysed WNV seroprevalence in asymptomatic, unvaccinated equids from two Mexican states where no data had been previously recorded. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 31·6% (91/288) of equine sera from Chiapas and Puebla states (53·3% and 8·0%, respectively). Analysis by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) showed good specificity (99·4%) and sensitivity (84·9%) with the ELISA results. Further analyses to detect antibodies against three different flaviviruses (WNV, St Louis encephalitis virus, Ilheus virus) by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests on a subset of 138 samples showed that 53% of the 83 HI-positive samples showed specific reaction to WNV. These data suggest continuous expansion of WNV through Mexico.
Culicoides imicola is the main vector for bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) viruses in the Mediterranean basin and in southern Europe. In this study, we analysed partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to characterize and confirm population expansion of Culicoides imicola across Spain. The data were analysed at two hierarchical levels to test the relationship between C. imicola haplotypes in Spain (n=215 from 58 different locations) and worldwide (n=277). We found nineteen different haplotypes within the Spanish population, including 11 new haplotypes. No matrilineal subdivision was found within the Spanish population, while western and eastern Mediterranean C. imicola populations were very structured. These findings were further supported by median networks and mismatch haplotype distributions. Median networks demonstrated that the haplotypes we observed in the western Mediterranean region were closely related with one another, creating a clear star-like phylogeny separated only by a single mutation from eastern haplotypes. The two, genetically distinct, sources of C. imicola in the Mediterranean basin, thus, were confirmed. This type of star-like population structure centred around the most frequent haplotype is best explained by rapid expansion. Furthermore, the proposed northern expansion was also supported by the statistically negative Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values, as well as predicted mismatch distributions of sudden and spatially expanding populations. Our results thus indicated that C. imicola population expansion was a rapid and recent phenomenon.
A series of binary to hexanary alloys (Ni, Co, Mo, Al, Fe, Cu) are produced by mechanical alloying. Formation of an FCC solid solution is observed in the binary system. For ternary to quinary systems the presence of an amorphous phase and a BCC solid solution is identified, and for the hexanary system a combination of BCC and FCC solid solutions is detected. There is a very small change in the lattice parameter of Mo, reflecting the limited solid solubility of other element in this structure. However, Mo induces the fast amorphization of other elements and the reduction of crystallite size.
Milk production and reproductive performance of pluriparous dairy cows was compared for cows whose lactations were induced by hormonal treatment or followed natural calving. The study was conducted on 179 high-yielding dairy cows in a large dairy operation in a hot arid environment of northern Mexico, where bovine somatotropin (bST) was routinely used in all cows. To induce lactation, 98 cows that had previously failed to become pregnant were treated with 500 mg bST on days 1, 8 and 21. From days 2 to 8, cows were treated with oestradiol cypionate (0·30 mg/kg live weight (LW) per day) and progesterone (0·28 mg/kg LW per day). From days 9 to 15, oestradiol cypionate alone was given. PGF2α was given on day 16. Nothing was administered on days 17 and 18, and 15 mg flumetasone was administered from days 19 to 21. Lactation was induced successfully in all 98 cows subjected to the hormone treatment. All cows received 500 mg bST every 14 days throughout lactation from 63±7 days after lactation had started. Cows with induced lactations produced less (P<0·01) milk per 305-day lactation (9599±1387 kg) than controls (12 302±1245 kg). Proportion of cows pregnant was similar in induced cows and non-treated cows (71 v. 75%). Induction of lactation was associated with increased numbers of services per pregnancy (5·8±4·0 v. 4·22±2·98; P<0·01) compared with controls; however, impaired reproduction might not necessarily have been related to the hormonal treatment to induce lactation, but due to the nature of the cows utilized for this treatment group. This protocol can be used on dairy farms where bST treatment and prolonged steroid administration of dairy cows is legally permitted.