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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lower limb loss (LL) on mental workload by assessing neurocognitive measures in individuals with unilateral transtibial (TT) versus those with transfemoral (TF) LL while dual-task walking under varying cognitive demand. Methods: Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as participants performed a task of varying cognitive demand while being seated or walking (i.e., varying physical demand). Results: The findings revealed both groups of participants (TT LL vs. TF LL) exhibited a similar EEG theta synchrony response as either the cognitive or the physical demand increased. Also, while individuals with TT LL maintained similar performance on the cognitive task during seated and walking conditions, those with TF LL exhibited performance decrements (slower response times) on the cognitive task during the walking in comparison to the seated conditions. Furthermore, those with TF LL neither exhibited regional differences in EEG low-alpha power while walking, nor EEG high-alpha desynchrony as a function of cognitive task difficulty while walking. This lack of alpha modulation coincided with no elevation of theta/alpha ratio power as a function of cognitive task difficulty in the TF LL group. Conclusions: This work suggests that both groups share some common but also different neurocognitive features during dual-task walking. Although all participants were able to recruit neural mechanisms critical for the maintenance of cognitive-motor performance under elevated cognitive or physical demands, the observed differences indicate that walking with a prosthesis, while concurrently performing a cognitive task, imposes additional cognitive demand in individuals with more proximal levels of amputation.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a family-centered preventive intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), delivered as an online, eHealth model to middle school families. To increase accessibility of family-centered prevention in schools, we adapted the evidence-based FCU to an online format, with the goal of providing a model of service delivery that is feasible, given limited staffing and resources in many schools. Building on prior research, we randomly assigned participants to waitlist control (n = 105), FCU Online as a web-based intervention (n = 109), and FCU Online with coaching support (n = 108). We tested the effects of the intervention on multiple outcomes, including parental self-efficacy, child self-regulation, and child behavior, in this registered clinical trial (NCT03060291). Families engaged in the intervention at a high rate (72% completed the FCU assessment) and completed 3-month posttest assessments with good retention (94% retained). Random assignment to the FCU Online with coaching support was associated with reduced emotional problems for children (p = .003, d = −0.32) and improved parental confidence and self-efficacy (p = .018, d = 0.25) when compared with waitlist controls. Risk moderated effects: at-risk youth showed stronger effects than did those with minimal risk. The results have implications for online delivery of family-centered interventions in schools.
Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for
antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of
callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive
To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and
low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional
behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations.
Using an adoption sample (n=561), we examined pathways
from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative
behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child
fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent
observed positive parenting moderated pathways.
Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional
behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low
affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours,
although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive
parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour
Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits
contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive
parenting can buffer these risky pathways.
Post-World War I Federal Reserve System policy focused on reducing price levels. Faith in liquidationist ideas led Federal Reserve officials to maintain tight-money policies during the depression of 1920–1921. Farmers suffering through this economic crisis objected to contemporary monetary policy. Organized labor and leading Progressive reformer Robert M. La Follette Sr. seconded their criticism. Postwar challenges to the nation’s financial leadership and its priorities bore tangible results by producing a number of notable reforms, including modifications of Federal Reserve policy and the Agricultural Credits Act of 1923. In the absence of similar political pressure during the Great Depression, the Federal Reserve System adhered to liquidationist ideas and did not pursue monetary expansion.
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( − 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.
There are not many public health issues where views are as extremely polarized as those concerning vaccination policies. Ever since its Fast Track approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006, Merck's human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil has been sparking controversy. Initially, the criticism has been focused at Merck, due to their overly aggressive marketing strategies and lobbying campaigns. According to a 2007 editorial in Nature Biotechnology, Surrounded by a chorus of disapproval, Merck cracked. As Nature Biotechnology went to press, the company announced a cessation of all efforts to lobby for US state laws requiring compulsory vaccination. Subsequently, questions have been raised whether it was appropriate for vaccine manufacturers to partake in public health policies when their conflicts of interests were so obvious. Some of their advertising campaign slogans, such as cervical cancer kills x women per year and your daughter could become one less life affected by cervical cancer, seemed more designed to promote fear rather than evidence-based decision making about the potential benefits of the vaccine versus any risks.
This chapter reviews the major advances in autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant ataxias, discusses the use of genetic tests in these disorders, and summarizes some current ideas regarding pathogenesis. It also presents a list of the autosomal recessive ataxias that have been genotypically characterized to date. Mutations in ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) are scattered throughout the gene and some of them may be associated with a mild phenotype, late onset, retinitis pigmentosa, and retained reflexes. A syndrome of ataxia associated with optic atrophy, visual loss, and cochlear degeneration has been mapped to chromosome. The spinocerebellar ataxia (SCAs) exhibits many phenotypic similarities so that it is almost impossible to diagnose the genotype from the phenotype alone. Many persons from families with ataxia will request predictive testing and occasionally prenatal testing. Disease-modifying therapies are under investigation and include antioxidants and drugs that may modify excitotoxicity or apoptosis.
Two fundamental processes associated with shock compression of energetic materials (EM) are initiation and ignition. Initiation occurs just behind a shock front and ignition occurs anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds later. Experiments are described that probe the fundamental mechanisms of these processes on relevant length and time scales: picosecond vibrational spectroscopy of nanometer thick layers of energetic materials (EM) with laser-driven shock waves, and nanosecond emission spectroscopy of micrometer thick layers of EM using laser-driven flyer plates.
We describe an ongoing project to migrate the emission-line analysis package nebular from its current environment, IRAF, to a modern programming environment where it can be used from command line, a local GUI, or the web. We are also updating the supporting atomic data where they have been superseded by superior calculations or measurements.
To identify predictors of increasing waist circumference (WC) over a 5-year period in a contemporary population of Australian adults.
Longitudinal national cohort of adults participating in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).
Australian adults in 2000 and 2005.
A total of 2521 men and 2726 women aged ≥25 years at baseline who participated in AusDiab and provided anthropometric measurements at baseline (1999–2000) and follow-up (2005).
A ≥5 % increase of baseline WC occurred in 27 % of men and 38 % of women over the 5-year period. In the multivariate analysis of the total population, there was a higher risk of ≥5 % gain in baseline WC in women, younger people, people with a lower baseline WC, people who never married compared with married/de facto, current smokers compared with never smokers, people with a poorer diet quality and people with a low energy intake. However, there was no significant association with many expected predictors of waist gain such as physical activity. There were some associations between other lifestyle factors and change of WC by sex, age, level of education and across WC categories, but the associations differed across these groups.
A ≥5 % increase of baseline WC occurred in a significant proportion of men and women over the 5-year period. Of the behavioural factors, poor diet quality was the key predictor of the ≥5 % increase of baseline WC in this cohort. The findings highlight the need to understand better the causal role of lifestyle in regard to increasing WC over time.
To analyse changes in the distribution of BMI in Australia between 1980 and 2000.
Data were from the 1980, 1983 and 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study, the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Survey participants were aged 25–64 years and resident in Australian capital cities. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2), where weight and height were measured using standard procedures.
Mean BMI was higher in 2000 than 1980 in all sex and age groups. The age-adjusted increase was 1·4 kg/m2 in men and 2·1 kg/m2 in women. The BMI distribution shifted rightwards for all sex and age groups and became increasingly right-skewed. The change between 1980 and 2000 ranged from a decrease of 0·04 kg/m2 at the lower end of the distribution for men aged 25–34 years to an increase of 7·4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55–64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold.
BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly right-skewed. This has resulted in a large increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly the more severe levels of obesity. It will be important to monitor changes in the different classes of obesity and the extent to which obesity interventions both shift the BMI distribution leftwards and decrease the skew of the distribution.
We recently developed an integrated imaging platform that combines single molecule evanescent wave fluorescence imaging (and spectroscopy) with in situ scanning probe microscopy. The advantages, challenges, and potential represented by this coupled tool will be described in the context of the structure-function characteristics of nanostructured biomaterials and thin lipid films.