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Impairments in social and nonsocial cognition have been demonstrated in both patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) and their unaffected relatives and might therefore represent a heritable marker of risk. This study investigated the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) as part of the emotion processing domain of social cognition in this regard.
A total of 54 outpatients suffering from BD, 54 unaffected siblings, and 80 control subjects were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. The three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test, depending on the variable type. As the three groups differed significantly in their level of education, additional ANCOVAs with adjustment for education were performed.
Patients achieved significantly lower levels of overall EI and overall nonsocial cognitive functioning compared to unaffected siblings and controls, whereas performance of the latter two groups was comparable in both domains.
Due to comparable levels of EI in unaffected siblings of patients suffering from BD and control subjects, EI assessed by means of the MSCEIT does not represent an endophenotype for BD.
Simultaneous PET/MR/EEG (Positron Emission Tomography – Magnetic Resonance – Electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here within the framework of the European Union Project TRIMAGE. The trimodal, cost-effective PET/MR/EEG imaging tool makes use of cutting edge technology both in PET and in MR fields. A novel type of magnet (1.5T, non-cryogenic) has been built together with a PET scanner that makes use of the most advanced photodetectors (i.e., SiPM matrices), scintillators matrices (LYSO) and digital electronics. The combined PET/MR/EEG system is dedicated to brain imaging and has an inner diameter of 260 mm and an axial Field-of-View of 160 mm.
It enables the acquisition and assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. The dopaminergic system and the glutamatergic system in schizophrenic patients are investigated via PET, the same physiological/pathophysiological conditions with regard to functional connectivity, via fMRI, and its electrophysiological signature via EEG. In addition to basic neuroscience questions addressing neurovascular-metabolic coupling, this new methodology lays the foundation for individual physiological and pathological fingerprints for a wide research field addressing healthy aging, gender effects, plasticity and different psychiatric and neurological diseases.
The preliminary performances of two components of the imaging tool (PET and MR) are discussed. Initial results of the search of possible candidates for suitable schizophrenia biomarkers are also presented as obtained with PET/MR systems available to the collaboration.
Physical and emotional punishment of children is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. These actions predict a range of physical and emotional harms, prompting a worldwide effort to eliminate them. A key strategy in this effort is to change parental beliefs regarding the acceptability of physical and emotional punishment. The Positive Discipline in Everyday Parenting (PDEP) program was designed to change those beliefs by teaching parents about child development and strengthening their problem-solving skills. A sample of 377 parents in the Asia-Pacific region completed the program: 329 mothers and 47 fathers of children ranging in age from infancy to adolescence. The parents lived in Australia (n = 135), Japan (n = 172) or the Philippines (n = 70). In all three countries, parents’ approval of punishment in general, and physical punishment specifically, declined and they became less likely to attribute typical child behavior to intentional misbehavior. By the end of the program, at least 75% of parents in each country felt better prepared to respond nonviolently to conflict with their children.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
On low-input smallholder farms of Kenyan upland landscapes, erosion of nutrient-rich topsoil strongly affects crop yields. Where maize (Zea mays) is intercropped on erosion-prone slopes, intercropping can potentially reduce soil erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of crops and crop mixtures of different growth habits to erosion control and their influence on above-ground biomass and earthworm abundance as indicators of soil function in smallholder farming systems under a bimodal rainfall pattern in Western Kenya. The experiment involved five treatments, namely maize (Z. mays)/common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercrop (maize intercrop), maize/common bean intercrop plus Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) hedgerows and Calliandra mulch (Calliandra), sole Lablab (Lablab purpureus), sole Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) intercropped with maize (during the short rains). The experiment was conducted over three consecutive cropping seasons and the cropping system had significant effects on soil loss, runoff, water infiltration, earthworm abundance and above-ground biomass and crop grain yield. The Calliandra treatment had the lowest runoff (11.6–17.2 mm ha−1) and soil erosion (31–446 kg ha−1 per season) in all the seasons, followed by the Mucuna treatment. Lablab was affected by disease and showed the highest soil erosion in the last two seasons. Infiltration was highest in Calliandra treatment, and earthworm abundance was higher under Mucuna and Calliandra treatments (229 and 165 earthworms per square metre, respectively) than under other crops. Our results suggest that including sole crops of herbaceous species such as Mucuna, or tree hedgerows with mixtures of maize and grain legumes has the potential to reduce runoff and soil erosion in smallholder farming. Additionally, these species provide a suitable habitat for earthworms which stabilise soil structure and macropores and thus potentially increase infiltration, further reducing soil erosion.
Objective: To summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Methods: We systematically searched bibliographic databases and relevant websites for parallel and crossover RCTs reporting efficacy and/or safety of vitamins and/or minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Our primary outcomes were migraine frequency (number of attacks) and duration (hours). Secondary outcomes were severity (intensity), days with migraine, and adverse events. Meta-analysis was conducted when analyzable data were available from at least two trials. Results: Eighteen placebo-controlled trials met our eligibility criteria. Only coenzyme Q10 and magnesium contributed to meta-analyses. In adults, compared with placebo, coenzyme Q10 did not significantly decrease migraine frequency (mean difference (MD) −0.44 (−2.14 to 1.26); I2 53%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), duration (MD −1.97 (−4.82 to 0.87); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), or severity (ratio of means (RoM) −0.05 (−0.20 to 0.11); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants). In adults, compared with placebo, magnesium did not significantly decrease migraine severity (RoM −0.17 (−0.36 to 0.02); I2 48%; 3 trials; 226 participants; low strength of the evidence). Meta-analysis of other vitamins and minerals, and other outcomes were not feasible due to a lack of sufficiently reported data. Conclusions: Based on insufficient evidence, it is unknown if coenzyme Q10 and magnesium are effective for migraine prophylaxis in adults. High-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis.
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion and emotional prosody perception during both mood episodes and periods of remission. To expand on previous research, the current study investigated cross-modal emotion perception, that is, matching of facial emotion and emotional prosody in remitted BD patients. Methods: Fifty-nine outpatients with BD and 45 healthy volunteers were included into a cross-sectional study. Cross-modal emotion perception was investigated by using two subtests out of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS). Results: Compared to control subjects patients were impaired in matching sad (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody (p = .034) to one of five emotional faces exhibiting the corresponding emotion and significantly more frequently matched sad emotional prosody to happy faces (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody to neutral faces (p = .017). In addition, patients were impaired in matching neutral emotional faces to the emotional prosody of one of three sentences (p = .006) and significantly more often matched neutral faces to sad emotional prosody (p = .014). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that, even during periods of symptomatic remission, patients suffering from BD are impaired in matching facial emotion and emotional prosody. As this type of emotion processing is relevant in everyday life, our results point to the necessity to provide specific training programs to improve psychosocial outcomes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 336–342)
Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout.
Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data. Additionally, covariate-adjusted joint models with shared random effects accounting for dropout were fit to the whole-cohort data. Multiple medication use was defined as polypharmacy (⩾ five medications), hyperpolypharmacy (⩾ ten medications), and total number of medications.
Incident diagnoses were 2,032 for AD, 135 for VD, and 139 for LBD. Percentages of dropout at the end of follow-up were as follows: 71.8% for AD, 81.5% for VD, and 77.7% for LBD. The odds ratio (OR) estimate for hyperpolypharmacy among those with LBD versus AD was 2.19 (0.78, 6.15) when estimated using complete-case data and 3.00 (1.66, 5.40) using whole-cohort data. The OR reduced to 1.41 (0.76, 2.64) when estimated from the joint model accounting for dropout. The OR for polypharmacy using complete-case data differed from the estimates using whole-cohort data. The OR for dementia diagnoses on total number of medications was similar, but non-significant when estimated using complete-case data.
Reasons for dropout should be investigated and appropriate statistical methods should be applied to reduce bias in longitudinal studies among high-risk dementia cohorts.
Person-centered care (PCC) is a widely recognized concept in dementia research and care. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is a method for implementing PCC. Prior studies have yielded heterogeneous results regarding the effectiveness of DCM for people with dementia (PwD). We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of DCM with regard to quality of life (QoL) and challenging behavior in PwD in nursing homes (NHs).
Leben-QD II is an 18-month, three-armed, pragmatic quasi-experimental trial. The sample of PwD was divided into three groups with three living units per group: (A) DCM applied since 2009, (B) DCM newly introduced during the study, and (C) a control intervention based on a regular and standardized QoL rating. The primary outcome was QoL measured with the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) proxy, and the secondary outcomes were QoL (measured with QUALIDEM) and challenging behavior (measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version, NPI-NH).
There were no significant differences either between the DCM intervention groups and the control group or between the two DCM intervention groups regarding changes in the primary or secondary outcomes. At baseline, the estimated least square means of the QoL-AD proxy for groups A, B, and C were 32.54 (confidence interval, hereafter CI: 29.36–35.72), 33.62 (CI: 30.55–36.68), and 30.50 (CI: 27.47–33.52), respectively. The DCM groups A (31.32; CI: 28.15–34.48) and B (27.60; CI: 24.51–30.69) exhibited a reduction in QoL values, whereas group C exhibited an increase (32.54; CI: 29.44–35.64) after T2.
DCM exhibited no statistically significant effect in terms of QoL and challenging behavior of PwD in NHs. To increase the likelihood of a positive effect for PwD, it is necessary to ensure successful implementation of the intervention.
Laboratory somatic cell count (LSCC) records are usually recorded monthly and provide an important information source for breeding and herd management. Daily milk viscosity detection in composite milking (expressed as drain time) with an automated on-line California Mastitis Test (CMT) could serve immediately as an early predictor of udder diseases and might be used as a selection criterion to improve udder health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the well-established LSCS and the new trait,‘drain time’, and to estimate their correlations to important production traits. Data were recorded on the dairy research farm Karkendamm in Germany. Viscosity sensors were installed on every fourth milking stall in the rotary parlour to measure daily drain time records. Weekly LSCC and milk composition data were available. Two data sets were created containing records of 187 692 milkings from 320 cows (D1) and 25 887 drain time records from 311 cows (D2). Different fixed effect models, describing the log-transformed drain time (logDT), were fitted to achieve applicable models for further analysis. Lactation curves were modelled with standard parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer, Legendre polynomials of second and third degree) of days in milk (DIM). Random regression models were further applied to estimate the correlations between cow effects between logDT and LSCS with further important production traits. LogDT and LSCS were strongest correlated in mid-lactation (r = 0·78). Correlations between logDT and production traits were low to medium. Highest correlations were reached in late lactation between logDT and milk yield (r = −0·31), between logDT and protein content (r = 0·30) and in early as well as in late lactation between logDT and lactose content (r = −0·28). The results of the present study show that the drain time could be used as a new trait for daily mastitis control.
Several studies demonstrating that central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are preventable prompted a national initiative to reduce the incidence of these infections.
We conducted a collaborative cohort study to evaluate the impact of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program on CLABSI rates among participating adult intensive care units (ICUs). The program goal was to achieve a unit-level mean CLABSI rate of less than 1 case per 1,000 catheter-days using standardized definitions from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Multilevel Poisson regression modeling compared infection rates before, during, and up to 18 months after the intervention was implemented.
A total of 1,071 ICUs from 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, reporting 27,153 ICU-months and 4,454,324 catheter-days of data, were included in the analysis. The overall mean CLABSI rate significantly decreased from 1.96 cases per 1,000 catheter-days at baseline to 1.15 at 16–18 months after implementation. CLABSI rates decreased during all observation periods compared with baseline, with adjusted incidence rate ratios steadily decreasing to 0.57 (95% confidence intervals, 0.50–0.65) at 16–18 months after implementation.
Coincident with the implementation of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program was a significant and sustained decrease in CLABSIs among a large and diverse cohort of ICUs, demonstrating an overall 43% decrease and suggesting the majority of ICUs in the United States can achieve additional reductions in CLABSI rates.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents a significant proportion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The US Department of Health and Human Services issued a plan to reduce HAIs with a target 25% reduction of CAUTI by 2013. Michigan's successful collaborative to reduce unnecessary use of urinary catheters and CAUTI was based on a partnership between diverse hospitals, the state hospital association (SHA), and academic medical centers. Taking the lessons learned from Michigan, we are now spreading this work throughout the 50 states. This national spread leverages the expertise of different groups and organizations for the unified goal of reducing catheter-related harm. The key components of the project are (1) centralized coordination of the effort and dissemination of information to SHAs and hospitals, (2) data collection based on established definitions and approaches, (3) focused guidance on the technical practices that will prevent CAUTI, (4) emphasis on understanding the socioadaptive aspects (both the general, unit-wide issues and CAUTI-specific challenges), and (5) partnering with specialty organizations and governmental agencies who have expertise in the relevant subject area. The work may serve in the future as a model for other large improvement efforts to address other hospital-acquired conditions, such as venous thromboembolism and falls.
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (Ptrend< 0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (Ptrend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
The underlying neurobiology of addictive or repetitive behaviours, such as obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), involves dopaminergic dysregulation. While addictive behaviour depends strongly on mesolimbocortical dopaminergic responses, repetitive behaviours have been associated with dopaminergic dysregulation in the basal ganglia–thalamo–cortical circuitry. The present study investigates differences in brain stimulation reward in rats with quinpirole-induced compulsive checking behaviour, in order to examine if deficits in reward processing are also relevant for OCD. Rats were tested in the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm, which targets reward-related responses. After phenotype induction, animals were implanted with a monopolar stimulation electrode in the left medial forebrain bundle and trained to press a lever to self-administer electric stimulation of varying frequency. The curve-shift method was used to assess the reward-facilitating effects of d-amphetamine and the reward-attenuating effects of haloperidol (a D2 antagonist). Thresholds for ICSS were estimated before and after drug/saline injection. The reward-facilitating effects of d-amphetamine were enhanced in quinpirole-treated rats in comparison to controls. This finding suggests that chronic quinpirole-treatment induces changes within the reward circuitry relevant for compulsive behaviour in the rat.
The role of seed crops in the Maya diet is well understood. The role of root crops in the ancient Maya diet has been controversial, with some scholars suggesting they were staples, and others arguing they were not cultivated at all. Research in the 1990s found occasional manioc plants in kitchen gardens within the Classic period Cerén village, leading to the interpretation that manioc did contribute to the diet, but was not a staple. Recent research outside the village encountered sophisticated raised-bed monocropping of manioc over an extensive area. This area was harvested essentially all at once, about a week prior to the eruption. An estimated ten tons of tubers were harvested. The various uses of manioc include consumption as food, exchange with other settlements, fermentation, drying and storage as a powder, and as an adhesive. It is possible that many or all these alternatives were being followed. At Cerén manioc was a staple, not just an occasional adjunct to the diet. Because Cerén is toward the wet end of the ideal range for manioc cultivation, other areas of the Neotropics that receive less than 1,700 mm of precipitation may be more suitable for manioc cultivation than Cerén.
Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA have a broad range of biological properties that can be achieved at the gene expression level. This has been well described in liver, where LC n-3 PUFA modulate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. However, the complexity of biological pathway modulations and the nature of bioactive molecules are still under investigation. The present study aimed to investigate the dose–response effects of LC n-3 PUFA on the production of peroxidised metabolites, as potential bioactive molecules, and on global gene expression in liver. Hypercholesterolaemic rabbits received by daily oral administration (7 weeks) either oleic acid-rich oil or a mixture of oils providing 0·1, 0·5 or 1 % (groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively) of energy as DHA. Levels of specific peroxidised metabolites, namely 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE)–protein adducts, issued from LC n-3 PUFA were measured by GC/MS/MS in liver in parallel to transcription profiling. The intake of LC n-3 PUFA increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the hepatic production of 4-HHE. At the highest dose, LC n-3 PUFA provoked an accumulation of TAG in liver, which can be directly linked to increased mRNA levels of lipoprotein hepatic receptors (LDL-receptor and VLDL-receptor). In groups 1 and 2, the mRNA levels of microsomal TAG transfer protein decreased, suggesting a possible new mechanism to reduce VLDL secretion. These modulations of genes related to lipoprotein metabolism were independent of PPARα signalling but were probably linked to the activation of the farnesol X receptor pathway by LC n-3 PUFA and/or their metabolites such as HHE.
Tens of thousands of workers participated in rescue, recovery, and cleanup activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) site in lower Manhattan after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11). The collapse of the WTC resulted in the release of a variety of airborne toxicants. To date, respiratory symptoms and diseases have been among the most examined health outcomes in studies of WTC disaster workers. A systematic review of the literature on respiratory health outcomes was undertaken to describe the available information on new onset of respiratory symptoms and diseases among WTC disaster workers after September 11, 2001. Independent risk factors for respiratory health outcomes included being caught in the dust and debris cloud, early arrival at the WTC site, longer duration of work, and delaying mask and respirator use. Methodological challenges in epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers involved study design, exposure misclassification, and limited information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. In the 10 years after 9/11, epidemiologic studies of WTC disaster workers have been essential in investigating the respiratory health consequences of WTC exposure. Longitudinal studies along with continued medical surveillance will be vital in understanding the long-term respiratory burden associated with occupational WTC exposure. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S189–S196)