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Dicamba residues in sprayers are difficult to remove and may interact with subsequent herbicides, including contact herbicides labeled for use in soybean. Without proper tank cleanout, applicators treating dicamba-resistant and non–dicamba resistant crops are at risk of contaminating the spray solution with dicamba residue from previous applications. Experiments were conducted in Fayetteville, AR, in 2018 and 2019, with the first experiment evaluating consequences of dicamba tank contamination with contact herbicides and the second experiment addressing the impact of dicamba exposure on a glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivar relative to a contact herbicide application. Experiments for tank contamination and timing of dicamba exposure were designed as a three-factor and a two-factor randomized complete block with four replications, respectively, considering site-year as a fixed effect in each experiment. Dicamba at 0, 0.056, 0.56, and 5.6 g ae ha−1 was applied alone, with glufosinate, with acifluorfen, or with glufosinate plus acifluorfen to V3 soybean. Dicamba applied in combination with contact herbicides exacerbated visible auxin symptomology over dicamba alone at 21 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), while dicamba at 5.6 g ae ha−1 reduced soybean height. Injury and height reductions caused by dicamba mixtures with contact herbicides did not reduce grain yield. In the second experiment, dicamba was applied at 2.8 g ae ha−1 at VC, V1, V2, and V3 and at 3, 7, and 10 d after a glufosinate application to V3 soybean (DATV3). Greater soybean injury was observed when dicamba exposure followed a glufosinate application than when dicamba preceded glufosinate or was applied in a mixture with glufosinate, with yield reductions resulting from 7 and 10 DATV3 dicamba applications. Dicamba exposure in the presence of contact herbicides resulted in increased auxin symptomology and can be intensified if soybean are exposed to dicamba following a contact herbicide application.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Here, we describe extensive sex-specific differences in the transcriptomes of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Given that the clinical course of PNETs differs by sex (female sex is associated with better survival), achieving a greater understanding of the specific molecular sexual dimorphisms is invaluable for advancing personalized treatment. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) exhibit sexual dimorphisms with regards to prognosis, disease recurrence, and complication rates. We sought to compare the transcription and DNA methylation landscapes of PNETs by sex, to elucidate molecular differences that may underlie this sex disparity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: RNAseq data was generated from PNETs surgically resected at our institution (9 Female; 12 Male patients). RNA was extracted with the RNeasy Mini Kit, stranded sequencing libraries were prepared with TruSeq, and paired end sequencing was done on the HiSeq 2500/4000 systems. Transcript-level quantification was performed with salmon, and DESeq2 was used for differential expression analysis. To account for significant variation due to covariates other than sex, surrogate variables were computed with the SVA package and adjusted for. The goseq package was used for gene set over representation analysis. Matched DNA methylation (DNAm) and RNAseq data was downloaded from GEO (16 F; 16 M). Raw DNAm data was processed with minfi. Differential methylation analysis was done with limma and bumphunter. Analysis was done in R. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that 826 autosomal genes were differentially expressed (DE) by sex in PNETs (at FDR ≤0.1). Gene set over representation analysis performed on the DE genes revealed significant enrichment for several processes, including ‘ascorbate & aldarate metabolism’ and ‘positive regulation of ERK1 & ERK2 cascade’ (all FDR ≤0.1). When we compared DNAm profiles between sexes, we found 8 CpGs which were differentially methylated by sex (at FDR ≤0.1), 7 of which were proximal to genes. Methylation of one of the sex-associated CpGs, overlapping the gene TIMM8B, was found to be negatively correlated with gene expression (rho=-0.41; p-value=0.02). Interestingly, TIMM8B deletion has been previously reported in other non-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. There were no differentially methylated regions between sexes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings demonstrate that PNETs exhibit extensive sexual dimorphisms with regards to gene expression profiles but have largely congruent methylomes by sex. These molecular differences may contribute to the variability in clinical course between men and women, and their characterization is vital for the advancement of personalized medicine.
Implementation of clinically useful research discoveries in the academic environment is challenged by limited funding for early phase proof-of-concept studies and inadequate expertise in product development and commercialization. To address these limitations, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the National Centers for Accelerated Innovations (NCAI) program in 2013. Three centers competed successfully for awards through this mechanism. Here, we present the experience of one such center, the Boston Biomedical Innovation Center (B-BIC), and demonstrate its remarkable success at the translation of innovations to clinical application and commercialization, as well as skills development and education.
This chapter reviews current research related to prevention, early interventions, and treatment strategies for "food addiction." However, the paucity of directly relevant investigation resulted in the necessity to broaden the focus to include studies in the area of general addiction disorders, and those targeting compulsive overeating and chronic weight gain. Included are discussions of school-based interventions aimed at reducing caloric intake, such as taxation on sweetened-beverage consumption, and the increased availability of fruits and vegetables in cafeteria menus. Consideration is also extended to discussions about the efficacy of public health policies and regulatory agencies aimed at reducing consumption of highly caloric foods at the population level – based on evidence of their addictive properties. This approach is based on past evidence that increasing prices and decreasing ease of access has reduced use of other addictive substances such as nicotine. Applied to addictive foods, this may indicate that implementing taxes on foods such as sugary candy and soda may aid in reducing consumption. Regarding treatment, although more focused research is still needed, perhaps the most promising evidence-based strategies occur in the field of cognitive interventions, which target hedonic overeating. These approaches are mostly theory driven and mesh with an experimental-medicine approach toward intervention development. It was also concluded that future research should carefully assess possible moderating effects of prevention/intervention and treatment approaches, including individual differences in sex/gender, personality traits such as impulsivity, and varying patterns of compulsive overeating. In addition, it would behoove future researchers to include standardized control groups in order to understand better the theoretical bases on which the interventions and treatments have been developed.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
Wild sheep and many primitive domesticated breeds have two coats: coarse hairs covering shorter, finer fibres. Both are shed annually. Exploitation of wool for apparel in the Bronze Age encouraged breeding for denser fleeces and continuously growing white fibres. The Merino is regarded as the culmination of this process. Archaeological discoveries, ancient images and parchment records portray this as an evolutionary progression, spanning millennia. However, examination of the fleeces from feral, two-coated and woolled sheep has revealed a ready facility of the follicle population to change from shedding to continuous growth and to revert from domesticated to primitive states. Modifications to coat structure, colour and composition have occurred in timeframes and to sheep population sizes that exclude the likelihood of variations arising from mutations and natural selection. The features are characteristic of the domestication phenotype: an assemblage of developmental, physiological, skeletal and hormonal modifications common to a wide variety of species under human control. The phenotypic similarities appeared to result from an accumulation of cryptic genetic changes early during vertebrate evolution. Because they did not affect fitness in the wild, the mutations were protected from adverse selection, becoming apparent only after exposure to a domestic environment. The neural crest, a transient embryonic cell population unique to vertebrates, has been implicated in the manifestations of the domesticated phenotype. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to the development of the wool follicle population and the particular roles of Notch pathway genes, culminating in the specific cell interactions that typify follicle initiation.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: It has been previously shown that pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) survival is different between sexes. We set out to find out whether there are sex-specific differences in the genomic landscapes of pHGG that may underlie this sex disparity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We downloaded Illumina 450k DNAm data from ArrayExpress and GeneExpressionOmnibus. The minfi package was used to process raw DNAm data. Sex chromosomes and CpGs that are common SNPs were removed. Surrogate variables (SVs) were estimated via the sva Bioconductor package. Differentially methylated CpGs were identified by fitting a multiple linear regression model for the DNAm level at each CpG, with independent variables being sex (a binary variable) and the estimated SVs. RNAseq data was downloaded from Cavatica, and differential gene expression analysis was carried out via the DESeq2 package. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) DNAm data [58 female & 91 male IDH wt samples; ages 0.1–21 yrs;], we found 7,371 differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) at FDR≤0.05. Of the DMCs, 289 had DNAm differences between male and female samples ≥10%. The majority of probes (68%) were in CpG islands, shelves, or shores. We also found 4 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between sexes (FWER≤0.1). In the adult GBM DNAm samples [32 F & 32 M IDH wt samples; ages 22–75 yrs], we found only 117 DMCs at FDR≤0.05, and no DMRs. In the RNAseq dataset [68 F & 54 M pHGG samples, ages 0.08–30.6 yrs], we found 383 differentially expressed genes (at FDR≤0.05), and 16 of them (4%) overlapped a DMC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our findings demonstrate that pHGG exhibits sex-specific methylome differences. Interestingly, this difference is greater in the pediatric population as compared to adults. The pHGG transcriptome also differs by sex, which may be related to differential DNAm in a minority of cases.
Introduction: It is unclear whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications increase the risk for intracranial bleeding in older adults after a fall. Our aim was to report the incidence of intracranial bleeding among older adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a fall, among patients taking anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications, both medications and neither medication. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis, PROSPERO reference CRD42019122626. Medline, EMBASE (via OVID 1946 - July 2019), Cochrane, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects databases and the grey literature were searched for studies reporting on older adults who were evaluated after a fall. We included prospective studies conducted in the ED where more than 80% of the cohort were 65 years or older and had fallen. We contacted study authors for aggregate data on intracranial bleeding in patients prescribed anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication and neither medication. Incidences of intracranial bleeding were pooled using random effect models, and I2 index was used to assess heterogeneity. Results: From 7,240 publication titles, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors of 8 of these 10 studies provided data (on 9,489 patients). All studies scored low or moderate risk of bias. The pooled incidence of intracranial bleeding among patients taking an anticoagulant medication was 5.1% (n = 5,016, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.1 to 6.3%) I2 = 42%, a single antiplatelet 6.4% (n = 2,148, 95% CI: 5.4 to 7.6%) I2 = 75%, both anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications 5.9% (n = 212, 95% CI: 1.3 to 13.5%) I2 = 72%, and neither of these medications 4.8% (n = 1,927, 95% CI: 3.5 to 6.2%) I2 = 50%. A sensitivity analysis restricted to patients who had a head CT in the ED reported incidences of 6.1% (n = 3,561, 95% CI: 3 to 8.3%), 8.4% (n = 1,781, 95% CI: 5.5 to 11.8%), 6.7% (n = 206, 95% CI 1.5 to 15.2%) and 6.6% (n = 1,310, 95% CI: 5.0 to 8.4%) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of fall-related intracranial bleeding in older ED patients was similar among patients who take anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication, both and neither medication, although there was heterogeneity between study findings.
The short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (sO-LIFE) is a widely used measure assessing schizotypy. There is limited information, however, on how sO-LIFE scores compare across different countries. The main goal of the present study is to test the measurement invariance of the sO-LIFE scores in a large sample of non-clinical adolescents and young adults from four European countries (UK, Switzerland, Italy, and Spain). The scores were obtained from validated versions of the sO-LIFE in their respective languages. The sample comprised 4190 participants (M = 20.87 years; SD = 3.71 years). The study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis, revealed that both three (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, and introvertive anhedonia) and four-factor (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive nonconformity) models fitted the data moderately well. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model had partial strong measurement invariance across countries. Eight items were non-invariant across samples. Significant statistical differences in the mean scores of the s-OLIFE were found by country. Reliability scores, estimated with Ordinal alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.87. Using the Item Response Theory framework, the sO-LIFE provides more accuracy information at the medium and high end of the latent trait. The current results show further evidence in support of the psychometric proprieties of the sO-LIFE, provide new information about the cross-cultural equivalence of schizotypy and support the use of this measure to screen for psychotic-like features and liability to psychosis in general population samples from different European countries.
Neospora caninum is a commonly diagnosed cause of reproductive losses in farmed ruminants worldwide. This study examined 495 and 308 samples (brain, heart and placenta) which were collected from 455 and 119 aborted cattle and sheep fetuses, respectively. DNA was extracted and a nested Neospora ITS1 PCR was performed on all samples. The results showed that for bovine fetuses 79/449 brain [17.6% (14.2–21.4)], 7/25 heart [28.0% (12.1–49.4)] and 5/21 placenta [23.8% (8.2–47.2)] were PCR positive for the presence of Neospora DNA. Overall 82/455 [18.0% (14.6–21.7)] of the bovine fetuses tested positive for the presence of N. caninum DNA in at least one sample. None (0/308) of the ovine fetal samples tested positive for the presence of Neospora DNA in any of the tissues tested. The results show that N. caninum was associated with fetal losses in cattle (distributed across South-West Scotland), compared to sheep in the same geographical areas where no parasite DNA was found. Neospora is well distributed amongst cattle in South-West Scotland and is the potential cause of serious economic losses to the Scottish cattle farming community; however, it does not appear to be a problem amongst the Scottish sheep flocks.
As professors, we seek not only to impart knowledge about issues and concepts in American politics but also to engage and inspire students to become more knowledgeable and more active in politics. This article explains how a student-run exit poll conducted on Election Day 2016 accomplished both goals. Seven faculty members from four universities pooled our students and carried out an exit poll in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. By the time the polls closed, our students had spoken to more than 2,300 respondents, providing a memorable experience and creating a shared dataset that served as the centerpiece for many final class projects. Through this project, students gained hands-on experience in survey design, sampling, research ethics, polling, and data analysis.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and quinidine sulfate (DM/Q) 20mg/10mg is FDA approved to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA), a neurological condition characterized by sudden, frequent, involuntary crying or laughing. Although the total dose of quinidine (20 mg) from twice daily DM/Q for PBA is well below the antiarrhythmic dose (600-1600 mg/day), clinicians may be reticent to use DM/Q due to concerns for cardiac safety.
DM/Q cardiac safety was evaluated in two thorough QTc (TQT) studies and by ECG monitoring in DM/Q phase 3 clinical trials. In the TQT studies, twice daily DM/Q 30mg/10mg (Study 08-AVR-126; N=50 enrolled) and supratherapeutic doses 30mg/30mg and 60mg/60mg (Study 05-AVR-119; N=36 enrolled) were studied in healthy volunteers. In phase 3 controlled clinical trials, the effects of DM/Q on Fridericia’s corrected QT intervals (QTcF) were assessed, as was the incidence of ECG outliers. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored in all clinical trials.
Overall, 47/50 participants completed TQT study 08-AVR-126 and 36/36 completed TQT study 05-AVR-119. Time-matched, placebo-corrected mean maximal changes in QTcF for DM/Q 30mg/10mg and 30mg/30mg occurred 3h post-dose (10.3 and 10.1ms, respectively) vs moxifloxacin (12.2 and 14.4ms at 1.5 and 1.0h). For the supratherapeutic DM/Q 60/60 mg dose, mean maximal QTcF change was 18.8ms. No participant had a QTcF >480 ms or QTc increase >60 ms. In PBA phase 3 controlled trials, mean changes in QTcF were similar for DM/Q containing Q 10 mg (0.4 to 3.5 ms; n=217) andplacebo (0.4 to 3.1 ms; n=183), but greater for DM/Q with Q 30 mg (2.9 to 7.6 ms; n=146). In an outlier analysis, a similar percentage of DM/Q-treated participants (3.9%) had a QTcF shift from <450 ms at baseline to ≥450 ms during treatment vs placebo (2.9%). No participant with PBA had a QTc change from baseline >60 ms or an absolute QTc interval >480 ms. No dose- or time-related trends in cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiac-related AEs were observed.
Of 2552 DM/Q-treated patients and healthy participants across all controlled and open-label trials for any indication, 11 deaths due to any cardiovascular AE have been reported; none were attributable to DM/Q treatment and none occurred in placebo-controlled PBA clinical trials in any treatment group. Overall 16 patients had a QTcF that exceeded 500 ms at any ECG measurement.
The TQT studies demonstrated that DM/Q has the potential to prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner, but that the risk for QTc prolongation and arrhythmias with Q 10 mg formulations is low. In clinical trials with PBA patients, the cardiac safety profile of DM/Q 20mg/10mg or 30/10 mg was indistinguishable from placebo.
Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases.
In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008. The treating emergency physician (EP) used a data collection form to enroll patients that arrived to the ED whose injury or illness was unrelated to combat.
Data were gathered on 1,745 patients with a median age of 30 years; 84% of patients were male and 85% were US military personnel. The most common diagnoses evaluated in the ED were abdominal disorders, orthopedic injuries, and headache. Many cases involved intravenous access, laboratory testing, and radiographic testing. Procedures performed included electrocardiogram, lumbar puncture, and intubation.
Disease and non-battle traumatic injuries are common in a tertiary combat hospital. Emergency providers working in austere settings should have the diagnostic and procedural skills to evaluate and treat DNBIs.
BebartaVS, MoraAG, NgPC, MasonPE, MuckA, MaddryJK. Disease and Non-Battle Traumatic Injuries Evaluated by Emergency Physicians in a US Tertiary Combat Hospital. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):53–57.
We examined the prospective associations of objective and subjective measures of stress during pregnancy with infant stress reactivity and regulation, an early-life predictor of psychopathology. In a racially and ethnically diverse low-income sample of 151 mother–infant dyads, maternal reports of stressful life events (SLE) and perceived stress (PS) were collected serially over gestation and the early postpartum period. Infant reactivity and regulation at 6 months of age was assessed via maternal report of temperament (negativity, surgency, and regulation) and infant parasympathetic nervous system physiology (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) during the Still Face Paradigm. Regression models predicting infant temperament showed higher maternal prenatal PS predicted lower surgency and self-regulation but not negativity. Regression models predicting infant physiology showed higher numbers of SLE during gestation predicted greater RSA reactivity and weaker recovery. Tests of interactions revealed SLE predicted RSA reactivity only at moderate to high levels of PS. Thus, findings suggest objective and subjective measures of maternal prenatal stress uniquely predict infant behavior and physiology, adjusting for key pre- and postnatal covariates, and advance the limited evidence for such prenatal programming within high-risk populations. Assessing multiple levels of maternal stress and offspring stress reactivity and regulation provides a richer picture of intergenerational transmission of adversity.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
There are limited data on detection disparities of common mental
disorders in minority ethnic women.
Describe the natural history of common mental disorders in primary care
in the maternal period, characterise women with, and explore ethnic
disparities in, detected and potentially missed common mental
Secondary analyses of linked birth cohort and primary care data involving
8991 (39.4% White British) women in Bradford. Common mental disorders
were characterised through indications in the electronic medical record.
Potentially missed common mental disorders were defined as an elevated
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) score during pregnancy with no
corresponding common mental disorder markers in the medical record.
Estimated prevalence of pre-birth common mental disorders was 9.5%,
rising to 14.0% 3 years postnatally. Up to half of cases were potentially
missed. Compared with White British women, minority ethnic women were
twice as likely to have potentially missed common mental disorders and
half as likely to have a marker of screening for common mental
Common mental disorder detection disparities exist for minority ethnic
women in the maternal period.