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Here we report a quantitative analysis of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes from a 22-year-old oocyte donor, retrieved after ovarian-controlled hyperstimulation. Five surplus donor oocytes were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a stereological analysis was used to quantify the distribution of organelles, using the point-counting technique with an adequate stereological grid. Comparisons between means of the relative volumes (Vv) occupied by organelles in the three oocyte regions, cortex (C), subcortex (SC) and inner cytoplasm (IC), followed the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction. Life cell imaging and TEM analysis confirmed donor oocyte nuclear maturity. Results showed that the most abundant organelles were smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) elements (26.8%) and mitochondria (5.49%). Significant differences between oocyte regions were found for lysosomes (P = 0.003), cortical vesicles (P = 0.002) and large SER vesicles (P = 0.009). These results were quantitatively compared with previous results using prophase I (GV) and metaphase I (MI) immature oocytes. In donor MII oocytes there was a normal presence of cortical vesicles, SER tubules, SER small, medium and large vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. However, donor MII oocytes displayed signs of cytoplasmic immaturity, namely the presence of dictyosomes, present in GV oocytes and rare in MI oocytes, of SER very large vesicles, characteristic of GV oocytes, and the rarity of SER tubular aggregates. Results therefore indicate that the criterion of nuclear maturity used for donor oocyte selection does not always correspond to cytoplasmic maturity, which can partially explain implantation failures with the use of donor oocytes.
To assess the glycaemic response after ingestion of two specialised oral and enteral nutrition formulas for glycaemic control. The participants were sixteen healthy volunteers, aged 21–49 years, with normal glucose tolerance. The volunteers attended the tests fasting for 10 h, for 5 weeks, and consumed the reference food – glucose solution – for 3 weeks, and the two formulas DiamaxO and DiamaxIG in the following weeks, in amounts equivalent to 25 g of available carbohydrates. During the period of 120 min, seven blood samples were taken through capillary blood sampling to determine the glycaemic response. The glycaemic index (GI) was calculated according to the trapezoidal rule, ignoring areas below the fasting line. The glycaemic load (GL) was determined by the formula GL = ((GI(glucose = reference) × ‘g’ of available carbohydrate per serving]/100. The formulas showed low GI and GL. GI = 37·8 and GL = 6·6 for DiamaxO and GI = 21·5 and GL = 3·5 for DiamaxIG. The peak of the glycaemic response occurred 30 min after ingestion, with a marked difference in blood glucose between the Diamax products in relation to glucose. Differences were also significant at times 15, 45, 60 and 90 min in relation to glucose (ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni, P < 0·005), but not between the two products. However, the AUC and the GI of DiamaxIG are significantly smaller than that of the DiamaxO second t test (P = 0·0059). The glycaemic response to the products is quite reduced, presenting a curve with a little accentuated shape, without high peak, especially in the modified product.
Rapid prenatal and postnatal weight gain seem to alter appetite regulation and hypothalamic functions through different pathways; however, little is known on how early life growth trajectories may influence appetitive traits in school-age. We aimed to explore the associations between weight trajectories from birth to 5 years and appetitive traits at 7. Participants were from the Generation XXI birth cohort (n 3855). Four weight trajectories were investigated: ‘normal weight gain’ (closely overlaps the 50th percentile in the weight-for-age curve), ‘weight gain during infancy’ (low birth weight and weight gain mainly during infancy), ‘weight gain during childhood’ (continuous weight gain since birth) and ‘persistent weight gain’ (always showing higher weight than the average). Appetitive traits were assessed through the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Associations were tested using generalised linear models, adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Compared with ‘normal weight gain’, those in the other growth trajectories showed greater enjoyment of food and eating in response to food stimuli (i.e. Food Responsiveness) but were less able to compensate for prior food intake and ate faster at 7 (i.e. less Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating). Also, those with ‘weight gain during infancy’ showed to have greater Emotional Overeating and less Emotional Undereating and were fussier. Associations were stronger if greater weight gain occurred during infancy. Early infancy seems to be a sensitive period in the development of later appetitive traits. The control of rapid growth during infancy, besides strategies focused on the overall environment where children are living, is necessary.
Cosmocercoides Wilkie, 1930 are gastrointestinal parasites commonly found in amphibians and reptiles, with 4 species reported from the Neotropical region. In the present study, a new species of Cosmocercoides, namely Cosmocercoides amapari n. sp. is described using integrated approaches such as light and scanning microscopy, and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. The specimens were collected from the large intestine of 3 species of hylid frogs in Amapá, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by morphological traits, including the pattern of caudal papillae, absence of the gubernaculum, 2 poorly sclerotized spicules, presence of lateral alae and somatic papillae along the body. In addition, our molecular analyses and phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support the status of the new taxon, which clustered poorly with a large clade of Cosmocerca spp. Cosmocercoides amapari n. sp. is the 29th species of the genus, the 5th from the Neotropical region, the third reported in Brazil, the second described from the Amazon region and the first belonging to the Neotropical region with molecular data.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
This article critically examines the relation between work and utility and challenges the mainstream economic view of well-being as a hedonic state for which work is a less pleasurable trade-off. It proposes a conception of work as a potential source of eudaimonic well-being, providing meaning and contributing to human flourishing and self-realisation. Based on micro-level data, the article shows the relevance of distinguishing between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being by way of comparing the effects of increased financial difficulties and deteriorated work conditions on these two types of well-being in five European Union countries – Germany, Poland, Portugal, Sweden and the UK – in the post global financial crisis years between 2009 and 2014. The article concludes by underlining the political importance of addressing aspects pertaining to the quality of working life and of creating jobs that serve to improve the eudaimonic well-being of citizens.
Pulsed-field ablation (PFA) is a new non-thermal ablative approach for treating paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). It provides an alternative to the conventional thermal techniques of radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation. PFA is currently performed with the Farapulse PFA system (Boston Scientific, USA), which recently received CE marking in Europe. In this study, we describe the current evidence on the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of this new technology.
The Early Awareness and Alert System of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias-at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III- identified this new ablation approach in June 2021. An early technology assessment was conducted by reviewing relevant literature published to November 2021. The literature was identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library.
Seven relevant publications were identified, including three open-label trials for paroxysmal AF and one for persistent AF. Three studies comparing PFA with conventional thermal ablation techniques were also included. The safety results showed a lower incidence of complications (esophageal injury, pulmonary venous stenosis, pericardial effusion, and aortic injury) after PFA relative to conventional techniques. In terms of efficacy, PFA resulted in lower rates of AF recurrence in the medium and long term, compared with conventional techniques, and there were no differences in the lengths or success rates of the procedures. No cost-effectiveness studies were identified. Seven ongoing trials were identified, but no results have been published.
The current evidence for PFA in the treatment of AF showed good safety and promising efficacy. However, there is a lack of information on its effect on quality of life and the risk of death, disabling stroke, or cardiac arrest. Early evaluation of new and emerging technologies makes it possible to gather the minimum information necessary to support decisions on their inclusion in the healthcare system. In this case, based on current evidence, the widespread use of PFA is not recommended, except under a rigorous research protocol.
Migraine is a multifactorial pathology that affects 12 percent of the world’s population. Relivion® MG (Neurolief Inc., USA) is a non-invasive self-administered device for external combined occipital and trigeminal nerve stimulation that has been recently approved for marketing in Europe and the USA. The objective of this study was to conduct an early assessment of the efficacy and safety of Relivion for the treatment of migraine episodes.
Relivion was identified by the early awareness and alert system, SINTESIS- nuevas tecnologías, of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. An early assessment of the technology was conducted by reviewing relevant clinical studies published to 29 September 2021. The literature was identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library.
Two randomized, sham-controlled double-blind trials were found. They assessed side effects and pain relief, response rate, and pain freedom two hours after treatment. One study included 55 patients and the other (the RIME study) included 131 patients. The rate of pain relief two hours after treatment ranged from 60 to 76 percent in the treatment group and from 31 to 37 percent in the control group (p<0.01). The response rate, defined as at least 50 percent pain reduction two hours after treatment, was significantly higher in the treatment group (67 to 70% versus 32 to 42%). The percentage of patients free of pain two hours after treatment ranged from 42 to 46 percent in the treatment group, compared with 11 to 12 percent in the control group (p<0.0001). No notable adverse events were recorded.
Preliminary results indicated that Relivion effectively and safely relieves or eliminates acute migraine pain. However, more comparative studies are needed. The use of Relivion could improve the control of symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with migraine.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a new non-invasive therapeutic option for treating the motor symptoms of PD. HIFU is an imaging-guided procedure for therapeutic brain ablation that has been used for patients with essential tremor and neuropathic pain. It is indicated for patients older than 22 years of age who have PD that is refractory to drug treatment and are ineligible for surgery. The objective of this study was to conduct an early assessment of HIFU subthalamotomy for the treatment of motor symptoms in patients with PD.
HIFU was identified by the early awareness and alert system, SINTESIS- nuevas tecnologías, of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Relevant literature published to October 2021 was identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library.
One prospective study and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) were found that assessed the efficacy and safety of HIFU subthalamotomy for treating the motor symptoms of PD. The Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (MDS-UPDRS III) was used to measure changes in symptoms (>30% change from baseline was considered clinically relevant). Both studies reported a reduction of symptoms in the intervention group. The MDS-UPDRS III score changed from 16.6 to 7.5 six months after treatment in the prospective study and from 19.9 to 9.9 four months after treatment in the RCT (a decrease of 11.6 points was observed after 12 months). The main adverse events reported were dyskinesia, speech and gait disturbances, and weakness, all of which resolved without treatment.
The results regarding the efficacy and safety of HIFU for treating the motor symptoms of PD are promising. HIFU is a non-invasive procedure that eliminates the risks associated with surgery. Although rapid diffusion of this technology is expected, further studies and economic evaluation are needed.
SINTESIS-new technologies is the early warning system for new and emerging technologies of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III. SINTESIS is part of the Action Plan for the Early Detection of New and Emerging Technologies of the Spanish Network of Health Technology Assessment Agencies (RedETS). In RedETS, four agencies are responsible for the identification of innovative technologies. These agencies have been collaborating since 2016 according to the early awareness methods contained in the EuroScan Methods Toolkit. SINTESIS focuses on secondary information sources (i.e., experts and literature). This study describes the experience of SINTESIS in identifying and filtering new technologies in recent years.
Retrospective analysis of all new and emerging technologies notified by SINTESIS to RedETS since 2018. Technologies were analyzed on a year-by-year basis for their source of information, the clinical specialties involved, and whether technologies found in the identification phase were selected for further assessment.
Between 2018–2020, SINTESIS identified 69 emerging and new technologies. Most of the information came from medical press news (35%), and medical web news (22%); other sources included experts (15%), licensing news search (12%), general press (12%), and scientific websites (6%). Almost 37 technologies (54%) were selected for further analysis. Reasons for exclusion included too early identification of technologies/prototypes without enough evidence (52%), technologies already implemented (28%), overlapping technologies between agencies (17%), and not being medical technologies (3%).
Experience suggests that news sections of general and medical journals, websites, and expert consultation are useful sources to identify new and emerging health technologies. The main limitation is that the technologies identified are often at too early a stage of development for further assessment. SINTESIS contributes, within a national horizon scanning system with other agencies, to broaden the information sources and provide useful data on early awareness of innovative technologies. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of emerging technologies detection on healthcare delivery.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a single-strand ribonucleic acid virus that was first identified in January 2020 in patients with viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. The virus has since spread rapidly around the world, leading the World Health Organization to declare it a pandemic on 11 March 2020. In Brazil there have been 21.8 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 608,500 deaths. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost utility of the Oxford, CoronaVac, and Janssen vaccines from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system.
Three microsimulation models were constructed using individual data. The simulations contained seven transition states related to the natural history of COVID-19. The model with a daily cycle had a time horizon of one year and used data from 289 days of the pandemic. The analysis considered direct medical costs from the Brazilian health system perspective. Outpatient, hospital, and mortality databases were used for the model inputs and patient data were stratified by age. Effective vaccines reduced the likelihood of patients becoming ill. Information on the quality of life of patients receiving treatment in the outpatient or hospital setting and disease sequelae were extracted from the published literature. The main outcome of the analysis was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).
The vaccines had incremental cost-utility ratios ranging from USD 4,121 (Oxford) to USD 3,160 per QALY (CoronaVac). The older the population, the lower the incremental cost-utility ratio. Given a willingness-to-pay threshold of BRL 3,129 per QALY, all the vaccines were considered cost effective in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio stratified by age ranged from USD 6,327 per QALY in patients older than 75 years (Janssen) to USD 20,993 per QALY in patients younger than 59 years (CoronaVac).
The results of this analysis, stratified by patient age, can help in the preparation of a vaccination prioritization plan.
On June 17, 2022, the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference issued a “Draft Ministerial Decision on the TRIPS Agreement,” addressing the requirements established in Articles 31 and 39.3 of the TRIPS Agreement in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Decision provides several clarifications regarding the process by which member countries may “authorize the use of the subject matter of a patent” without the consent of the right holder for the purposes of “production and supply of COVID-19 vaccines.” The decision provides guidance to countries considering the use of legal mechanisms, particularly compulsory licenses, to transfer vaccine technology with the goal of increasing the number of doses of COVID-19 vaccine available to underserved populations, especially in lower-income countries.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent and are considered inflammatory pathologies; in addition, they are also associated with dietary patterns including types of fatty acids (FA). Changes in the FA composition in the brain are determined by changes in the content and quality of dietary and serum FA. The aim of this study was to verify the relationships between serum-free FA, inflammatory processes and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that analysed a database composed of 138 post-pubertal adolescents. Data regarding the depressive symptoms, body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, FA profile, leptin concentration, as well as adiponectin, IL-A, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels of the subjects were collected. A total of 54·6 % of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms, and there were positive correlations between depressive symptoms and serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) content, body fat, and inflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio. Moreover, the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms, suggesting that eicosatrienoic acid (C20:2n6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6) are independently associated with depressive symptom scores and can be critical predictors of poor mental health in humans. These results point to the relationship between SFA and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between dietary SFA and depression in obese individuals.
Morphological studies concerning the digestive system can further information on animal diets, thus aiding in the understanding of feeding behavior. Given the scarcity of information on sea turtle digestive system morphology, the aim of the present study was to describe the digestive tube (DT) morphology of Eretmochelys imbricata hatchlings to further understand the diet of these individuals in the wild. DT samples from 10 stillborn turtles (undefined sex) were analyzed at the macro and microscopic levels. The esophagus, stomach, small intestine (SI), and large intestine (LI) are described. Histologically, the DT is formed by four tunics, the mucosa, submucosa, muscular, and adventitia or serosa. The esophagus is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, while the remainder of the DT is lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The esophagus mucosa is marked by conical, pointed papillae. The stomach comprises three regions, the cardiac, fundic, and pyloric and is covered by neutral mucous granular cells. The intestinal mucosa presents absorptive cells with microvilli, neutral and acidic goblet cells, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The SI is significantly longer than the LI (p value = 0.006841). These morphological findings are strong indications of adaptations to a carnivorous diet in this hawksbill turtle age group.
Optimizing research on the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) involves implementing initiatives maximizing the use of the available cohort study data; achieving sufficient statistical power to support subgroup analysis; and using participant data presenting adequate follow-up and exposure heterogeneity. It also involves being able to undertake comparison, cross-validation, or replication across data sets. To answer these requirements, cohort study data need to be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR), and more particularly, it often needs to be harmonized. Harmonization is required to achieve or improve comparability of the putatively equivalent measures collected by different studies on different individuals. Although the characteristics of the research initiatives generating and using harmonized data vary extensively, all are confronted by similar issues. Having to collate, understand, process, host, and co-analyze data from individual cohort studies is particularly challenging. The scientific success and timely management of projects can be facilitated by an ensemble of factors. The current document provides an overview of the ‘life course’ of research projects requiring harmonization of existing data and highlights key elements to be considered from the inception to the end of the project.
Evidence on the association between children’s food insecurity (FI) and dietary patterns (DPs) is scarce. This study assessed the association between children’s FI and a priori and a posteriori-defined DPs in a Portuguese population-based sample of children. A cross-sectional study including 2800 children from the 10-year-old follow-up of the Generation XXI birth cohort was performed. Data on food security status, assessed by the Self-administered Food Security Survey Module for children (SAFSSMC), dietary intake and socio-demographics were collected. A previously developed Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was adapted for this study. Using the HEI score and its food groups, linear and logistic regression models were performed. Using latent class analysis, five a posteriori-defined DPs were identified. The DPs names considered an overall picture of the DP. Food security status as a categorical (food security/FI) and continuous variable (SAFSSMC raw score: higher scores representing higher FI) was used. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the association between food security status and DPs. Children’s FI (9·4 %) was inversely associated with the HEI score (β=–0·695;95%CI:–1·154,–0·235), representing worse diet quality. A higher SAFSSMC raw score was associated with low fruit and vegetables (OR=1·089;95%CI:1·023,1·159) and seafood and eggs consumption (OR=1·073;95%CI:1·009,1·142) and high consumption of meat and meat products (OR=1·091;95%CI:1·026,1·160), salty snacks (OR=1·067;95%CI:1·003,1·136) and soft drinks (OR=1·097;95%CI:1·031,1·168). The SAFSSMC raw score was positively associated with ‘Low consumption’ (OR=1·119;95%CI:1·016,1·232), ‘Energy-dense foods’ (OR=1·155;95%CI:1·028,1·298) and ‘Snacking’ (OR=1·119;95%CI:1·006,1·245) DPs. FI was associated with worse dietary choices. Intervention strategies targeting food insecure children should be developed to promote healthy dietary habits.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
This study is aimed to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Neonatal Palliative Care Attitude Scale (NiPCAS) and evaluation of its psychometric properties with Portuguese neonatal nurses.
The research started with a scoping review that allowed the identification of the NiPCAS. It was a methodological study with a quantitative approach. The semantic equivalence of the items was adjusted with the participation of 20 neonatal nurse experts. They performed facial and quantitative content validation. Psychometric validation of the NiPCAS was performed on a nonprobability nurses sample (n = 283) in 13 level 3 neonatal units between July 2021 and February 2022. Confirmatory factor analysis using the polychoric correlation matrix was performed to estimate factor validity using the “lavaan” package for R statistical software. Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and item sensitivity was assessed using the asymmetry and kurtosis coefficients. Empirical indices were considered: chi-square over degrees of freedom; comparative fit index; normed fit index; Tucker–Lewis index, and root mean square error of approximation; average extracted variance and composite reliability were used to assess convergent validity.
Asymmetry and kurtosis were <|3| and <|7|, respectively, suggesting psychometric sensitivity. The convergent validity of the factors was: F1, FCF1 = 0.90 and for F2, FCF2 = 0.80, and a lower value for F3, FCF3 = 0.40. According to the squared correlation criterion average variance extracted (AVE) between the factors, there was no discriminant validity for F1 and F2, but there was discriminant validity for F1, F3, F2, and F3.
Significance of results
This instrument has implications for providing end-of-life care to newborns and their families. The use of this instrument reveals several barriers and facilitating elements inherent in the organization and culture of the facility and nursing education.
Changes in the item order of the US Household Food Security Survey Module (USHFSSM) were performed throughout time. This study aimed to compare the psychometric properties of the general and specific factors of the 2000 and 2012 versions of the USHFSSM to measure the construct of food insecurity in two Portuguese samples of households with children.
An adaptation of the 2000 version was applied to 839 adults (from households with children aged 7–17 years) from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2015–2016, while the 2012 version was used among 2855 families from the Generation XXI birth cohort.
The 2000 version showed to have a stronger ωh than the 2012 version (0·89 v. 0·78 for the general factor), as well as eigenvalues higher than 1 for the general factor (eigenvalues equal to 9·54, 0·97 and 0·80, for the general factor, specific factor 1 and specific factor 2, respectively), while the 2012 version had also the contribution of specific factors to explain food insecurity (eigenvalues equal to 9·40, 2·40 and 1·20, for general factor and specific factors 1 and 2, respectively). Good internal consistency (ωt = 0·99, for both versions) was obtained.
In conclusion, the 2000 and 2012 versions of the USHFSSM showed good psychometric properties; however, the 2000 version has stronger general factor, while the 2012 version also has the contribution of specific factors.
Chitosan-based film incorporated with citric acid was prepared by the casting method for application in a Brazilian matured cheese. Three formulations of cheese were processed, with the intention of evaluating the application of a starter culture and the effect of the film in terms of its physiochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (sem) analysis that the film has a homogeneous appearance, and the crosslinking between citric acid and chitosan was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The cheese with chitosan-based film presented lower weight loss (5.2%) and showed antimicrobial activity against aerobic mesophilic bacteria. All samples showed high rates of sensorial acceptability (>79%), with no significant differences between them. It is apparent that the chitosan film maintained the typical cheese characteristics. Therefore, chitosan and citric acid film can be used to improve the characteristics of matured cheese and extend its shelf life.