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Reliable spatially resolved compositional analysis through atom probe tomography requires an accurate placement of the detected ions within the three-dimensional reconstruction. Unfortunately, for heterogeneous systems, traditional reconstruction protocols are prone to position some ions incorrectly. This stems from the use of simplified projection laws which treat the emitter apex as a spherical cap, although the actual shape may be far more complex. For instance, sampled materials with compositional heterogeneities are known to develop local variations in curvature across the emitter due to their material phase specific evaporation fields. This work provides three pivotal precursors to improve the spatial accuracy of the reconstructed volume in such cases. First, we show scanning probe microscopy enables the determination of the local curvature of heterogeneous emitters, thus providing the essential information for a more advanced reconstruction considering the actual shape. Second, we demonstrate the cyclability between scanning probe characterization and atom probe analysis. This is a key ingredient of more advanced reconstruction protocols whereby the characterization of the emitter topography is executed at multiple stages of the atom probe analysis. Third, we show advances in the development of an electrostatically driven reconstruction protocol which are expected to enable reconstruction based on experimental tip shapes.
The seemingly aberrant coiling of heteromorphic ammonoids suggests that they underwent more significant changes in hydrostatic properties throughout ontogeny than their planispiral counterparts. Such changes may have been responses to different selective pressures at different life stages. The hydrostatic properties of three species of Didymoceras (D. stevensoni, D. nebrascense, and D. cheyennense) were investigated by creating virtual 3D models at several stages during growth. These models were used to compute the conditions for neutral buoyancy, hydrostatic stability, orientation during life, and thrust angles (efficiency of directional movement). These properties suggest that Didymoceras and similar heteromorphs lived low-energy lifestyles with the ability to hover above the seafloor. The resultant static orientations yielded a downward-facing aperture in the hatchling and a horizontally facing aperture throughout most of the juvenile stage, before terminating in an upward direction at maturity. Relatively high hydrostatic stabilities would not have permitted the orientation of Didymoceras to be considerably modified with active locomotion. During the helical phase, Didymoceras would have been poorly suited for horizontal movement, yet equipped to pirouette about the vertical axis. Two stages throughout growth, however, would have enhanced lateral mobility: a juvenile stage just after the formation of the first bend in the shell and the terminal stage after completion of the U-shaped hook. These two more mobile phases in ontogeny may have improved juvenile dispersal potential and mate acquisition during adulthood, respectively. In general, life orientation and hydrostatic stability change more wildly for these aberrantly coiled ammonoids than their planispiral counterparts.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Specimen survivability is a primary concern to those who utilize atom probe tomography (APT) for materials analysis. The state-of-the-art in understanding survivability might best be described as common-sense application of basic physics principles to describe failure mechanisms. For example, APT samples are placed under near-failure mechanical-stress conditions, so reduction in the force required to initiate field evaporation must provide for higher survivability—a common sense explanation of survivability. However, the interplay of various analytical conditions (or instrumentation) and how they influence survivability (e.g., decreasing the applied evaporation field improves survivability), and which factors have more impact than others has not been studied. In this paper, we report on the systematic analysis of a material composed of a silicon-dioxide layer surrounded on two sides by silicon. In total, 261 specimens were fabricated and analyzed under a variety of conditions to correlate statistically significant survivability trends with analysis conditions and other specimen characteristics. The primary result suggests that, while applied field/force plays an obvious role in survivability for this material, the applied field alone does not predict survivability trends for silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces. The rate at which ions are extracted from the specimen (both in terms of ions-per-pulse and pulse-frequency) has similar importance.
Approximately 30 years after the first use of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments to prepare atom probe tomography specimens, this technique has grown to be used by hundreds of researchers around the world. This past decade has seen tremendous advances in atom probe applications, enabled by the continued development of FIB-based specimen preparation methodologies. In this work, we provide a short review of the origin of the FIB method and the standard methods used today for lift-out and sharpening, using the annular milling method as applied to atom probe tomography specimens. Key steps for enabling correlative analysis with transmission electron-beam backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography are presented, and strategies for preparing specimens for modern microelectronic device structures are reviewed and discussed in detail. Examples are used for discussion of the steps for each of these methods. We conclude with examples of the challenges presented by complex topologies such as nanowires, nanoparticles, and organic materials.
Switchgrass is a potential feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production.
Weed competition from annual grass during the establishment year can reduce
switchgrass establishment and resulting productivity, but the relationship
between early season grass densities and outcomes of competition are not
well understood. We measured how a range of giant and yellow foxtail
densities in the establishment year influenced switchgrass establishment and
resulting productivity in the first production year (second year of the
growing season). In two of the three site–yr more than four foxtail plants
m−2 reduced switchgrass plant densities below documented
thresholds of establishment success. A lesser effect of foxtails in the
third site–year suggested that higher switchgrass emergence rates reduced
foxtail competitive ability during establishment. Effects on yield were
consistent over the three site–yr. The yield (10.96 Mg ha−1 ±
0.77) decreased rapidly as foxtail density increased. One foxtail plant
m−2 reduced switchgrass yield in the first production year by
25%, and yield loss was 90% or greater at densities > 50 foxtail plants
m−2. Although switchgrass can establish in the presence of
foxtail competition, these weed species should be controlled to maximize
yields in the first production year.