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Late watergrass is a competitive weed of rice that is well-adapted to both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Cultural controls such as a stale-seedbed and alternating from wet- to dry-seeding have been proposed as management options. However, the effects of these systems on its emergence and early growth are unknown. The objective of this study was to modify a previously-developed population-based threshold model (PBTM) to predict emergence and early growth under field conditions. In 2013, a series of experiments were conducted at the California Rice Experiment Station (CRES) in Biggs, CA to evaluate emergence and early growth of multiple-herbicide resistant and susceptible late watergrass at four burial depths (0.5, 2, 4, and 6 cm) under three irrigation regimes: Continuously Flooded (CF), Daily Flush (DF) and Intermittent Flush (IF). Resistant plants emerged at a significantly higher rate under the IF treatment (p < 0.05). Both biotypes showed decreasing emergence with increasing depth, and no plants emerged from the 4 or 6 cm depths in the CF treatment. Using the Gompertz growth curve, resistant plants had greater predicted growth rates (k), lower predicted maximum heights (hmax), and a shorter time to predicted maximum growth rate (tm) than susceptible plants under the CF and DF treatments. Under the IF treatment, the susceptible plants had greater k, lower hmax and shorter time to predicted tm. Information about burial depth and irrigation was incorporated into a previously-developed PBTM for late watergrass, and validated at the CRES in a field with a susceptible late watergrass population in 2013 and 2014, under two irrigation systems, CF and IF. Model fit was best in the CF treatments (average AIC = 199.05) compared to the IF treatments (average AIC = 208.6).
The ways in which cultural groups vary from one another has long been a matter of everyday observation. The construction of valid and reliable measures of these differences remains problematic. Comparisons of survey responses rest on assumptions about the functional equivalence of translated items and of the assumptions that respondents make about the meaning of such surveys. This chapter explores the different possible levels of measurement equivalence. Psychological variables are most frequently latent rather than directly observable. Philosophers of science have discussed how best to address the challenges one faces when working with latent variables. If we are to claim that latent variables such as individualism or collectivism can account for particular differences between groups, specific counterfactual theorising is required as to the limiting circumstances under which such effects will or will not occur. At a more practical level, we can note that differences are frequently found in the characteristic survey response styles of respondents from different cultural groups, but decisions as to whether or when to discount such variations rest on answers to the more basic philosophical questions raised in the earlier section of this chapter.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that, during the summer in the subtropics, natural tree shade helps to improve milk functional characteristics such as stability and acidity. Sixteen Holstein lactating cows were enrolled. The study consisted of three periods (pre-stress, heat stress and post-stress) based on allocating grazing cows into two treatments (with and without access to shade during the Heat Stress period). Overall THI during the trial was (mean ± se) 76.0 ± 3.4. Access to shade prevented the heat stress-related decrease in milk stability both in the ethanol and in the coagulation time test, as well as maintained milk acidity within an acceptable range (14 to 18°D).
Neurotoxic effects of alcohol consumption are well-known. There is plenty of literature on frontal lobe impairment on the behavioral and structural brain imaging level. However, only few functional imaging studies investigated altered neural patterns and even less abstinence-related neural recovery. Here, we investigated if frontal lobe activity tends to normalize in patients that remain successfully abstinent.
In a cross-sectional design three patient groups (acute withdrawal, detoxified, abstinent) and healthy controls (each n = 20) performed a phonological and semantical verbal fluency task (VFT) while brain activity was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
First, for the phonological condition patients in the acute withdrawal phase and also detoxified patients showed less fluency-related frontal lobe activation compared to controls despite equal performance. Second, significant linear trend effects from withdrawal patients over detoxified and abstinent patients up to healthy controls indicated more normal activation patterns in the abstinent group that did not differ from the controls. In the detoxified group brain activation increased with time since detoxification.
Our results support the assumption of an increase in frontal brain activity from alcohol dependency over abstinence up to normal functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate recovery processes in alcohol dependency.
Increasing research interest is focussing also on Quality of Life (QoL) in substance dependent individuals. QoL-assessments have been acknowledged as promising measurements in order to evaluate drug treatment programs.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over study design was used in order to compare methadone and slow-release morphine maintenance on patients´ QoL. Sixty-four participants were randomized between two treatment groups receiving either slow-release morphine capsules for 7 weeks followed by methadone oral solution for another 7 weeks (group A), or vice versa (group B). At baseline, week 7 and week 14 QoL status was evaluated using the German version of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile.
A significant time effect with respect to the domains: general state of health (0.018), mental health (p=0.001), general well-being (p<0.001), leisure time at home (p=0.032) and leisure time out of home (p=0.008). Our findings did not show any statistically significant differences between between the two treatment groups in any Quality of Life scores at week 7 and 14. At the end of study phase (week 14) group A showed significant increases in the domains general well-being (0.010), leisure time at home (p=0.014). Significant improvements for group B were assessed with regard to general well-being (p=0.003), mental health (p=0.003) and general state of health (p=0.017).
The development of treatment programs should focus also on the patients´ subjective perspective. According to our findings agonistic opioid maintenance treatment yields not only to treatment response but also to improvements in patients quality of life.
The effect of treatment (28 days) with zopiclone, triazolam, flunitrazepam and placebo on sleep quality and daytime well-being was proven in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre study in private practice. Results of an exploratory statistic of treatment efficacy in a subgroup of 1,291 patients suffering from insomnia are presented. Patients met the following criteria: insomnia lasting at least four weeks and the presence of at least two of the following: 1) sleep latency ≥ 45 minutes, 2) total sleep time ≤ 6 hours, and 3) nocturnal awakening ≥3 times. Treatment efficacy was assessed according to the following factors: either a shortening of sleep latency by at least 15 minutes, or prolongation of total sleep time by at least 20%, or reduction of the number of nocturnal awakenings to three or less and a refreshed feeling in the morning as well as no impairment in daytime well-being due to tiredness or anxiety. The total response rate was markedly higher with zopiclone (42.3%; p = 0.0003) than with placebo (29.0%). Triazolam (36.6%; p = 0.0905) and flunitrazepam (33.1%; p = 0.3401) were also more effective than the placebo, but they both tended to have a lower response rate than with zopiclone (p = 0.1199 and 0.0151, respectively). Total response was found to be essentially a reflection of the response of the socially important parameter of daytime well-being. These results suggest that zopiclone is more effective in the treatment of insomnia than either triazolam or flunitrazepam. Since the response of daytime well-being to therapy was generally poor, this parameter embodies the next main therapeutic challenge in the treatment of patients with insomnia.
The article examines infection with viral hepatitis A, B, and C and socio-ethnic factors in a population of injection drug users seeking treatment. The study was conducted between 2001 and 2003 in a rural German hospital; selected sociodemographic and drug-related data as well as a serology for hepatitis A, B and C were obtained from 1499 patients. Statistical analyses were performed by univariate analysis of variance and post-hoc Scheffé tests or with the c2-test and Bonferroni-adjustment. Ethnic minority patients manifested a more severe course of addiction and showed a higher frequency of infection with hepatitis A, B, and C. Low-threshold culture sensitive drug user treatment programs should be implemented and evaluated.
A proinflammatory state in a subgroup of depressed patients has been reported repeatedly (e.g. increased interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha). COX-2 inhibitors down-regulate increased inflammatory markers and are therefore investigated as an add-on therapy in depression. Proinflammatory cytokines and/or kynurenine metabolites may predict the outcome of treatment with COX-2 inhibitors.
To prove or disapprove the hypothesis of a better therapy response in the group of add-on celecoxib to sertraline, particularly in patients with a more pronounced proinflammatory state at baseline. The aim is to find a biological predictor (cytokines and/or kynurenine metabolites) for treatment outcome.
This is a dual-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group phase IIa study. It investigates the mean change in clinical outcome and in serum cytokine and kynurenine levels from baseline to endpoint (week 6) in patients with major depression (HAMD-17 ≥ 22) treated with sertraline plus celecoxib versus sertraline plus placebo for six weeks. 51 depressed patients of both gender, aged between 18 and 60 years without any recent inflammatory disease were enrolled. The study comprises six study visits (6x ratings, 3x blood collections) during six weeks of treatment and a follow-up visit 10 weeks after baseline. Cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), kynurenine and its metabolites by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Results and Conclusion
The study was completed quite recently and the results are in progress.
Previous research revealed substantial relations between the experience of childhood adversities and the development of borderline personality disorders (BPD) in adulthood. However, research about antecedents of adolescent BPD is still in its beginnings. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy regarding transgenerational effects of childhood adversities and potential mediators.
We aim to investigate transgenerational effects of parental childhood experiences on the development of adolescent BPD within the next generation. Hereby, we are focusing on the investigation of differential effects of maternal and paternal experiences of childhood adversities on adolescent BPD and on underlying mechanisms.
We consecutively recruited 91 female inpatients (Mage = 15.6 years) from the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Heidelberg, as well as 87 mothers and 59 fathers. Childhood adversities were assessed for parents and adolescents with the German Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, adolescent BPD by means of structured clinical interviews (SKID II).
Our results are in favor of a transgenerational effect of parental childhood adversities on the development of adolescent BPD. This effect turned out to be stronger for paternal than for maternal childhood adversities. Moreover, paternal childhood adversities revealed to be related to experiences of childhood adversities within the next generation.
Our results underline the importance of taking the family environment into consideration when developing prevention and treatment programs for adolescent BPD.
The aim of this analysis is to describe medication adherence, and treatment persistence, in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated for 24 weeks with extended release methylphenidate (MPH-ER). Additionally, patient-, disorder- and treatment-related factors associated with adherence and persistence will be identified.
Post-hoc analysis of the active treatment group of a placebo-controlled, randomised, 24 week trial with MPH-ER with univariate description and multiple logistic regression models and Hosmer and Lemeshow tests.
In the sample of 241 adults with ADHD (mean age of 35.2 ± 10.1 years), 9.4% of the patients were non-adherent, taking less than 80% of the dispensed medication. Factors associated with non-adherence included age < 25 years, education level lower than secondary education, lacking family history of ADHD, lower ADHD baseline severity and lower self- and observer-rated medication efficacy. Lacking family history of ADHD, lower education level and lower self-rated medication efficacy, predicted non-adherence with a prediction accuracy of 16%. Seventeen percent of the patients discontinued early with most discontinuing within the first five weeks of the MPH-ER titration phase. Mean persistence in the discontinuing group was 63.4 ± 49.4 days. Factors associated with discontinuation included male gender, lower education level, lacking family history of ADHD and lower self- and observer-rated medication efficacy. Treatment non-response, male gender and lower education level predicted treatment discontinuation with a prediction accuracy of 22.7%.
Male adults without relatives with ADHD, with lower educational level and lower self- and observer-rated medication efficacy, who are newly treated with MPH-ER, are at increased risk of non-adherence and treatment discontinuation. Patients are at increased risk of treatment discontinuation during the medication titration phase.
A proinflammatory state in a subgroup of depressed patients has been reported repeatedly, for example an increase in interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a is well documented. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitors down-regulate increased inflammatory markers. Therefore an adjunctive treatment of depression with COX-2 in combination with an antidepressant might lead to a better clinical outcome.
To prove or disapprove the hypothesis of a better clinical outcome in the group with add-on celecoxib to sertraline in terms of improvement of HamD-17 and MADRS scores from baseline to endpoint.
This is a dual-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group phase IIa study to investigate the mean change in clinical outcome and in serum expression of inflammation markers from baseline to endpoint (week 6) in patients with major depression (HAMD-17 ≥ 22) treated with celecoxib in combination with sertraline compared to sertraline combined with placebo. 51 depressed patients of both gender, aged between 18 and 60 without any recent inflammatory related disease were enrolled. The study comprises six study visits (6x ratings including HAMD-17 and MADRS, 3x blood collections) during six weeks of treatment and a follow-up visit 10 weeks after baseline.
Results and Conclusion
The study was completed quite recently and the results are in progress.
We have analyzed Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the X-ray emission line gas in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. The zeroth-order spectral images show extended H- and He-like O and Ne, up to a distance r ˜ 200 pc from the nucleus. Using the 1st-order spectra, we measure an average line velocity ˜230 km s–1, suggesting significant outflow of X-ray gas. We generated Cloudy photoionization models to fit the 1st-order spectra; the fit required three distinct emission-line components. To estimate the total mass of ionized gas (M) and the mass outflow rates, we applied the model parameters to fit the zeroth-order emission-line profiles of Ne IX and Ne X. We determined an M ≍ 5.4 × 105Mʘ. Assuming the same kinematic profile as that for the [O III] gas, derived from our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, the peak X-ray mass outflow rate is approximately 1.8 Mʘ yr–1, at r ˜ 150 pc. The total mass and mass outflow rates are similar to those determined using [O III], implying that the X-ray gas is a major outflow component. However, unlike the optical outflows, the X-ray emitting mass outflow rate does not drop off at r > 100pc, which suggests that it may have a greater impact on the host galaxy.
We used Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long slit medium-resolution G430M and G750M spectra to analyze the extended [O III] λ5007 emission in a sample of twelve QSO2s from Reyes et al. (2008). The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of the mass outflows and their role in AGN feedback. We measured fluxes and velocities as functions of deprojected radial distances. Using photoionization models and ionizing luminosities derived from [O III], we were able to estimate the densities for the emission-line gas. From these results, we derived masses, mass outflow rates, kinetic energies and kinetic luminosity rates as a function of radial distance for each of the targets. Masses are several times 103 - 107 solar masses, which are comparable to values determined from a recent photoionization study of Mrk 34 (Revalski). Additionally, we are studying the possible role of X-ray winds in these QSO2s.
We investigate the processes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feeding and feedback in the narrow line regions (NLRs) and host galaxies of nearby AGN through spatially resolved spectroscopy with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and the Hubble Space Telescope’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). We examine the connection between nuclear and galactic inflows and outflows by adding long-slit spectra of the host galaxies from Apache Point Observatory. We demonstrate that nearby AGN can be fueled by a variety of mechanisms. We find that the NLR kinematics can often be explained by in situ ionization and radiative acceleration of ambient gas, often in the form of dusty molecular spirals that may be the fueling flow to the AGN.
The deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium of the ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs), as measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission in the Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath, is quantitatively investigated. Making use of the unprecedented high-resolution MMS ion data, and together with Vlasov–Maxwell simulations, this analysis aims at investigating the relationship between deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium and typical plasma parameters. Correlations of the non-Maxwellian features with plasma quantities such as electric fields, ion temperature, current density and ion vorticity are found to be similar in magnetosheath data and numerical experiments, with a poor correlation between distortions of ion VDFs and current density, evidence that questions the occurrence of VDF departure from Maxwellian at the current density peaks. Moreover, strong correlation has been observed with the magnitude of the electric field in the turbulent magnetosheath, while a certain degree of correlation has been found in the numerical simulations and during a magnetopause crossing by MMS. This work could help shed light on the influence of electrostatic waves on the distortion of the ion VDFs in space turbulent plasmas.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
In 2013, the national surveillance case definition for West Nile virus (WNV) disease was revised to remove fever as a criterion for neuroinvasive disease and require at most subjective fever for non-neuroinvasive disease. The aims of this project were to determine how often afebrile WNV disease occurs and assess differences among patients with and without fever. We included cases with laboratory evidence of WNV disease reported from four states in 2014. We compared demographics, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence for patients with and without fever and stratified the analysis by neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive presentations. Among 956 included patients, 39 (4%) had no fever; this proportion was similar among patients with and without neuroinvasive disease symptoms. For neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive patients, there were no differences in age, sex, or laboratory evidence between febrile and afebrile patients, but hospitalisations were more common among patients with fever (P < 0.01). The only significant difference in symptoms was for ataxia, which was more common in neuroinvasive patients without fever (P = 0.04). Only 5% of non-neuroinvasive patients did not meet the WNV case definition due to lack of fever. The evidence presented here supports the changes made to the national case definition in 2013.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.