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The beryllium silicate minerals phenakite and bertrandite have been identified in granitic pegmatite dykes of the beryl-columbite subtype of Variscan age (~340−355 Ma), associated with S- to I-type granitic rocks of the Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians (Slovakia). The two beryllium silicates and associated minerals were characterised by electron microprobe analysis, back-scattered electron petrography and cathodoluminescence imagery, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques. Phenakite and bertrandite form euhedral-to-anhedral crystals and aggregates in irregular domains and veinlets replacing primary magmatic beryl. A detailed textural study revealed a close genetic association of phenakite and bertrandite with secondary fine-grained quartz, K-feldspar and muscovite. Locally, clay phyllosilicate minerals, (with compositions similar to those of Fe-dominant hydrobiotite, beidellite, nontronite and saponite) occur as the youngest minerals. During the post-magmatic (hydrothermal) stage of the pegmatites, infiltration of aqueous K-bearing fluids at T ≈ 200–400°C resulted in the breakdown of magmatic beryl to secondary assemblages containing phenakite and bertrandite.
Food security during public health emergencies relies on situational awareness of needs and resources. Artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionized situational awareness during crises, allowing the allocation of resources to needs through machine learning algorithms. Limited research exists monitoring Twitter for changes in the food security-related public discourse during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to address that gap with AI by classifying food security topics on Twitter and showing topic frequency per day.
Tweets were scraped from Twitter from January 2020 through December 2021 using food security keywords. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling was performed, followed by time-series analyses on topic frequency per day.
237,107 tweets were scraped and classified into topics, including food needs and resources, emergency preparedness and response, and mental/physical health. After the WHO’s pandemic declaration, there were relative increases in topic density per day regarding food pantries, food banks, economic and food security crises, essential services, and emergency preparedness advice. Threats to food security in Tigray emerged in 2021.
AI is a powerful yet underused tool to monitor food insecurity on social media. Machine learning tools to improve emergency response should be prioritized, along with measurement of impact. Further food insecurity word patterns testing, as generated by this research, with supervised machine learning models can accelerate the uptake of these tools by policymakers and aid organizations.
Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mechanical devices at delivering high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HQ-CPR) in various transport settings. Herein, this study investigates the efficacy of manual and mechanical HQ-CPR delivery on a fire rescue boat.
A total of 15 active firefighter-paramedics were recruited for a prospective manikin-based trial. Each paramedic performed two minutes manual compression-only CPR while navigating on a river-based fire rescue boat. The boat was piloted in either a stable linear manner or dynamic S-turn manner to simulate obstacle avoidance. For each session of manual HQ-CPR, a session of mechanical HQ-CPR was also performed with a LUCAS 3 (Stryker; Kalamazoo, Michigan USA). A total of 60 sessions were completed. Parameters recorded included compression fraction (CF) and the percentage of compressions with correct depth >5cm (D%), correct rate 100-120 (R%), full release (FR%), and correct hand position (HP%). A composite HQ-CPR score was calculated as follows: ((D% + R% + FR% + HP%)/4) * CF%). Differences in magnitude of change seen in stable versus dynamic navigation within study conditions were evaluated with a Z-score calculation. Difficulty of HQ-CPR delivery was assessed utilizing the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.
Participants were mostly male and had a median experience of 20 years. Manual HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation out-performed manual HQ-CPR delivered during dynamic navigation for composite score and trended towards superiority for FR% and R%. There was no difference seen for any measured variable when comparing mechanical HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation versus dynamic navigation. Mechanical HQ-CPR out-performed manual HQ-CPR during both stable and dynamic navigation in terms of composite score, FR%, and R%. Z-score calculation demonstrated that manual HQ-CPR delivery was significantly more affected by drive style than mechanical HQ-CPR delivery in terms of composite HQ-CPR score and trended towards significance for FR% and R%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion was higher for manual CPR delivered during dynamic sessions than for stable sessions.
Mechanical HQ-CPR delivery is superior to manual HQ-CPR delivery during both stable and dynamic riverine navigation. Whereas manual HQ-CPR delivery was worse during dynamic transportation conditions compared to stable transport conditions, mechanical HQ-CPR delivery was unaffected by drive style. This suggests the utility of routine use of mechanical HQ-CPR devices in the riverine patient transport setting.
Subthreshold/attenuated syndromes are established precursors of full-threshold mood and psychotic disorders. Less is known about the individual symptoms that may precede the development of subthreshold syndromes and associated social/functional outcomes among emerging adults.
We modeled two dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) to investigate associations among self-rated phenomenology and personal/lifestyle factors (role impairment, low social support, and alcohol and substance use) across the 19Up and 25Up waves of the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We examined whether symptoms and personal/lifestyle factors at 19Up were associated with (a) themselves or different items at 25Up, and (b) onset of a depression-like, hypo-manic-like, or psychotic-like subthreshold syndrome (STS) at 25Up.
The first DBN identified 11 items that when endorsed at 19Up were more likely to be reendorsed at 25Up (e.g., hypersomnia, impaired concentration, impaired sleep quality) and seven items that when endorsed at 19Up were associated with different items being endorsed at 25Up (e.g., earlier fatigue and later role impairment; earlier anergia and later somatic pain). In the second DBN, no arcs met our a priori threshold for inclusion. In an exploratory model with no threshold, >20 items at 19Up were associated with progression to an STS at 25Up (with lower statistical confidence); the top five arcs were: feeling threatened by others and a later psychotic-like STS; increased activity and a later hypo-manic-like STS; and anergia, impaired sleep quality, and/or hypersomnia and a later depression-like STS.
These probabilistic models identify symptoms and personal/lifestyle factors that might prove useful targets for indicated preventative strategies.
Faulted and fractured systems form a critical component of fluid flow, especially within low-permeable reservoirs. Therefore, developing suitable methodologies for acquiring structural data and simulating flow through fractured media is vital to improve efficiency and reduce uncertainties in modelling the subsurface. Outcrop analogues provide excellent areas for the analysis and characterization of fractures within the reservoir rocks where subsurface data are limited. Variation in fracture arrangement, distribution and connectivity can be obtained from 2D fractured cliff sections and pavements. These sections can then be used for efficient discretization and homogenization techniques to obtain reliable predictions on permeability distributions in the geothermal reservoirs. Fracture network anisotropy in the Malm reservoir unit is assessed using detailed structural analysis and numerical homogenization of outcrop analogues from an open pit quarry within the Franconian Basin, Germany. Several events are recorded in the fracture networks from the Late Jurassic the Alpine Orogeny and are observed to be influenced by the Kulmbach Fault nearby with a reverse throw of 800 m. The fractured outcrops are digitized for fluid flow simulations and homogenization to determine the permeability tensors of the networks. The tensors show differences in fluid transport direction where fracture permeability is controlled by orientation compared to a constant value. As a result, it is observed that the orientation of the tensor is influenced by the Kulmbach Fault, and therefore faults within the reservoirs at depth should be considered as important controls on the fracture flow of the geothermal system.
The impact of secondary fluorescence on the material compositions measured by X-ray analysis for layered semiconductor thin films is assessed using simulations performed by the DTSA-II and CalcZAF software tools. Three technologically important examples are investigated: AlxGa1−xN layers on either GaN or AlN substrates, InxAl1−xN on GaN, and Si-doped (SnxGa1−x)2O3 on Si. Trends in the differences caused by secondary fluorescence are explained in terms of the propensity of different elements to reabsorb either characteristic or bremsstrahlung X-rays and then to re-emit the characteristic X-rays used to determine composition of the layer under investigation. Under typical beam conditions (7–12 keV), the quantification of dopants/trace elements is found to be susceptible to secondary fluorescence and care must be taken to prevent erroneous results. The overall impact on major constituents is shown to be very small with a change of approximately 0.07 molar cation percent for Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN layers and a maximum change of 0.08 at% in the Si content of (SnxGa1−x)2O3/Si layers. This provides confidence that previously reported wavelength-dispersive X-ray compositions are not compromised by secondary fluorescence.
This chapter presents the multi-scale co-creation methodology used in SURE-Farm to involve stakeholders with the aim of assessing the resilience of European farming systems. This methodology resulted in a wide range of valuable insights and allowed to identify convergent and divergent stakeholders’ perceptions with possible policy implications.
The extensive sheep farming system (FS) in Huesca has shown a low resilience capacity to deal with the multiple challenges that it is facing. Policies should support the provision of public goods and be flexible to support diverse resilience-enabling strategies. Research about indicators to measure the provision of public goods, innovation to foster herd and pasture management, and strengthening collaboration between actors in the FS have to accompany policy initiatives.
To determine the impact of various aerosol mitigation interventions and to establish duration of aerosol persistence in a variety of dental clinic configurations.
We performed aerosol measurement studies in endodontic, orthodontic, periodontic, pediatric, and general dentistry clinics. We used an optical aerosol spectrometer and wearable particulate matter sensors to measure real-time aerosol concentration from the vantage point of the dentist during routine care in a variety of clinic configurations (eg, open bay, single room, partitioned operatories). We compared the impact of aerosol mitigation strategies (eg, ventilation and high-volume evacuation (HVE), and prevalence of particulate matter) in the dental clinic environment before, during, and after high-speed drilling, slow–speed drilling, and ultrasonic scaling procedures.
Conical and ISOVAC HVE were superior to standard-tip evacuation for aerosol-generating procedures. When aerosols were detected in the environment, they were rapidly dispersed within minutes of completing the aerosol-generating procedure. Few aerosols were detected in dental clinics, regardless of configuration, when conical and ISOVAC HVE were used.
Dentists should consider using conical or ISOVAC HVE rather than standard-tip evacuators to reduce aerosols generated during routine clinical practice. Furthermore, when such effective aerosol mitigation strategies are employed, dentists need not leave dental chairs fallow between patients because aerosols are rapidly dispersed.
The taxonomy of the 10 recognized Neoechinorhynchus species associated with emydid turtles is complex due to the morphological conservatism. In the present study, specimens of N. emyditoides from northern and southeastern Mexico exhibit great phenotypic plasticity on its diagnostic characteristics. We sequenced three molecular markers: the internal transcribed spacers ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S gene, the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit from nuclear DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) from mitochondrial DNA. Sequences of the nuclear molecular markers were aligned and compared with other congeneric species associated with emydids available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses supported the polyphyly of Neoechinorhynchus. The species from emydids formed a clade, which was subdivided into five subclades that correspond with each species analysed (N. pseudemydis, N. chrysemydis, N. emydis, N. schmidti and N. emyditoides). To understand better the genetic structure of N. emyditoides a haplotype network was inferred with 29 cox1 sequences, revealing the presence of 13 haplotypes, two of which were shared and 11 were unique. The high values of fixation index, Fst (0.4227–0.8925) detected between the two populations from southeastern and the two from northern Mexico indicated low genetic flow among the populations. Our data suggest that the Neoechinorhynchus species associated with emydid turtles diversified in the eastern USA and that of N. emyditoides expanded its distribution range reached southeastern Mexico.
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia presents clinical specificities and difficulties for its early diagnosis in the initial stages due to the overlap of symptoms with other psychiatric pathologies. The delay in diagnosis places the subject in a state of vulnerability because the treatment will not be adequate and the alteration in the psycho-functional capacity can expose him to risks.
The objective of this research was to describe the importance at the forensic and health level of the neuropsychological evaluation of social cognition in people with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and to correlate the results with the clinical manifestations of the patients.
Materials and Methods
Forty-five patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia were studied with social cognition tests (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas Tests) and staged with standardized scales (CDR [Clinical Dementia Rating], GDS [Global Deterioration Scale], and the FTD-FRS [Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale]). The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical tests and the current ethical-legal requirements were met (requirement of informed consent, reservation of the identity of the participants, compliance with the GCP-Good clinical practice-, ANMAT provision 6677/10 and adherence to the Ethical Principles derived from the Declaration of Helsinki).
We found a significant prevalence of alterations in social cognition tests, mainly in Faux Pas Test, from the initial stages of the disease, which were correlated with the clinical stage of the patient.
The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia is a condition with significant diagnostic complexity in its initial stages that affects decision-making, the type of treatment to be instituted and presents the consequences for the subject and their environment. Early detection with a deep assessment of social tools will provide clinical tools for pharmacological treatment, as well as to know the capacity and safeguard the rights of the subject and implement the necessary support measures. It was confirmed that the alterations in the social cognition tests were correlated with the clinical stage in the FTD-FRS scale and high implication in the results of the Faux Pas Test mainly, and secondarily in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.
Smooth pigweed is one of the most troublesome weeds in Argentina. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of 50 smooth pigweed accessions to fomesafen, topramezone, glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba. Accessions were collected from soybean fields in various cropping areas in Argentina. The herbicide treatments included 2,4-D (1,140 g ae ha−1), dicamba (560 g ae ha−1), fomesafen (250 g ai ha−1), topramezone (34 g ai ha−1), and glyphosate (1,080 g ae ha−1). Plant survival was evaluated 30 d after each treatment application. Of the smooth pigweed accessions tested, 84% and 76% were susceptible (0% survival) to 2,4-D and dicamba, respectively. More than 90% of the accessions showed high (>60%) survival to glyphosate. While none of the accessions showed total sensitivity (0% survival) to the other herbicides evaluated, 43% and 72% of the accessions showed greater than 60% survival to fomesafen and topramezone, respectively. The differences in survival among accessions confirm the existence of genetic variability in Argentinian smooth pigweed and suggest that weed management practices should be prioritized to preserve the efficacy of these commonly used herbicides.
Inaccurate representations of iceberg calving from ice shelves are a large source of uncertainty in mass-loss projections from the Antarctic ice sheet. Here, we address this limitation by implementing and testing a continuum damage-mechanics model in a continental scale ice-sheet model. The damage-mechanics formulation, based on a linear stability analysis and subsequent long-wavelength approximation of crevasses that evolve in a viscous medium, links damage evolution to climate forcing and the large-scale stresses within an ice shelf. We incorporate this model into the BISICLES ice-sheet model and test it by applying it to idealized (1) ice tongues, for which we present analytical solutions and (2) buttressed ice-shelf geometries. Our simulations show that the model reproduces the large disparity in lengths of ice shelves with geometries and melt rates broadly similar to those of four Antarctic ice shelves: Erebus Glacier Tongue (length ~ 13 km), the unembayed portion of Drygalski Ice Tongue (~ 65 km), the Amery Ice Shelf (~ 350 km) and the Ross Ice Shelf (~ 500 km). These results demonstrate that our simple continuum model holds promise for constraining realistic ice-shelf extents in large-scale ice-sheet models in a computationally tractable manner.